Princeton Theological Review 22 (1924) 108-119.

                                                             Public Domain


                                  NOTES AND NOTICES

                CRITICAL NOTE ON EXODUS VI. 3

                                          R. D. Wilson



     In criticising a document there are at least three fundamental 

principles upon which we should proceed:  First, the document

must be supposed to be in harmony with itself and interpreted

accordingly.  Secondly, it must be presumed to be in harmony

with its sources of information.  Thirdly, it should be in accord-

ance with its supposed time, place, and circumstances.1


                   I. The Critical Theory is Inconsistent

     I.  The critics hold that Exodus vi. 3, which the RV renders,

"And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob as

God Almighty (El Shaddai); but by my name Jehovah I was

not known unto them," belongs to P and that P means to say

that El Shaddai and not Jehovah was the name of God known

to the patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.  Therefore they

assign four passages, Gen. xvii. 1, xxviii. 3, xxxv. 11, and xlviii.

3 to P., since El Shaddai is found in them.  It is to be observed,

however, regarding these passages that, in xvii 1, it is said that

Jehovah appeared to Abram, saying, I am El Shaddai; and in

xxxv. 11 that Elohim appeared to Jacob saying, I am El Shaddai.

In xxviii. 3 Isaac says to Jacob, El Shaddai bless thee; and in

xlviii. 3 Jacob says in the presence of Joseph and his two sons,

El Shaddai appeared unto me.  In a fifth passage, Gen. xliii. 14,

Jacob uses this appellation in his prayer for his sons who are

starting for Egypt.  But this verse is assigned to E or J by the

critics and the El Shaddai attributed to the Redactor.  Is it not

singular that if P thought El Shaddai was a proper name for

God he should have used Elohim about seventy times before Ex.

vi. 3 and El Shaddai only four-times?  Is it not extraordinary

that, if the writer of Ex. vi. 3 meant that God "appeared" to the

patriarchs under the name of El Shaddai, only once in P should

it be said that El Shaddai "appeared," just the same number of

times that P says that Jehovah "appeared" and that Elohim"

"appeared"? Jehovah alone (or Jehovah Elohim) is alleged to

have occurred in J, and Elohim alone in E; but El Shaddai is

found but four times in P and Elohim seventy times.


      1 Briggs, The Higher Criticism of the Hexateuch, p. 4.

                             NOTES AND NOTICES                             109


     If P alone thought that El Shaddai was the only name of God

known in the time of the patriarchs, how about Gen. xliii. 14,

which the critics assign to E or J?  We have seen that they

escape the consequences of this assignment simply by asserting

that El Shaddai is an interpolation of the Redactor.  But did

the Redactor also think that the patriarchs used El Shaddai

rather than Jehovah?  Why, then did he not cut out Jehovah

and put El Shaddai into the text of J?  Besides, if P alone

thought that Shaddai was a specifically patriarchal designation,

how about its use in Gen. xlix. 25 and Num. xxiv. 4, 16, which

are assigned to J or JE? All of these questions will be appro-

priately answered if we take Shaddai and El Shaddai as appel-

lations, "the Almighty" or "a mighty God," and not as proper


     2.  A historical or ostensibly historical document should, if

possible, be interpreted in harmony with its sources and with

earlier histories supposedly known to the author.  What then

were the sources of P?  According to datings advocated by

the critics they could have been only J, E, D, H, and Judges,

Samuel, Kings, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea, Amos, Obadiah,

Nahum, Zephaniah, and parts of other books.  Now the only

one of these sources or earlier works in which El Shaddai

occurs is Ezek. x. 5, "And the sound of the cherubim's wings

was heard unto the outer court as the voice of Almighty

God (El Shaddai) when he speaketh."  Shaddai alone occurs in

the Pentateuch only in Gen. xlix. 25 (J) and in Numbers

xxiv. 4, 16 (JE).  In Gen. xlix. 24, 25, we read in the Blessing

of Joseph that "the arms of his hands were made strong by the

hands of the Almighty One (rybx) of Jacob (from thence

is the Shepherd, the stone of Israel) even by the God of thy

fathers, who shall help thee, and by the Almighty (Shaddai)

who shall bless thee."  The Samaritan Hebrew text and version

of this verse both read El Shaddai instead of Shaddai, a read-

ing supported by the Syriac and apparently by the Septuagint.

