BIBLIOTHECA SACRA 156 (January-March 1999): 28-41

Copyright 1999 by Dallas Theological Seminary. Cited with permission.






Larry J. Waters


A unique perspective on the dilemma and suffering of Job

is presented in Job 32-37 by a man named Elihu.1 These six

chapters, covering five separate speeches2 attributed to this young

"wise man," seem to hold an exceptionally important position in

the overall argument of the book, specifically in understanding ~

Job's struggle with undeserved suffering. If the speeches in these

six chapters are not deemed authentic, their contribution to the

subject of Job's suffering and the overall argument of the book is

in question.

However, if it can be demonstrated that Elihu's speeches are

genuine and that their place in the Book of Job is integral, then the

reader may confidently conclude that the message Elihu offered

is applicable to the purpose and argument of the book. It is impor-

tant to deal with the question of the genuineness of Elihu's -

speeches because of (a) the extent of the textual material that is ")


Larry J. Waters is Professor of Bible Exposition, International School of Theology-

Asia, Quezon City, Philippines.

1 The proper name xUhylix< means "He is my God" or "My God is He." The latter is

adopted by E. W. Bullinger (The Book of Job [Grand Rapids: Kregel, 1990], 161).

Elihu is similar to the name Elijah, "Yahweh is my God." Elihu's name bears wit-

ness to lxe as the highest God. Elihu's name may even be "an expression of his theo-

logical program": It is Yahweh who speaks through his speeches. Wisdom says that

as it turned out, "the message epitomized in his name became an integral part of

Elihu's message to Job (e.g., 33:12-13; 34:18-19, 23,31-32; 35:2-11; 36:26; 37:22-24)"

(Thurman Wisdom, "The Message of Elihu: Job 32-37," Biblical Viewpoint 21 [1987]:

29). Elihu's identity is also connected with three other names, Barachel, Buz, and

Ram. Elihu is therefore the only character in the book with a recorded genealogy,

which "may point to his aristocratic heritage" (Robert L. Alden, Job, New American

Commentary [Nashville: Broadman and Holman, 19931, 316; also see David

McKenna, Job [Dallas, TX: Word, 19821,225).

2 Job 32:6-22; 33:1-33; 34:2-37; 35:2-16; 36:2-37:24. Scholars differ in their opinion

on the division of the speeches. For a detailed representation of this five-part divi-

sion see David Allen Diewert, "The Composition of the Elihu Speeches: A Poetic

and Structural Analysis" (Ph.D. diss., University of Toronto, 1991), 576-79.


The Authenticity of the Elihu Speeches in Job 32-37 29



allotted to Elihu (in comparison to the four chapters assigned to

Eliphaz, the three to Bildad, and the two to Zophar), (b) the

placement of the Elihu speeches in the book, and (c) the reaction

the speeches have drawn from critical circles on the question of





Before the nineteenth century both Jewish and Christian scholars

held a number of differing opinions on the Elihu speeches.3 The

negative opinions suggested that Elihu was a figure inspired by

Satan,4 or that he was a false prophet like Balaam.5 By the end of

the eighteenth century the structure and authenticity of the Elihu

speeches were still the focus of diverse opinions. Elihu, his

speeches, and his importance suffered severely at the hands of

critics.6 In the nineteenth century Stuhlmann, whose evaluation

was based on the sudden appearance and subsequent disappear-

ance of Elihu in the book, was the first to suggest that the speeches

of Elihu were a later addition.7 He was followed by Ewald in 1836

and a considerable number of scholars after him.8 Stuhlmann,

however, set the stage for research that culminated with a thor-

ough and influential critical analysis by Nichols in 1911.

Nichols approached the Elihu speeches largely from the

standpoint of authenticity. She cited over forty authors from

Stuhlmann to Peake, who considered them secondary additions,

and twenty-seven others from Jahn to Posselt, who defended the


3 Although a full examination of this question cannot be presented beyond the

needs of the topic here, three thorough investigations have been made: Robert V.

McCabe Jr., "The Significance of the Elihu Speeches in the Context of the Book of

Job" (Th.D. diss., Grace Theological Seminary, 1985), 1-36; David Arvid Johns, "The

Literary and Theological Function of the Elihu Speeches in the Book of Job" (Ph.D.

diss., Saint Louis University, 1983), 1-9; and Diewert, "The Composition of the

.Elihu Speeches: A Poetic and Structural Analysis," 1-23). Also see Helen Hawley

Nichols, "The Composition of the Elihu Speeches (Job Chaps. 32-37)," American

Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 27 (January 1911): 97-186.

4 Testament of Job 41:5; 42:2; 43:4-17. See R. P. Spittler, "Testament of Job," in The

at Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, ed. James H. Charlesworth (Garden City, NY:

of Doubleday, 1983), 1:861-63.

5 Otto Zockler, "The Book of Job," in Commentary on the Holy Scrcptures, ed.

John Peter Lange (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1960), 562-63.

6 For example J. G. Eichhorn, Einleitung in das Alte Testament (Gottingen:

Rosenbusch, 1780-1783), 3:630.

7 Matthias H. Stuhlmann, Hiob, ein religioses Gedicht aus dem Hebraischen

neu ubersetzt, gepruft und erlautert (Hamburg: Friedrich Perthes, 1804),14-24, 40-


8 Heinrich Ewald, Commentary on the Book of Job, trans. J. Smith (Edinburgh:

Williams and Norgate, 1882).

