Grace Theological Journal 12.1 (Winter, 1971) 18-35.
Copyright © 1961 by Grace Theological Seminary. Cited with permission.
THE LENGTH OF
lSRAEL'S SOJOURN IN EGYPT
JACK R. RIGGS
Associate Professor of Bible
The chronological framework of Biblical events from the time of
Abraham to David rests upon two pivotal texts of Scripture. The first
is I Kings
6:1, which dates the Exodus from
fourth year of Solomon.
The second pivotal date for the Biblical chronology of this period
12:40 which dates the arrival of Jacob's family in
before the Exodus.
The purpose of this paper will be to discuss the problem of the
already suggested, because it has to do with dating events in the cen-
turies prior to the Exodus.
There are at least three possible solutions to the problem of the
of the sojourn was only 215 years. A second solution is the view of 400
years for the sojourn. The third, and final, solution to be discussed is
the idea that 430 years elapsed between the entrance of Jacob and his
The View That The Egyptian
Sojourn Was 215 Years
The most commonly held view of the length
logical notations of Genesis 15:13,
This article was presented as a paper at the Midwestern Section meet-
ing of the
Evangelical Theological Society on
And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed
shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs and shall
serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred -
and Exodus ,
Now the sojourning of the children of
sojourns in both Canaan and
215 years were spent in Canaan and 215 years in
Among the proponents of this view are Anstey,1 Meyer,2 Eadie,3
Alford4 and McDonald.5
Anstey is possibly its leading adherent. He reckons the 430 years
of Exodus 12:40 from Abraham's call to the Exodus, and considers the
400 years of Genesis 15:13 as embracing the same period, but beginning
with the weaning of lsaac.6 According to Anstey the Genesis passage has
to do with the sojourning of Abraham's seed. As he has explained:
Abraham's seed here means Abraham's posterity, viz.,
Isaac from the time that he was weaned and became
Abraham's heir (Gal. -4:5) and Isaac's descend-
Holding to the idea that an oriental child was weaned at age five,
the conclusion is that the 400 years of Genesis 15 began when Isaac was
five years old.8
Adding these five years plus the twenty-five years that elapsed
between Abraham's call and Isaac's birth to the 400 years of Exodus
makes the harmonious chronological scheme.9
Another argument is his interpretation of the phrase "a land
that is not
Genesis 15:13. Since
possessed by Abraham's seed before the conquest under Joshua, then
the 400 years must include both that land and Egypt.10 The interpre-
tation also of McDonald is significant here as he sees the phrase as
appropriately applied to
While no particular country is specified, the appellation
"a land that is not theirs" was, as regards Abraham
and his immediate posterity, more
than it was to
20 GRACE JOURNAL
the time when it was taken possession of by Joshua,
sense a strange (allotria Heb. xi. 9, comp. ac. ii. c),
land, Abraham or his posterity having no possession
in it beyond a place of sepulture, and no fixed dwell-
ing place, whereas in
by royal grant.11
In connection with this Anstey does not see the servitude and
mentioned in the verse as applying to the
skirts the necessity of applying these to the entire four hundred years by
the use of an introversion. In other words he breaks down the passage
so that it is constructed in the following manner:
Know of a surety that
A. thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is
B. and shall serve them;
B. and they shall afflict them;
A. four hundred years. 12
In this construction the two A clauses correspond to each other
and relate to the same event, that is, the whole period of the sojourn-
ing. The two B clauses likewise correspond and are parenthetical and
the servitude in
A third argument used to establish the extent of the sojourn is
the variant readings to the Massoretic text of Exodus 12:40. The Sep-
the Samaritan Pentateuch both include
sojourn. The Septuagint version is as follows:
The sojourning of the children of
hundred and thirty years.
The Samaritan Pentateuch reads:
And the sojourn of the children of
fathers in the
The clause "and in the
"and of their fathers in the
Pentateuch are not supported by any other manuscript evidence.
Anstey finds support in these variants while not contradicting the
Massoretic text. He believes that the Septuagint and Samaritan insertions
. . . agree perfectly with the Hebrew which is fur-
ther elucidated, but in no way modified by them. They
correctly interpret the meaning of the Hebrew text. . . .
But the meaning of the Hebrew is sufficiently clear
without the explanatory addition when the text is prop-
To summarize at this point, the major premise for the 215 year
view is the interpretation of Genesis 15:13 and Exodus 12:40 as referring
to both the
for this is the view that the seed of Abraham, beginning with Isaac, was
to dwell in
a land not their own, which included
time the variant readings of Exodus 12:40 interpret that passage as
bringing the two sojourns into one.
The final support for reckoning the 430 years from Abraham to
Sinai is the implication of Galatians 3:17. This verse, speaking of the
covenant of the law which came many years after the Abrahamic prom-
ise, reads as follows:
Now this I say: A covenant confirmed beforehand by
God, the law, which came four hundred and thirty years
after doth not disannul, so as to make the promise of
The implication of this verse is important to the view under con-
sideration. Fergusson sees this verse as indicating the space of 430
years to be reckoned
. . . from the first solemn sanction and confirmation
of the covenant by God to Abraham. . . and the close
of it was at the giving of the law
This supposed interpretation by Paul of the 430 years is also
considered by Meyer to be an evidence that Paul used the Septuagint at
this point,15 which in turn gives support to that version's interpretation
of Exodus .