If we take the latter reading we would find God Almighty to

be parallel with the Almighty One of Jacob who is also called

the God of thy fathers (i.e., of Jacob).  This psalm of Jacob re-

fers in verse 18 to Jehovah in the words, "I have waited for

Thee, O Jehovah"; so that if P got his information about El

Shaddai in this psalm he would have known that Jehovah was




used by the Patriarch Jacob at least.  Nothing is said in this

psalm about either Jehovah or El Shaddai having appeared.

In Num. xxiv. 4, 16 Balaam uses the phrase: "which saw the

vision of the Almighty (Shaddai)."2  Since this chapter is as-

signed to JE, P must have known, if he got his information

here, that Shaddai was supposed by his sources to have been,

used after the declaration made in Exodus vi. 3; for JE certain-

ly places the episode of Balaam about forty years after the

event recorded in Exodus vi. 3.

These being the only places in the old Testament where Shad-

dai occurs in the portions assigned by the critics to a date be-

fore 550 B.C., it follows that the critics' interpretation of Ex.

vi. 3 makes P to be out of harmony with all its known sources.

     3.  In documents which in their opinion were written after

550 B.C. we never find El Shaddai; but Shaddai alone occurs

thirty times in Job, and in Ruth, i, 20, 21; Isa. xiii. 14; Joel i. 15;

Ps. lxviii. 15, xci. 1.  Not one of these passages refers to the

patriarchs or to God as "appearing" to them or to anyone else.

In twenty-seven of them Shaddai is used as parallel to other

names of God, to wit:  nine times to  hvlx, thirteen times to

lx, once to Nvylf, and four times to hvhy.  There is no in-

timation that Shaddai was a more ancient designation than these

other terms. It follows, therefore, that, as interpreted by the

critics, P in its use of El Shaddai is not congruous with the

usage of these other books which the critics allege to have been

written in post-captivity times.  To be sure, if Job was written

in the time of the patriarchs we can see where the author of P

got his idea that they had used Shaddai as a name for God.

Or even if some of the other passages came from the time to

which they have been assigned by tradition we might see how he

got the idea; even though they say nothing of revelation or the

patriarchs.  But as the case stands for the critics we find that

the author of P must have invented the whole conception.  For

neither Ezekiel, Job, J, E, H, D, Joel, Jonah, Deutero-Isaiah,

Ruth, nor the Psalms, furnish any ground for supposing that the

patriarchs used this appellation for God; and the certainly late

writings such as Daniel, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, Esther,


     2 Shaddai is rendered in Greek and Syriac by "God," in Arabic by

"the sufficient one"; and in the Samaritan version by "field," they hav-

ing read sadai for shaddai.

                             NOTES AND NOTICES                             111


Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah, never mention the name at all.

Whether we take the traditional view of the post-captivity litera-

ture, or the radical, there would therefore be no contemporary

evidence to show that the hypothetical writer of P, provided

that he lived in post-captivity times, was in his use of Shadai

in harmony with contemporaneous usage and ideas.   

          II.  Correct Exegesis Supports Unity of Pentateuch

     Having shown that the interpretation of Exodus vi. 3 a ad-

vanced by the critics is out of harmony with the rest of P, that

it does not agree with the rest of the Pentateuch, and that it

does not fit into the time at which P is alleged to have been

written it remains to see whether this passage can be so inter-

preted as to be brought into agreement with the traditional

view of the Pentateuch as the work of Moses.  This we shall

attempt to show by an examination of the text, grammar, and

vocabulary of the verse, under the following heads:  1) "ap-

peared," 2) ''as'' (b), 3) "God" (El), 4) "Almighty (Shaddai),

5) but" (waw), 6) "name," 7) "known," 8) the form of the

last sentence,--can it be interrogative?

     I.  The "appearing" of God to men is described in several dif-

ferent ways in the Old Testament.

a. The most usual expression is that found here in Ex. vi. 3,

where the Niphal of the verb "to see" (hxr) is used.  With the

Deity as subject this verb occurs forty-three times as follows:

  (a).  Jehovah, Gen. xii. 7 bis (J), xviii.1 (J),

xxii. 14 0), xxvi. 2, 24 (J), Ex. lii.4 (E), iv. 1, 5 (J), vi. 3

(P) Lev. ix. 4 (P), xvi. 2 (P), Num. xiv.14 (JE), Deut. xxxi.