30 BIBLIOTHECA SACRA / January-March 1999



speeches as part of the original work.9 Even Nichols, who did not

accept the Elihu speeches as original to the poem, admitted that

"those who have defended Elihu in the critical debate have

usually found in his words the positive solution of the problem [of

Job's suffering], which the poem without them fails to give, and a

preparation for the Theophany."10 In regard to recent investiga-

tions "it would be fair to say that the studies of Job 32-37 since

Nichols have also been chiefly dominated by this issue of their re-

lationship to the rest of the book."11

Janzen lists four objections to the authenticity of the speeches.

"(1) Elihu is mentioned nowhere else, not even in the epilogue, his

long speeches interrupt the continuity between chapters 31 and 38,

and he contributes little if anything to the content or dramatic

movement of the book; (2) the literary style is diffuse and preten-

tious, inferior to that of the rest of the book; (3) the linguistic usage

differs from that in the rest of the poetry; and (4) the speeches offer

an alternative resolution to Job's problem from that of the

(baffling) divine speeches."12

Although Janzen views the speeches of Elihu as taxing on the

reader, he states that "the Elihu speeches present no critical prob-

lem," and he sees "no cogent reason to view them as other than

integral to the book."13 In addition to the objections summarized


9 Nichols, "The Composition of the Elihu Speeches (Job Chaps. 32-37)," 99-103.

Also see Arthur s. Peake, Job: Introduction, Revised Version with Notes and In-

dex, Century Bible (Edinburgh: Clark and Jack, 1904); Johann Jahn, Einleitung in

das Alte Testament (n.p., n.d., cited in Nichols, "The Composition of the Elihu

Speeches (Job Chaps. 32-37)," 99; and Wenzel Posse It, "Der Verfasser der Elihu-

Reden," Biblische Studien (FreiburgJ 14 (1909): 1-111.

10 Nichols, "The Composition of the Elihu Speeches (Job Chaps. 32-37)," 101.

11 Diewert, "The Composition of the Elihu Speeches: A Poetic and Structural

Analysis," 4. Also see McCabe, "The Significance of the Elihu Speeches in the Con-

text of the Book of Job," 1-36; Nonnan C. Habel, "The Role of Elihu in the Design of

the Book of Job," in In the Shelter of Elyon, ed. W. Boyd Barrick and John R.

Spencer (Sheffield: JSOT, 1984); and Johns, "The Literary and Theological Function

of the Elihu Speeches in the Book of Job," 7-9.

12 J. Gerald Janzen, Job, Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and

Preaching (Atlanta: Knox, 1985), 217-18. Cf. Johns, "The Literary and Theological

Function of the Elihu Speeches in the Book of Job," 2. William T. Davidson gives

three similar reasons why many commentators reject Job 32-37 as original to the

text of Job and he also states that the Elihu speeches confuse rather than clarify

the poem (The Wisdom-Literature of the Old Testament [London: Kelly, 1900],52).

Also see John Briggs Curtis, "Why Were the Elihu Speeches Added to the Book of

Job?' Proceedings 8 (1988): 93-99; and Robert Gordis, "Elihu the Intruder," in Bibli-

cal and Other Studies, ed. Alexander Altmann (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univer-

sity Press, 1963),60-78. Zockler, after citing nine different arguments, which he at-

tempted to refute, finally accepted the Elihu speeches as secondary, describing the

linguistic argument as "the most weighty of all" ("The Book of Job," 272).

13 Janzen, Job, 218.

The Authenticity of the Elihu Speeches in Job 32-37 31


by Janzen, other scholars maintain an intermediate position by

holding to one original author who made an addition to his book

in later life.14 Others do not reject the authenticity of the Elihu

speeches but simply maintain either that they are a later addition

by an unknown author,15 or that they are a compilation by a later

author, editor, or series of editors.16

Once the authenticity or position of the speeches of Elihu was

doubted, it seemed only logical that the next critical step was to

dissect them,17 rearrange their position, 18 or reject all or portions


14 Diewert, "The Composition of the Elihu Speeches: A Poetic and Structural

Analysis," 4. This intermediate position has been recently advocated by Norman H.

Snaith (The Book of Job: Its Origin and Purpose, Studies in Biblical Theology

[London: SCM, 1968],72-91) and Gordis ("Elihu the Intruder," 60-78). Gordis sug-

gests that the original author/poet added Elihu and his insight on moral discipline

as one solution to the problem of suffering (The Book of God and Man: A Study of

Job [Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965], 110-16; cf. idem, The Book of Job

[New York: Jewish Theological Seminary, 1978],548-53).

15 See comments by Johns, "The Literary and Theological Function of the Elihu

Speeches in the Book of Job," 4-5.