It is from the standpoint of the major premise of 430 years for
is calculated. The time from Abraham's call to Jacob's entrance into
to Genesis 21:5 Isaac was born when Abraham was 100 years old or
years after Abraham entered
Isaac was 60 years old (Gen. 25:26) and entered
130 (Gen. 47:9). The total of the figures of 25, 60 and 130 would be
22 GRACE JOURNAL
time span of the
leave a similar amount of time for
In order to demonstrate the validity of
215 years in
eral arguments are put forth, the principal one being the genealogy of
Jochebed. According to Exodus 6:16-20 and Numbers 26:59, Jochebed
daughter of Levi, who went into
who led the
years, she would have to be over 250 years old when Moses was born.
This conclusion is reached by deducting the number of years Levi lived
from the 430 years. Ellicott summarizes the problem as follows:
Amram, grandson of Levi, marries his father's sister
Jochebed (Exod. 6:20; comp. Exod. 2:1; Numb. 26:59).
Now as it appears probable by a comparison of dates
that Levi was born when Jacob was about 87, Levi would
have been 43 when he came into
94 years (Exod. ). Assuming then even that Jochebed
was born in the last year of Levi's life, she must at
least have been 256 years old when Moses was born,
if the sojourn in
Consequently, the 215 year view of the Egyptian sojourn is con-
sidered more reasonable as it does not demand such an inconceivable
age for Jochebed. McDonald, making his deductions from the 215 year
hypothesis, suggests an approximate age of 45 for Jochebed at Moses'
Anstey's Joseph to Moses connection is his further demonstration
of a short Egyptian sojourn. He subtracts the time span from the call
of Abraham to the death of Joseph, 286 years, and the age of Moses at
the Exodus, 80, from his 430 year figure of both sojourns and arrives
at a 64 year interval between Joseph and Moses.18 This time period
would allow for the events that took place between the two men (Exodus
The proponents of this view see no difficulty in harmonizing the
first of all, sees confirmation of the 600,000 male population in the
later notices in Numbers and 26:51.19 He then argues that such
an increase is not beyond comprehension:
Mr. Malthus has shown that with an abundant supply
of food, a given population may continue to double its
numbers in about 15 years, and in favored cases, in
even less time. At this rate of increase the 70 souls
who went down into
years to 2,293,760, which is perhaps about the number
of the entire population including Levites, women and
children; the 600,000 mentioned in Exodus 12 :37, Numb.
and 26:51, would be the adult males.20
Others, such as Moller, have attributed the phenomenal growth
simply to Divine blessing.21
To summarize, the view of a 215 year
of all based upon the idea that the period from the call of Abraham to
the Exodus was 430 years. This idea is derived from the interpreta-
tion and harmonization of Genesis and Exodus . Genesis
is interpreted in reckoning the sojourn of Abraham's seed in a
land not their own from the weaning of Isaac. This interpretation is
further supported by adopting the Septuagint and Samaritan Pentateuch
Exodus , which
include both Canaan and
430 year span.
Within this framework of time, the time of the sojourning in
leaving 215 years for
demonstrated by the genealogy of Jochebed and the short span of years
between Joseph and Moses. At the same time, the increase in the He-
There are, however, several objections to this interpretation.
To begin, while the Genesis passage does clearly indicate that
the 400 year sojourning is to be the experience of Abraham's seed,
yet the verse does not specify the reckoning of this period to begin
A second objection is to the interpretation of the phrase "a land
not their own" in the same passage. While it is true that the Israelites
did not take
possession of the
land was still theirs. The very context of the passage is concerned with
deeding the land to Abraham and his posterity. The land not their own
direct contrast to the
It is also difficult to suppose that in Gen. XV. 13 the
'land not theirs,' in which
and which seems to be contrasted with the land promised
to Abraham, includes both
so different in their relation to Israel.22
24 GRACE JOURNAL
Thirdly the passage refers to servitude and affliction during the
period of the 400 years. The children of Abraham did not serve others
Anstey's introversion of Genesis 12:13 is really a circumnavigation of
the real sense of the verse.24
Keil and Delitzsch have suggested the importance of the passage
By this revelation Abram had the future history of his
seed pointed out to him in general outlines, and was
informed at the same time why neither he nor his de-
scendants could obtain immediate possession of the prom-
ised land, viz., because the Canaanites were not yet
ripe for the sentence of extermination.25
The fourth objection is to the interpretation of Exodus 12:40 as
based upon the variant readings. In refutation of this supporting evi-
dence it may be said the more reliable text is the Massoretic text.26
implication of the Hebrew text is that the residence in
cupied the whole 430 year period. It would certainly be more natural
the time of the departure from
sojourn there than the period elapsed since Abraham entered Canaan.27
While the context of the Galatians passage would seem to support
the idea of 430 years elapsing between Abraham's call and the law, a
possible solution is that Paul may be looking at periods or ages. This
will be discussed later.