15 (JE), I Kings iii. 5, ix. 2, I Chron. i. 7, iii. I, vii. 12, Jer.

iii.13, Zech. ix. 14

    (b).  The glory of Jehovah, Ex. xvi. 10 (P), Lev. ix. 6, 23

(P),  Num. xiv. 10 , xvi.19 (P), xvii. 7, xx. 6 (P)

Isa. lx. 2, Ps xc. 16

     (c). The angel of Jehovah, Ex. iii. 2 (J), Jud. iii. 21 bis,

vi.12, xiii. 3, 21.

     (d).  Jehovah of Hosts, Mal. iii. 2.

      (e)  Jehovah, God of Israel, 1 Kings xi. 2.

      (f)  Elohim,  Gen. xxxv. 9 (P).

      (g)  The man (i.e., the angel of Jehovah), Jud. xiii. 10.

      (h)  El, Gen. xxxv. 1

       (i). El Shaddai, Gen. xlviii. 3 (P).



b.  Other expressions are the following:

     (I)  In the following cases it is said that man "saw" the Deity,

the Kal of the verb hxr being used:

     (a).  Jehovah, I Kings xxii. 19, 2 Chron. xviii. 18.

     (b).  The glory of Jehovah, Ex. xvi. 7 (P), Isa. xxxv. 2.

     (c).  The angel of Jehovah, Num. xxii. 31 (E), I Chron. xxi.

16, 20.

     (d). The majesty of Jehovah, Isa. xxvi. 10.

      (e).  hyhy, Isa. xxxviii. 11.

      (f).  The King, Jehovah of Hosts, Isa. vi. 5.

      (g).  Lord (Adonai), Isa. vi. 1, Am. ix. 1.

      (h).  The Holy One of Israel, Isa. xvii. 7.

       (i).  Elohim, Gen. xxxii. 30 (J), xxxiii. 10 (J), Jud. xiii. 32,

I Sam. xxviii. 13.

      (2)  The Hiphil of  hxr, with the Deity as subject, occurs in

the Old Testament twenty-two times: Gen. 1, Ex. 2, Deut. 3,

Judg. 1, 2 Kgs. 1, Pss. 4, Jer. 3, Ezek. 1, Nahum 1, Hab. 1,

Zech. 2.  In the Pentateuch it is found in J in Ex. ix. 16, in E

in Gen. xlviii. 11; in P in Ex. xxv. 9, Num. viii. 4; in D in

Deut. iii. 24, iv. 36, and v. 21,

      (3)  The verb hzH "to see" is used in Ex. xxiv. 11 (J) with

Elohim as object, in Job xix. 26 with Eloah as object, and in

Num. xxiv. 4, 16 (JE) with Shaddai as object.

      (4)  Of the words for "vision" mar'eh is used in Gen. xv. 1

(E), in connection with Jehovah and mahazeh in Num. xxiv. 4,

16, with Shaddai.

      (5)  The verb "to reveal" (hlgn) is found in the Pentateuch

only in Genesis xxxv. 7 (E).  Isaiah employs it in xl. 5, liii. 1, lvi.

1.  It is found also in I Samuel in ii. 27, iii. 7, 21.

     It is clear from the above evidence that the Deity is said in all

the documents J, E, D, H, and P to have "appeared" and that

the Niphal of hxr, "to see," the most common expression

used to describe it, is found in all of them.

     2. The preposition b which occurs in Ex. vi. 3 before

Shaddai is the so-called Beth essentiae and is to be

ordinarily by ''as,'' or ''as being," or "in the character of."  It

found in Gen. xxi. 12 (P), in Ex. xviii. 4, xxxii. 22, (both

and in Deut. xxvi. 5, xxviii. 62, xxxiii. 26, and in Lev. xvii. 11

(H).  It occurs also in Jud. xi. 35, Pss. xxxv. 2, xxxvii. 20,

                             NOTES AND NOTICES                             113


xxxix. 7, liv. 6, Iv. 19, lxviii. 5, 33, cxviii. 7, cxlvi. 5, Prov. iii. 26,

Ecc. vii. 14, Job xxiii. 13, Isa. xxvi. 4, xl. 10, xlviii. 10, Ho.

xiii 9.

     In Ex. vi. 3 we should translate ''as being El Shaddai," and

''as being Shemi Jahweh" or "in the character of a mighty God"

and "in the character of my name Jehovah," the force of the

proposition being regarded as carried over to the second phrase.