16 Rowley sees the Book of Job as canonical without the Elihu speeches (H. H.

Rowley, The Book of Job, New Century Bible Commentary [Grand Rapids: Eerd-

mans, 1976], 13:206). Nichols says two authors were involved in the Elihu speeches

("The Composition of the Elihu Speeches [Job Chaps. 32-37]," 116-22). Nichols's in-

quiry into the "composition" of the Elihu speeches is primarily a source-critical

analysis, and in this she stands in the tradition of Julius Wellhausen. According to

Diewert, Nichols's main theory is that the speeches, as they presently exist, are two

different works, each constituting reactions to Job and his theology. Nichols's faith

in the testimony of the Septuagint is the basis for her theory (Diewert, "The

Composition of the Elihu Speeches: A Poetic and Structural Analysis," 19). Jastrow

and Irwin see four authors at work in the Book of Job (Morris Jastrow, The Book of

Job: Its Origin, Growth and Interpretation [Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1920],77-82);

William A. Irwin, "The Elihu Speeches in the Criticism of the Book of Job," Jour-

nal of Religion 17 [January 1937]: 37-47). Samuel Terrien holds that the Elihu sec-

tion was written by a different author. But unlike those above, Terrien says Elihu

is essential to the book and is beneficial as a contribution to an understanding of

Job's suffering; he says it is an "educational and revelatory process." He also sees

Elihu as preparatory to the Yahweh speeches (Job: Poet of Existence [New York:

Bobbs-Merrill, 1957], 189-90). See also Westermann, The Structure of the Book of

Job: A Form-Critical Analysis (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1981), 139.

17 Moses Buttenwieser, The Book of Job (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1922),

77-86, 162-67,347-57. For instance Buttenwieser reduced the Elihu speeches from

165 to 72 verses, half of which contain Elihu's self-introduction.

18 David Noel Freedman suggests that Elihu's speeches were added to "refute or

counterbalance a speech or assertion of Job, and to be placed in juxaposition with

it ("The Elihu Speeches m the Book of Job: A Hypothetical Episode m the Literary

History of the Work," Harvard Theological Review 61 [January 1968]: 52-59). In

other words Freedman proposes that the speeches of Elihu were originally in-

tended to be inserted at various points in the earlier dialogue to refute a specific

discourse or assertion of Job, but somehow failed to be inserted. Gary W. Martin,

who accepts Freedman's basic thesis, gives a "Table of Proposed Reconstruction of

Elihu's Responses to the Three Cycles of Discourse" and says the speeches need to

32 BIBLIOTHECA SACRA / January-March 1999

of the speeches outright.19 Form-critical studies often involve a

reorganization of the text to conform to a particular subjective and

reasonably consistent structural pattern. The result is that insuf-

ficient attention is given to the uniqueness of Elihu's individual

speeches and their importance to the theological argument of the

book especially in regard to suffering. In fact, the critical ap-

proach seems to neglect the positive contributions of stylistic and

poetic analysis in marking structural patterns within Elihu's

speeches.20 For instance Buttenwieser,21 Pope,22 Stier ,23 and

Nairne24 hold that the speeches are identical or similar to the

views of the three antagonists, adding little or nothing to the ar-

gument regarding Job's suffering. Nichols and Rowley suggest

that Elihu offered a solution for suffering that is irrelevant to

Job's relationship with God and that does not address the initial

cause for Job's suffering.25


be rearranged ("Elihu and the Third Cycle in the Book of Job" [Ph.D. diss., Prince-

ton University, 1972], 108). Pages 248-60 of Martin's dissertation are filled with

various proposals for dissecting and rearranging the first thirty-one chapters of

the Book of Job. Most of his efforts focus on placing thirteen "fragments" from

chapters 24-27 into chapters 32-37 and seeking to determine the original order of

the speeches. Smick points out that Pope holds to a theory that the author deliber-

ately scrambled the material to confuse the picture (Elmer B. Smick, "Job," in The

Expositor's Bible Commentary [Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1988J, 4:845; and Marvin

Pope, Job, Anchor Bible [Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1973], xxiii-xxx).

19 Some writers simply regard Job 32-37 as insignificant and counterfeit and do

not accept them as part of the original text. Examples include Archibald MacLeish,-

J. B. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1986); Stephen Mitchell, The Book of Job (New

York: Harper Perennial, 1992); and Luis Alonso Schokel, "Toward a Dramatic Read-

ing of the Book of Job," Semeia 7 (1977): 45-61. Schokel eliminates the Elihu section


20 Diewert observes that "inevitably the monologue is reduced to or at least lim-

ited to those passages where Elihu seems to be saying something novel, while the

majority of the discourse is passed over as a virtual restatement of the position of

the friends. There have been very few serious students of these speeches which

treat them as a whole and deal with their content evenly throughout, paying atten-

tion to the argument in its entirety. Judgments concerning the contribution of ES

[Elihu's Speeches] to the Joban poem can only carry weight when they take into ac-

count every element of Elihu's monologue and the function of each part in the ar-

gument as a whole" (Diewert, "The Composition of the Elihu Speeches: A Poetic and

Structural Analysis," 18).

21 Buttenwieser, The Book of Job, 85.

22 Pope, Job, xxvi.

23 Fridolin Stier, Das Buch [job hebriiisch und deutsch (Munich: Kosel, 1954),


24 Alexander Nairne, The Book of Job, Edited with an Introduction (Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press, 1935), xv.

25 See Nichols, "The Composition of the Elihu Speeches (Job Chaps. 32-37)," 108;

and Rowley, The Book of Job, 206.

The Authenticity of the Elihu Speeches in Job 32-37 33


A number of scholars defend the speeches of Elihu as an original

part of the composition of the Book of Job. Early positive opinions

considered Elihu as exalted above Job and his friends, or the rep-

resentative of the authentic Jewish view of providence,26 or as an

antitype of Christ.27 Early church historians and the Reformers

generally accepted the authenticity of Elihu's speeches.28 John

Calvin was extremely complimentary toward Elihu for "there are

few people in the Bible Calvin admires more."29 In reaction to the

early nineteenth century opposition, Rosenmtiller and Umbreit,

as well as other early conservatives like Stickel30 and Deutsch,31

were among the first to maintain Elihu's authenticity.32 Cornill

refers to the Elihu speeches as "the summit and crown of the Book

of Job, and says they provide the only solution to the problem of

suffering.33 Godet calls the speeches "an indispensable feature"


26 Moses Maimonides, Guide to the Perplexed, trans. M. Friedlander (New York:

Dover, n.d.), 296. Maimonides lived from A.D. 1135 to 1204. See also Solmon B. Free

hof, Book of Job: A Commentary, Jewish Commentary for Bible Readers (New York:

Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1958), 205. Freehof states that this was

the view of Abraham ibn Ezra. Also see a similar view in Jacob S. Lavinger,

"Maimonides' Exegesis of the Book of Job," in Creative Biblical Exegesis: Chris-

tian and Jewish Hermeneutics through the Centuries, ed. Benjamin Uffenheimer

and Henning G. Reventlow, Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement

Series 59 (Sheffield: JSOT, 1988),81-88. See also Israel J. Gerber, Job on Trial: A

Book for Our Time (Gastonia, NC: E. P. Press, 1982), 104-39; Diewert, "The Composi-

tion of the Elihu Speeches: A Poetic and Structural Analysis," 3; and Shimon

Bakon, "The Enigma of Elihu," Dor le Dor 12 (1984): 221.

27 Diewert simply states this as one view ("The Composition of the Elihu

Speeches: A Poetic and Structural Analysis," 3).

28 Although they accepted his authenticity, they were not always complimentary

to Elihu. Gregory, for instance, argued that Elihu was orthodox in his teaching but

guilty of pride. Thomas Aquinas believed that Elihu's knowledge was superior to

the opinion of the other friends but that he was moved by "vainglory" so that he mis-

interpreted Job's words and did not express the whole truth. Calvin, on the other

hand, would not accept this criticism (Susan E. Schreiner, Where Shall Wisdom

Be Found? Calvin's Exegesis of Job from Medieval and Modern Perspectives

[Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994), 131-34).

29 Ibid., 131. For Calvin, Elihu's teaching was essentially the same truth declared

nd in God's whirlwind speeches.

30 Johann Gustav Stickel, Das Buch Hiob rhythmisch gegliedert und ubersetzt

mit exegetischen und kritischen Bemerkungen (Leipzig: Weidmann'sche Buch-

handlung, 1842), 195-219.

31 Cited in Nichols, "The Composition of the Elihu Speeches (Job Chaps. 32-37),"

54), 99.

32 Earnest Rosenmtiller, Iobus latine vertit et annotatione perpetua, 765, quoted

in Rowley, Job, 13; and Friedrich Carl Umbreit, Das Buch Hiob: Uebersetzung und

Auslegung (Heidelberg: Mohr, 1832), xxvi-xxvii.

33 Carl Cornill, Introduction to the Canonical Books of the Old Testament, trans.

108; G. H. Box, Theological Translation Library, vol. 23 (New York: Putnam's Sons, 1907),


34 BIBLIOTHECA SACRA / January-March 1999

of the book,34 and Marshall puts them "on an immeasurably

higher plane than the dialogue."35 More recent conservative ad-

vocates of the authenticity of the Elihu speeches include Young,36

Harrison,37 Bullock,38 Archer ,39 and Zuck.40 These are joined by

other scholars who defend Elihu's authenticity, viewing his

speeches as primary to the Book of Job and to a proper understand-

ing of the problem of suffering.41 These scholars also include


34 F. Godet, "The Book of Job," in Biblical Studies on the Old Testament (London:

Parker, 1875),217.

35 John T. Marshall, Job and His Comforters: Studies in Theology of the Book of

Job (London: Kingsgate, 1905), 6.

36 Edward J. Young, An Introduction to the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerd-

mans, 1964), 329-30.

37 R. K. Harrison, An Introduction to the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerd-

mans, 1969), 1034-35.

38 C. Hassell Bullock, An Introduction to the Old Testament Poetic Books: The

Wisdom and Songs of Israel (Chicago: Moody, 1979),75-77.

39 Gleason L. Archer, A Survey of the Old Testament: Introduction, rev. ed.

(Chicago: Moody, 1994),513-14.

40 luck offers four answers to the major critical objections stated above. "(1) Elihu

need not have been mentioned earlier in the book since he was a silent onlooker not

yet involved in the disputation. And Elihu was not condemned by God in 42:7-8

along with Eliphaz and his two companions probably because Elihu was closer to

the truth than were the three. (2) Admittedly Elihu's style differed from that of the

other four debaters. He used 'el for God more than did the others (his 19 uses of 'el

compare with Job's 17, Eliphaz's 8, Bildad's 6, and Zophar's 2). . . . Elihu also used a

number of Aramaic words more than the three counselors did. . . .These differ-

ences, however, simply point to his distinctive character. (3) Elihu's view of suffer-

ing differed from that of the three. They had claimed that Job was suffering because

he was sinning (in an attitude of pride) but Elihu said Job was sinning because he

was suffering. Elihu pointed out that God can use suffering to benefit people (33:17,

28, 30; 36:16). Elihu put his finger on Job's wrong attitude of complaining against

God (33:13; 34:17) and suggested that Job humble himself before God (33:27; 36:21;

37:24). (4) True, Job did not answer Elihu. But this may be because Elihu silenced

him. . . . Elihu's orations provided a bridge from Job's insistence for vindication

(chap. 31) to God's speeches. If the Elihu portion is not original, then God re-

sponded immediately to Job's demand, an action which is inconsistent with God.