     3.  El occurs about two hundred and twenty times in the Old

Testament, in Gen. 9, Ex. 4, Num. 11, Deut. 10, Josh. 3 (or 35

times in the Hexateuch, J 2, E 5, D 10, P 53),  I Sam. 1, 2 Sam.

2, Isa. 25, Jer. 2, Ezek 7, Dan. 4, Hos. 3, Jonah 1, Micah 2,

Nahum 1, Zech. 2, Mal. 2, Pss. 71, Job 55, Prov. 1.  It frequently

takes after it an attributive adjective, or a noun in construction.

Thus E represents El as jealous, D as great and terrible and

merciful, JE as jealous, merciful, gracious and living; and J

speaks of a seeing God (El Ro'i) an eternal God (El 'Olam),

Deut. xxxii, of a God of a stranger (or a strange God), a

of trustworthiness, and a God who begat us, I Sam. ii. 3

a God of knowledge.  Gen. xiv. four times calls El the Most

High ('Elyon), and Deut. xxxii. 8 names him simply 'Elyon.

From this evidence it seems clear, that El was in use in all

periods of Hebrew literature and also that the limiting adjec-

tives and genitives did not denote names of different gods, but

were generally at least nothing but appellations of attributes or


     4.  As to the word Shaddai, there is uncertainty as to its root,

form, and meaning.  If it were from a root hdw it would be

of the same form as sadai which is sometimes read in the

Hebrew text instead of sade "field."  In Babylonian the root

means "to be high," and derivatives mean "mountain."

and "the summit of a mountain" and perhaps "majesty."  In

case, we might take shaddai as a synonym of 'elyon "Most

High" as used in Gen. xiv.

     A second derivation is from the root shadad "to be strong"

The ending ai is found also in yrH (Isa. xix. 9) and in  ybvg

(Am. vii. I, Neh. iii. 17) and perhaps in ylyk (Isa. xxxii. 5;


     3 It is not found in H

     4 In fact, the Samaritan version reads Shaddai as sadai in Num.

xxiv. 4, 16.



Olshausen, Lehrbuch p. 216).  This ending is found also in

Arabic and Ethiopic (Wright, Arabic Grammar, I. p. 220; Dill-

mann, Aethiopische Grammatik, p. 204).  If from this root the

word shaddai would mean "might, strength."  The Greek trans-

lator of Job apparently had this derivation before him when he

rendered shaddai by pantokr<twr, "Almighty"5--a translation

which has been generally followed in the English version.  In

the Syriac an equivalent word hassino "strong" is found in Job

vi. 4, viii. 3, 5, xi. 7, xiii. 3, xv. 25, xxvii. 2,13, xxix. 5, xxxvii. 23.

     A third derivation is from the relative pronoun (w) and the

word "sufficiency" (yd ).  The Greek i[kanoj  found in Job xxi. 15,

xxxi. 2, xxxix. 32, Ruth i. 20, 21, Ezek. i. 24, comes from this

interpretation.  It also accounts for the usual rendering of shad-

dai in the Samaritan version and in the Arabic version of

Saadya.  The Arabic always renders it Alkafi, "the sufficient,”

and the Samaritan always safuka, except in Num. xxiv. 4, 16,

where it had read sadai (field).

      Our ignorance of the real meaning of the word is further

illustrated by the fact that the Greek translators of the Penta-

teuch invariably render both Shaddai and El Shaddai by qeo<j,

that the translation of Job renders it eight times by ku<rioj, that

the Syriac version renders it twenty-two times by Aloho

(God), and in the Pentateuch usually transliterates it.

      In conclusion, the evidence clearly shows that the Hebrews

who translated the Old Testament, or part of it, into Samaritan,

Syriac, Greek, and Arabic, knew nothing of a god called Shaddai

or of Shaddai as a name for God.  Only in the Greek of Ezek.

i. 24 and in the Syriac of Gen. xvii. 1, xxxv. 11, and Ex. vi. 3

is there any indication that either El Shaddai or Shaddai was

ever considered to be a proper name like Jehovah.

     5. The particle Wau usually means "and."  The meaning

"but" is comparatively seldom the correct one.