Also the Elihu speeches create an added element of suspense, as the reader awaits

God's answer" (Roy B. Zuck, "Job," in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, Old Tes-

tament, ed. John F. Walvoord and Roy B. luck [Wheaton, IL: Victor, 1985],754-55).

Zuck points to Dhorme in support of his second point (Edouard Dhorme, A

Commentary on the Book of Job [Nashville: Nelson, 1984], ciii). The number of

Aramaic words used by Elihu in relation to the three counselors originates from a

study done by Samuel Rolles Driver and George Buchanan Gray (A Critical and

Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Job, International Critical Commentary

[Edinburgh: Clark, 1921], xlii-iii, xlvi-vii). These numbers regarding Aramaic

words were contested by Snaith, who concludes that the numbers are not convinc-

ing enough to warrant two authors.

41 For instance see Dhonne, A Commentary on the Book of Job, liv-lvii; ciii, who

treats the Elihu speeches as genuine, but sees a later hand in the writing. This is

also the basic stance of Tate, who argues that the normal critical objections are not

The Authenticity of the Elihu Speeches in Job 32-37 35


McKay who sees the Elihu speeches as pivotal to the other chapters

of the Book of Job, providing a bridge between Job's conversations

and God's speeches.42 As noted earlier, both Diewert43 and

Bakon44 hold to the importance and integrity of the speeches.

Beeby argues for authenticity and sees Elihu as a mediator whose

main function was prophetic, much like that of Moses, Joshua,

Samuel, Jeremiah, and Isaiah.45 Carstensen also argues that

Elihu is important in that he exercised a mediatorial function in

his approach to Job (33:23; cf. 33:7, 31-33; 36:2).46 Johns has made


convincing (Marvin Tate, "The Speeches of Elihu," Review and Expositor [Fall

1971]: 487-95). Also see Robert L. Alden, who simply assumes the genuineness of

the Elihu chapters (Job, 23-24, 314-15). Budde, Snaith, and Gordis consider the

speeches to be from a later author or period, but argue for their authenticity (Karl

Budde, Das Buch Hiob, Handbuch zum Alten Testament [Gottingen: Vandenhoeck

& Ruprecht, 1896]; Snaith, The Book of Job: Its Origin and Purpose, 72-91; and

Gordis, The Book of God and Man, 104-16). Snaith carefully compared the alleged

differences in vocabulary between the Elihu speeches and the other major sections

of the book. He did not find the variations significant and he concluded that it is

not necessary to postulate that another author wrote the section (The Book of Job:

Its Origin and Purpose, 77). Zuck argues for the authenticity, originality, and

placement in the text ("Job," 140-42), as does Hartley (John E. Hartley, The Book of

Job, New International Commentary on the Old Testament [Grand Rapids: Eerd-

mans, 1988],28-30). Answers to the four objections summarized by Janzen are ar-

gued by Hartley, who concludes that "the Elihu speeches are an integral part of the

final edition of the work. It is improper to judge them as a clumsy later addition or

a sanctification of the heretical ideas that Job has entertained" (ibid., 29). Still,

Hartley struggles with the speeches being a part of the original composition and

speculates that the author of Job could have added them later to the final. edition or

that one of his students, possibly a redactor, inserted them where his teacher

a might have suggested they belonged.

42 John W. McKay, "Elihu: A Proto-Charismatic?" Expository Times 90 (March 1979): 167-71.

43 Diewert, "The Composition of the Elihu Speeches: A Poetic and Structural Analysis," 1-23.

44 Bakon says Elihu offered a unique contribution to the problem of suffering

ed ("The Enigma of Elihu," 217-28).

45 H. D. Beeby, "Elihu-Job's Mediator?" Southeast Asian Journal of Theology 7

(October 1969): 33-54. Beeby mentions five objections to the authenticity of Elihu's

speeches and answers each one satisfactorily (ibid., 48-50). He concludes that

"there is a unity throughout the book as we have it now, no matter when the various

parts originated or when they were assembled. Second, that within this unity the

figure of Elihu plays a necessary part, justifying Job's earlier faith in an 'umpire'

and being the instrument of Job's eventual justification by heralding the 'theo-

phany.' Finally, that after an examination of Elihu's contribution and in the light of

the similarities with earlier covenantal formulations, we conclude that Elihu was a

man with divine gifts, who can only be described as a covenant mediator, trans-

formed to accord with the Wisdom literature and the book's dominant question of

'how the good non-Israelite can stand before Israel's God'" (ibid., 50). Hans Ehren-

berg presents his arguments in the form of a dramatic play and identifies Elihu as

an "advocate" ("Elihu the Theologian," in The Dimensions of Job: A Study and Se-

lected Readings, ed. Nahum N. Glatzer [New York: Schocken, 1969],99).

46 Roger N. Carstensen, "The Persistence of the 'Elihu' Tradition in Later Jewish

Writings," Lexington Theological Quarterly 2 (1967): 41.

36 BIBLIOTHECA SACRA / January-March 1999

a well-supported investigation, concluding that "Elihu does play

significant literary and theological roles" in the Book of Job.47

Also Hofman demonstrates that in the "present text of Job two

artistic features are so clearly and persistently manifested, that

there can be no doubt as to their immanency and authenticity."48

Miller insists that Elihu "does indeed carry the insights of the

book above that of the dialogue."49 Interestingly a counselor and

an educator both accept the authenticity of the Elihu speeches and

find great value in their pastoral significance and guidelines for

theological teaching.50 Steinmann inadvertently makes a case

for chapters 32-37 being authentic and an original part of the text

by comparing the four numerical sayings in the Book of Job, two

of which are found in the Elihu speeches (33:14, 29).51

Posselt, Gray, and Staples made independent studies of the

language especially in vocabulary, names of God, and Ara-

maisms in Job.52 Snaith answers these with his own investiga-

tion. His study criticized Gray's conclusions concerning the five

areas Gray suggested are noticeable differences between the

Elihu speeches and the rest of the book: (a) unusual prepositions

and suffixes, (b) the use of the divine names, (c) first-person pro-


47 Johns, The Literary and Theological Function of the Elihu Speeches in the

Book of Job, 1,2-12.

48 The two features Hofman incorporates to answer the critical activity surround-

ing Job are (a) a very difficult and obscure language and (b) a strong artistic sense

of fonn, structure, and symmetry. The vague language is for the purpose of obscur-

ing the possible misunderstanding of the "heretical potential of the theological im-

plications of his work." Hofman's summary includes five statements that support

the authenticity and integral nature of the Book of Job. He also gives five guide-

lines for handling criticism, which include reasons for not rearranging the

speeches in order to make them more coherent (Yair Hofman, "Ancient Near East-

ern Literary Conventions and the Restoration of the Book of Job," Zeitschrift fur

die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 103 [1991]: 399-411).

49 Ward S. Miller, "Job: Creator's Apprentice," Chicago Studies 26 (1987): 176.

50 Kathleen Rusnak, "The Pastor as Enabler," Pastoral Psychology 28 (1979): 53-61;

and Alfred von Rohr Sauer, "Salvation by Grace: The Heart of Job's Theology," Con-

cordia Theological Monthly 37 (1966): 259-70.

51 Andrew E. Steinmann, "The Graded Numerical Sayings in Job," in Fortunate

the Eyes That See, ed. Astrid B. Beck et al. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995), 288-

97. Two of the four numerical sayings are found in the Elihu speeches. This would

tend to argue for agreement with the two other sayings found in different sections

of the book, and therefore could be construed as support for one author. The four

numerical sayings are (1) Job 5:17-27 (v. 19); (2) and (3) 33:13-30 (vv. 14,29); and (4)

40:3-5 (v. 5).

52 Posselt, Gray, and Staples all concluded that the Elihu speeches were from a

different author (Posselt, "Der Verfasser der Elihu-Reden," 1-111; Driver and

Gray, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Job, xli-xlvii; and

William E. Staples, The Speeches of Elihu, University of Toronto Studies, Philo-

logical Series no. 8 [Toronto: University of Toronto, 1924], 13).

The Authenticity of the Elihu Speeches in Job 32-37 37


nouns, (d) Aramaisms, and (e) unique expressions.53 Regarding

Aramaisms, which are often a major focus of opposition to the au-

thenticity of Job 32-37, Snaith concludes that the book contains

virtually no true Aramaisms. Furthermore he sees no signifi-

cant degree of variation in prepositions and suffixes, the use of

divine names, first-person pronouns, or unique expressions in

the Elihu speeches to support the theory of a separate author for

those chapters.54

Also Gordis is an advocate of the unity of the book.55 He ac-

cepts a single author for the book, although he says the original

author wrote the Elihu section "at a later period in his life."56

Gordis asserts that the Elihu speeches are similar in style to the

dialogue and that the different names of God, the pronouns, the

grammatical forms, and other elements in the speeches are not

out of proportion with the rest of the book. He agrees with Snaith

that they do not contain an excessive number of Aramaisms or

rare words.57 He finds fewer here than in other sections of the

book. He also views the citation by Elihu of arguments already

expressed by Job's friends as further support for the authenticity of

this section, since the use of quotations is common practice in

wisdom literature. Gordis concludes that the Elihu speeches

make a significant contribution to the essence of the book,58 and

he provides support for the view that the speeches were composed by

the book's original author.

Several authors also maintain that the Elihu speeches add to

the argument of the book in regard to Job's suffering. Budde,

Cornill, and Dubarle see Elihu's view of suffering as central to

the book, pointing out that suffering warns a person of the hidden ,

sin of pride.59 Posselt suggests that Elihu offers a theological


53 Snaith, The Book of Job: Its Origin and Purpose, 75-85.

54 Ibid. Harris provides a convincing study on the language of Job (R. Laird

Harris, "The Doctrine of God in the Book of Job," in Sitting with Job: Selected

Studies on the Book of Job, ed. Roy B. Zuck [Grand Rapids: Baker, 1992), 15s-62).

55 Gordis is considered by many as making the most succinct and beneficial con-

tribution to the Elihu speeches' authenticity in recent years ("Elihu the Intruder,"


56 Ibid., 72.

57 Ibid., 681.

58 Ibid., 74-75. Also see comments on Gordis's article in Gerber, Job on Trial: A

Book for Our Time, 161-62.