     6. Shemi has been taken by most interpreters and trans-

lators as meaning "my name."  The Syriac, however, renders

"the name of," taking the final i as the old nominal ending, as

ynb (Gen. xlix. 11), ylykH (Gen. xlix. 12), yrsx (Gen. xlix

11), ytbng (Gen. xxxi. 39), yncw (Deut. xxxiii. 16), ytyrb


     5 Fifteen times in all. to wit:  v. 17. viii. 5, xi. 7. xv. 25, xxii.17, 25, xxiii

16, xxvii. 2, 11, 13, xxxii. 8, xxxiii. 4, xxxiv. 10, xxxv. 13, xxxvii. 22.

                             NOTES AND NOTICES                             115


Lev. xxvi. 42),6 or else having read but one Yodh where the

Hebrew text now gives two.7

     As to the syntactical relation of the phrase "my name Jeho-

vah" the ancient and modern versions vary.  Some take it as the

preposed object "my name Jehovah did I not make known" (so

the Septuagint, Latin Vulgate, Syriac, and the Targum of

Onkelos) and seem to have read the Niphal as a Hiphil.  The

Samaritan Targum gives a literal rendering.  The AV puts "by”

before "my name" and inserts "the name of" before El Shaddai.

The RV puts ''as'' before El Shaddai and "by" before "my

name."  The RV margin suggests ''as to" before "my name" and omits

"the name of" before "El Shaddai."  The Targum of Jonathan renders

literally except that it explains "and my name Jehovah" as meaning "but

as the face (or presence) of my Shekina."  By this simple interpretation

the Targum of Jonathan, without any change of text, brings the verse

into agreement with the preceding history of the Pentateuch.

     As to the meaning of "name" it can scarcely be held that any

post-captivity writer really thought that the mere sound of the

name itself had never been heard before the time of Moses.  But

the writer of P did think so, it is preposterous to suppose

that the Redactor who put J and P together should have ac-

ccepted P's opinion and then allowed the Jehovah of J to remain


   6 See other examples in Ex. xv. 6, Isa. i. 21, xxii. 16, Ho. x. 11, Ob. 3,

Jer. x. 17, xxii. 23, xxxiii. 20, bis, 25, xlix.16, bis, li.13, Zech. xi.17, Lam. i. l,

iv. 21,  Ezek. xxvii. 3,  Mi. vii. l4,  Pss. ci. 5, cx. 4, cxiii. 5-9, cxiv. 8, cxvi.

1.  See Gesenius-Kautzsch, Hebrew Grammar, §90 l, m, Olshausen, Lehr-

buch, and Ewald Ausfuhrluches Lehrbuch.

     7 That is the original text may have read hy Mw where we now have

hvhy ymw Jehovah was possibly written hy here, as in Isa. xxvi.4, Ps.

lxviii.5, Ex. xv.2 and other places, and the Yodh was read twice.  This

monographic writing where the letter is to be doubled in reading is to be

found on the inscriptions as well as in the Scriptures of the Old Testa-

ment.  It is familiar to all Semitic scholars in the so-called intensive

stems where the second radical is written once and read twice.  E.g

ktl may be read kittel.  So in the Panammu inscription (1.19) bkyk

is to be read Bar-rekab; in Clay's Aramaic Indorsements. Xyuwnb is to be

read read Bana-neshaya.  So, also, in the Spicilegium Syriacum (p. 21),

lbkk is to be read Kokab-Bel, and in Jud. vi.25  ;lxbry is Yerub-Baal.

Massoretic notes also give an example in Lam. iv.16, suggesting that u

should be read twice.  The ancient versions, especially the Septuagint,

afford many cases of this doubling of the letters of the Hebrew text,

e.g., Hos. vi. 3, 2 Chron. xii. 2, Neh. x. 7.



in Genesis as the ordinary name of God.  The Redactor at least,

and the people who accepted his composite work as the work of

Moses, must have interpreted this verse in a sense agreeing with

what had gone before.  Now such sentences as "my name is in

him" (Ex. xxiii. 21), "to put his name there" (Deut. xii. 5),

"for his name's sake" (Ps. lxxi .9), "according to thy name so

is thy praise" (Ps. xlviii. 11), show that the name meant the

power, visible presence, honor, or repute, of the person named.

The Targum of Jonathan explains "my name Jehovah" as "the

face (or presence) of my Shekinah."

     7.  That "knowing" the name of Jehovah means more than

merely knowing the word itself, is apparent from Is. xix. 21,

where we read:  And Jehovah shall be known to Egypt and

Egypt shall know Jehovah in that day.

     The form used here in Ex. vi. 3 may mean: I was known, I

was made known, or I allowed myself to be known.

     8.  Questions in Hebrew and other Semitic languages may be

asked either with or without an interrogative particle.  The fol-

lowing evidence goes to show that the last clause of Ex. vi. 3

might be read "was I not made known to them?"  This interpre-

tation would remove at one blow the whole foundation of the

critical position, so far as it is based on this verse.

     In Arabic "a question is sometimes indicated by the tone of

the voice" (Wright, Arabic Grammar, II, 165); Potest quidem

interrogatio solo tono notari (Ewald, Grammatica Critica Lin-

guae Arabicae, §703).

     In Syriac there is no special syntactical or formal method of

indicating direct questions.  Such interrogative sentences can

only be distinguished from sentences of affirmation by the em-

phasis.  Thus xhlx vh br, may mean "God is great," or "Is God

great?" (Noldeke, Syriac Grammar, §331).  "Il n'existe de par-

ticule Syriaque pour l'interrogation; le phrase interrogative ne

se distingue donc que par la sense general" (Duval, Grammaire

Syriaque, §382).  "Generally, he interrogative is denoted by the

inflection or connection without any particle" (Wilson, Ele-

ments of Syriac Grmamar, §132. 2. ).

     In Ethiopic, the question be denoted by the arrangement

of the words or by the tone; though ordinarily a particle of

interrogation is used (Dillmann, Aethiopische Grammatik,


                             NOTES AND NOTICES                             117


     In Hebrew  "frequently the natural emphasis upon the words

(especially when the most emphatic word is placed at the begin-

 ning of the sentence) is of itself sufficient to indicate an inter-

rogative sentence" (Gesenius-Kautzsch, Hebrew Grammar,

§ I 50). "Ist der Satz im ganzen fragend, so stellt sich das Wort

welches die Kraft der Frage vorzuglich trifft in seiner Reihe

voran; und die 'kraftliche Voranstellung dieses Wortes kann

allerdings in Verbindung mit dem fragenden Tone ohne jedes

Fragwortchen genugen" (Ewald, Ausfuhrliches Lehrbuch,


      As examples of this type of interrogative sentence, the

lowing may be cited: Gen. xviii. 12, After I am waxed old shall

I have pleasure, my lord being old also?  Gen. xxvii. 24, Thou

art my son Esau?  Ex. viii. 22, Should we sacrifice the abomiba-

tion of the Egyptian's before them, would they not stone us? Ex.

ix. 11, As yet exaltest thou thyself against my people, that thou

wilt not let them go?  Ex. xxxiii. 14, Shall my presence go, then

I shall give thee rest? (So Ewald, Gram. §324, and Gesenius,

Gram. §150).  Jud. xi. 23, And shouldest thou possess it?

xiv. 16, Behold I have not told it my father nor my mother, and

shall I tell it thee?  I Sam. xi. 12, Shall Saul reign over us?

xx. 9, If I knew certainly that evil was determined by my father

to come upon thee, then would not I tell it thee?  xxii. 7, Will

the son of Jesse give every one of you fields and vineyards?

xxii. 15, Did I then begin to inquire of God for him? xxiv. 14,

If a man find his enemy, will he let him go well away? xxv. 11,

Shall I then take my bread and my water?  xxx. 8, Shall I pursue

after this troop?  2 Sam. xi. 11, Shall I then go into my horse?

xvi. 17, Is this thy kindness to thy friends? xviii. 29, Is the

young man Absalom safe?  xix. 23, Shall there any man be put

this day in Israel?  xxiii. 5, Verily will he not make it to

grow?  I Kings, i. 24, Hast thou said Adonijah shall reign after

me?  xxi. 7, Dost thou govern the kingdom of Israel? 2 Kings

v. 26,  Went not mine heart with thee?  Hos. x. 9, Shall not the

the against the unjust overtake them in Gibeah?  (Ewald, en-

et al.).  Is. xxxvii. 11, And shalt thou be delivered?  Jer.

xxv. 29, Like a hammer which breaketh the rock in pieces? xlv.

5, And seekest thou great things for thyself?  xlix. 12, And art

thou he that shall go altogether unpunished?  Ezek. xi. 3, Is not

the building of houses near? (Ewald). xi. 13. Wilt thou make



a full end of the remnant of Israel? (Ewald).  xxix. 13, And shall

I be inquired of by you?  xxxii. 2, Art thou like a young lion of

the nations? (Ewald).  Jon. iv. 11, Should I not spare Nineveh?