59 See Budde, Das Buch Hiob, xlv-xlviii; Cornill, Introduction to the Canonical

Books of the Old Testament, 425-31; and Andre M. Dubarle, Les Sages d'Israel

(Paris: du Cerf, 1946), 86-88.

38 BIBLIOTHECA SACRA / January-March 1999


solution to suffering, namely, purification.60 Snaith says Elihu's

concept of a gracious, compassionate intercessor is a contribution

to the problem of suffering.61 Peters and Dennefeld both recognize

Elihu's observation that Job was guilty of presumptuous speech

and lack of humility, while Dubarle and Staples both say Elihu

pointed to Job's wrong attitude, but did not condemn him for any

specific acts of evil, as did the three antagonists.62




Regarding the criticisms that Elihu is mentioned nowhere else in

Ithe Book of Job, not even in the epilogue, that his long speeches

seem to interrupt the continuity between chapters 31 and 38, and

that he seems to have contributed little if anything to the content or

dramatic movement of the book, this investigation counters with

the following observations.

First, it would seem unlikely that Elihu would be mentioned

in the prologue (chaps. 1-2) since Yahweh, Satan, and Job are the

major focus of those chapters. Neither the wife nor the three coun-

selors are mentioned until chapter 2.

Second, it would also seem unlikely that a young bystander

would interrupt the serious discussions found in the dialogue

(chaps. 3-31) between three elderly "wise men" and a prominent

Near Eastern sovereign. Elihu was led into the conversation by

his frustration with the inadequate answers offered by the three

spokesmen to Job's dilemma and was constrained to speak, as the

text suggests, by the Spirit (33:4).

Third, neither the three friends, the wife, Satan, nor Elihu is

mentioned in chapters 38-41 since God and Job are the focus.63

Fourth, the epilogue is reserved primarily for Job's response

to the speeches of Yahweh and to Yahweh's response to Job's repen-

tance. The epilogue also voices a condemnation of the false repre-


60 Posselt, "Der Verfasser der Elihu-Reden," 49-50.

61 Snaith says the Septuagint of 33:23 refers to the "death angel" who intercedes on

behalf of the sufferer, and that Elihu was teaching the necessity and role of an in-

tercessor (The Book of Job: Its Origin and Purpose, 88-90).

62 See Norbert Peters, Das Buch Job ubersetzt und erklart, Exegetisches Hand-

buch zum Alten Testament (Munster: AschendortT, 1928), 26; Louis Dennefeld, "Les

discours d'Elihu (Job xxxii-xxxvii)," Revue biblique 48 (1939): 163-80; Dubarle, Les

Sages d'Israel, 87-88; and Staples, who sees Job's sin as ignorance of the true rea-

son for his suffering (The Speeches of Elihu, 14-16).

63 Objections to the originality and authenticity of chapters 38-41 essentially fol-

low the same pattern as those suggested for chapters 32-37.


The Authenticity of the Elihu Speeches in Job 32-37 39


sentation of Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar. Elihu's absence from

the condemnation can be explained by Yahweh's own words,

"After the LORD had said these things to Job, he said to Eliphaz the

Temanite, 'I am angry with you and your two friends, because

you have not spoken of me what is right, as my servant Job has' "

(42:7, NIV). Yahweh's anger was not extended to Elihu, and al-

though it is an argument from silence, the implication is that if

Elihu had been in full agreement with the three, then he would

have been equally condemned. Elihu claimed to give a different

message from that of the three and either he did or he did not

(32:14). The implication from God's silence concerning Elihu is

that he did. Therefore there is no need for Job to have offered sac-

rifices on Elihu's behalf as he did for the three, for Elihu had not

misrepresented Yahweh.

Furthermore it was not necessary for Yahweh to praise

Elihu,64 because the speeches of Yahweh, the response of Job, and

the correction of the three suggest strongly that Elihu was correct

and that his speeches were compatible with those of Yahweh. It is

therefore not surprising that God was silent with regard to Elihu.

It might also be noted that Job's wife and Satan are absent from the

epilogue. Since the wife's statement was countered originally

and finally by Job's faith, and since Satan's accusation was

proved invalid by Job's response in 42:1-6, there seems to be no

reason for further mention of either Job's wife or Satan.

Concerning the second criticism-that the literary style65 is

diffuse and pretentious, inferior66 to that of the rest of the book-it

can be demonstrated that the basis for this criticism sometimes

rests in the presuppositions the reader brings to the text. For in-

stance a modern reading of Job 32-33 is that these are the preten-


64 Dhorme asks, "If it is Elihu who expounds the author's thesis, why is it that

Job, who is constantly rebuked by Elihu, should receive the praises of the Epi-

logue" (Dhorme, A Commentary on Job, cviii). However, it should be remembered

that Job was rebuked by Yahweh in chapter 38 and that Job expressed initial repen-

tance in chapter 40 and final repentance in 42, which preceded any praises on the

part of Yahweh. That is, Job was rebuked, he repented, and then he was praised. It

would seem logical to conclude that Elihu had no need to repent because he was not

rebuked by the Lord.

65 Janzen admits that "the argument from style is difficult to control" (Janzen,

Job, 218). Andersen observes that the author may be deliberately portraying Elihu

in a light best suited to his argument (Francis I. Andersen, Job: An Introduction

and Commentary, Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries [Downers Grove, IL: In-

terVarsity, 1976],51-52).

66 Nichols is very critical of the composition ("The Composition of the Elihu

Speeches [Job Chaps. 32-37]," 97-99). John Briggs Curtis, who is not necessarily

complimentary to Elihu, does not accept his speeches as part of the original text of

Job; yet he refutes the allegation of artistic inferiority in the Elihu material ("Word

Play in the Speeches of Elihu [Job 32-37]," Proceedings 12 [1992]: 23-30).

40 BIBLIOTHECA SACRA / January-March 1999


tious words of an arrogant young fool.67 Yet Elihu approached Job

and the three antagonists in the manner required by ancient

Near Eastern custom. As to the literary style of the Elihu

speeches, Budde, Gordis, Snaith, Zuck, and others present ade-

quate explanations. Basically they conclude that a change in au-

thors is not a definitive answer to Elihu's vocabulary and other

literary differences in his speeches. Furthermore, if Elihu is a

new character with a youthful personality, different vocabulary

would naturally be expected. The wide and varied critical theo-

ries mentioned above seem subjective;68 they are not a convinc-

ing argument for a change of authorship nor for the manipulation

or mutilation of the existing text.

With regard to the observation that linguistic usage seems to

differ greatly from that of the rest of the poetry of the book, recent

studies have demonstrated that these differences are not as exten-

sive as previously thought. Diewert, Gordis, Johns, McCabe,

Snaith, and others have suggested equally compelling arguments

that support strong similarities in form throughout the existing

text. In addition, Elihu's speeches contain interaction with and

deductions from the quotations of Job's statements (33:8-11, 13;

34:5-6, 9; 35:2-3). Elihu used summaries and quotations to refute

several of Job's claims; therefore a new methodology is intro-

duced: quotation, refutation, and defense. This means that much

of what Elihu said corresponds to the words of Job in the preceding

chapters.69 Elihu also dealt with the same subjects and addressed

the same issues as Job and the three counselors, but he stressed

God's majesty and justice more than any of them. This could ex-

plain Elihu's frequent use of lxe.

The charge that the speeches seem "to offer an alternative

resolution to Job's problem from that of the (baffling) divine

speeches"70 begs the question. This statement assumes that there

67 Habel, "The Role of Elihu in the Design of the Book of Job," 87. Although Habel

regards Elihu as an arrogant fool, he states that "Elihu's speeches are . . . both logi-

cal and significant in the sequence of the Joban story." Donald E. Gowan refers to

Elihu as a "buffoon," and "a brilliant young fool," but he contends that it was

"normal to expect Elihu to come on the scene and give the ultimate answer to the

dilemma and problem of suffering" ("Reading Job as a 'Wisdom Script,' " Journal

for the Study of the Old Testament 55 [1992]: 94-95). Skehan argues that "the long-

winded introduction of Elihu is a deliberate and a formal rhetorical device for em-



phasis" (Patrick William Skehan, "I Will Speak Up! Job 32," Catholic Biblical

Quarterly 31 [July 1969]: 380-82).

68 Andersen states that "style is also a quality whose assessment can be highly

subjective" (Job: An Introduction and Commentary, 51).

69 Freedman, "The Elihu Speeches in the Book of Job," 51-59.

70 Janzen, Job, 218.

The Authenticity of the Elihu Speeches in Job 32-37 41

is a wide difference between the resolution offered by Elihu and

that offered by Yahweh. Actually several similarities exist be-

tween the speeches by Elihu and those by God.71

Possibly the most judicious of the arguments in favor of the

authenticity of the Elihu speeches is suggested by Carson, who

posits that breaking the book up, as "such source theories [suggest],

even if right, [does] not solve the theological problem: the book as

we have it stands or falls as a literary whole, for that is the only

form in which it has come down to us."72 This is supported by

Michel, who states that "the tradition has never known a book of

Job without the Elihu speeches."73 Also Smick concludes that "it is

just as satisfactory to work with the text as it is" for "there is as

much reason to believe that the book, substantially as we have it,

was the work of a single literary and theological genius as it is to

assume it is the product of numerous hands often with contrary



Having demonstrated that the major objections to the Elihu

speeches' authenticity can be positively answered, confidence in

his contribution to the argument of the book can be established.

Therefore one can assume not only that chapters 32-37 of the Book

of Job are structurally, theologically, stylistically, and linguisti-

cally an original, genuine part of the text, but also that they play a

significant interpretive, explanatory, and theological role in

understanding Job's suffering and his relationship with Yah-





71 For example see (a) 36:25-26; 37:5, 23 and 38:4, 33; (b) 33:8-11; 34:5-6, 9; 35:2-3 and

38:2; 40:2; 4.1:11; (c) 32:14, 34:10-12; 35:4-8, 36:31 and 41:10b-11; (d) 37:1-13 and 38:26-

27; (e) 34:10-12; 36:5; 37:23 and 40:2; (f) 37:6, 9-10, 15-16 and 38:25--30.

72 D. A. Carson, How Long, 0 Lord? Reflections on Suffering and Evil (Grand

Rapids: Baker, 1990), 156.

73 Walter L. Michel, "Job's Real Friend: Elihu," Criterion 21 (Spring 1982): 29-32.

74 Smick, "Job," 846-47.


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Dallas Theological Seminary

3909 Swiss Ave.

Dallas, TX 75204


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