Hab. ii. 19, Shall it teach?  Zech. viii. 6, Should it also be mar-

velous in my eyes?  Mal. ii. 15, And did not he make one?

Job ii. 9, Dost thou still retain thy integrity?  ii. 10, Shall we re-

ceive good?  x. 9, And wilt thou bring me into dust again?  xiv. 3,

Dost thou open thy eyes? xxxvii. 18,  Hast thou with him spread

out the sky? xxxvii. 18,  Hast thou perceived the breadth of

the earth?  xxxix. 2, canst thou number the months?  xli. 1,

Canst thou draw out Nathan?  Lam. 1. 12, Is it nothing to you,

all ye that pass by?  iii. 38, Out of the mouth of the most high

proceedeth not evil and good?  Neh. v. 7, Do ye exact usury

everyone of his brothet ?

     In view of the exegetical problems which are involved in the

interpretation of this verse, the Versions, both ancient and

modern are of unusual interest.  The following may be cited

     I.  The Greek Septuagint:  And God (o[ qeo<j) spake to Moses

and said to him: I am (the) Lord (ku<rioj)  and he appeared

to Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, being their God, and my name

ku<rioj I manifested not to them.

     2.  The Latin Vulgate:  And spake the Lord (Dominus) to

Moses, saying:  I am the Lord who appeared to Abraham, Isaac

and Jacob, as (in) omnipotent God, and my name Adonai I did

not show (indicavi) to them.

     3.  The Targum of Onkelos:  And spake Jehovah with Moses

and said to him:  I am Jehovah, and I was revealed to Abraham,

to Isaac, and to Jacob as God Almighty (ydw lxb) and my name

Jehovah I did not make known (tyfdvx) to them.

     4. The Targum of Pseudo- Jonathan:  And Jehovah spake

with Moses and said to him: "I am Jehovah who revealed him

self unto thee in the midst of the bush and said to thee, I am

Jehovah, and I revealed myself to Abraham, to Isaac, and Jacob

as an Almighty God. (ydw lxb) and my name Jehovah, but as

the face of my Shekina (ytnykw ypxb) I was not made known

to them.

     5.  The Peshito:  And spake the Lord (Moryo) with Moses

and said to him:  I am the Lord and I appeared to Abraham

and to Isaac and to Jacob as the God El Shaddai (xhlx ydw lyxb)

and the name of the Lord I did not show to them.

                             NOTES AND NOTICES                             119


     6.  The Samaritan Hebrew text agrees with the Hebrew, ex-

cept that it has Jehovah instead of God in verse 2, reads hxrxv

instead of xrxv in verse 3, and adds Wau (and) after Abra-


     7.  The Samaritan Targum is a literal rendering of the He-


     8.  The Arabic of Saadya:  Then spake God to Moses and said

to him:  I am God who named myself to Abraham, Isaac and

Jacob as the Mighty, the Sufficient, and my name is God.

     9. The English version:  And God spake unto Moses and

said unto him: I am the Lord (RV, Jehovah) and I appeared

unto Abraham and unto Isaac and unto Jacob by the name of

(RV, as) God Almighty; but by (RV, or ''as to") my name

Jehovah was I (RV I was) not known (RV or made known)

unto them.

     10.  The Dutch translation:  Then spake God unto Moses and

said unto him:  I am the Lord and I appeared to Abraham, Isaac

and Jacob as God the Almighty; but by my name Lord I was not

known to them.

     11.  Luther's German version:  And God spake with Moses

and said unto him: I am the Lord and I appeared to Abraham,

Isaac, and Jacob that I would be their Almighty God but my

name Lord was not revealed to them.

     On the basis of the investigation of the verse given above the

writer would suggest the following renderings:  And God spake

unto Moses and said unto him; I am Jehovah and I appeared

unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob in the character of

the God of Might (or, mighty God) and in the character of my

name Jehovah I did not make myself known unto them.  Or, if

the last part of the verse is to be regarded as a question, the

rendering should be: And in the character of my name Jehovah

did I not make myself known unto them?  Either of these sug-

gested translations will bring this verse into entire harmony

with the rest of the Pentateuch.  Consequently, it is unfair and

illogical to use a forced translation of Exodus vi. 3 in support

of a theory that would destroy the unity of authorship and the

Mosaic origin of the Pentateuch.


          Princeton.                                                    R. D. WILSON.