The objection, the fifth, here is that support could be rendered
to the 215 year view if it could be determined that Paul used the Sep-
tuagint. In discussing this point, Ridderbos concludes that it is im-
possible to determine Paul's chronological source:
The LXX transmits Ex. in such a way that the
time in which
to 430 years. There is, however, no equivalent for
the words kai en gei chanaan in the Hebrew text. It
is therefore impossible for us to determine whether and
in what sense Paul takes his figure from one or another
of these data.28
Such being the case, the final interpretation of Galatians 3:17
can not be based on the Septuagint. This relieves one from the neces-
sity of supporting a 215 year Egyptian sojourn at this point, or from
facing the definite problem of Paul's use of an inaccurate source.
A sixth objection is the insistence on a strict genealogical re-
cord of Exodus 6:16-20. This is admittedly a difficult problem. Keil
and Delitzsch argue that the genealogical records are very often in-
complete due to missing links. Their argument is as follows:
The genealogies do not always contain a complete enu-
meration of all the separate links, but very frequently
intermediate links of little importance are omitted.29
Keil and Delitzsch then demonstrate this by a comparison of Exo-
dus 6:16-20 with the other genealogies in which more than four genera-
tions between Levi and Moses must have occurred.30 Numbers 26:29ff,
27:1, and Joshua 17:3 show six generations from Joseph to Zelophehad.
Ruth and I Chronicles 2:5, 6 show
six generations from
Nahshon who was a tribal prince in the time of Moses. I Chronicles
lists seven generations from
cant is possibly I Chronicles 7:20 which lists nine or ten generations
from Joseph to Joshua. Keil and Delitzsch significantly have commented:
This last genealogy shows most clearly the impossi-
bility of the view founded upon the Alexandrian version
that the sojourn of the Israelites in
215 years; for ten generations, reckoned at 40 years
each, harmonize veil well with 430 years, but cer-
tainly not with 215.31
Archer sees the same problem, although from a slightly dif-
ferent reckoning. His conclusion is that
. . . ten generations can hardly be reconciled with a
mere 215 years (especially considering the longer life
span of pre-Exodus Israelites), but it fits in very plau-
sibly with an interval of 430 years.32
The genealogy of Jochebed, then, does not support a short so-
journ of 215
Added to this is Thiele's statement:
That some considerable period was involved is clear
from the fact that Joseph before his death saw the chil-
dren of the third generation of both his sons (Gen.
50:23), and that at the time of Exodus Amram and his
brothers were already regarded as founders of clans
26 GRACE JOURNAL
The increase from 70 to approximately one million Hebrews
does in reality militate against the 215 year view. This is the final
objection to the idea. It is certainly admitted that such an increase is
Divinely possible in 215 years. In fact, even in the 430 year view the
Divine blessing of Exodus 1:20 should be cited. Yet, the tremendous
increase of the nation seems more plausible during a 430 year period.
The problem of increase is more paramount with only 215 years of so-
journing. Archer views the problem as follows:
If there were indeed only four generations, then the
rate of multiplication would necessarily have been as-
tronomic. Even if seven generations should be crammed
into the 215 years, there would have had to be an aver-
age of four surviving sons per father.34
In conclusion, from a study of the lines of evidence, an Egyp-
tian bondage of 215 years was highly improbable and unlikely.
The View That The Egyptian
Sojourn Was 400 Years
Rea35 and Hoehner36 favor the position of a 400 year Egyptian
Rea proceeds to establish this idea by first of all accepting the
Septuagint and Samaritan Pentateuch readings of Exodus 12:40. The 430
that verse would thus apply to both
ever, Rea reckons the beginning of this period not from Abraham's call,
Jacob's return from
upon the phrase "the children of
Exodus 12 verse. To quote Rea:
The verse therefore states the length of time which
elapsed from the return of Jacob from
with his children, unto the departure of the Israelites
family from Padan-aram is compared with the exodus
of Moses accompanied by the nation of
odus 12:40, the 430 years cannot cover the entire pa-
triarchal age and the sojourn in
Abraham's arrival in
verse distinctly says "the time that the children of
ham and Isaac.38
Galatians 3:17 is viewed as giving support to this in stating that
the 430 year period began with the confirmation, not the institution, of
the Abrahamic covenant. The last confirmation was made with Jacob in
before the entrance into
The next step is to subtract the intervening time between Jacob's
Canaan and his entrance into
leaves approximately 400 years for the Egyptian sojourn and produces a
harmony of Exodus 12:40 with Genesis 15:13 and Acts 13:19. 20. Com-
menting on Acts 13:19, 20 Rea makes his conclusion as follows:
According to the Apostle Paul, then, the time that the
Israelites spent in
instead of 430 years. The slightly shorter period ac-
cords with the four hundred years of Gen. 15:13 and
almost exactly with the 430 years of Ex. (
itan Pentateuch and Septuagint Versions), thirty-four of
which were spent in
Rea believes that the Acts , 20 chronological note gives
strong support for his view. In dealing with the textual problem con-
nected with this passage, he has chosen the text of the Alexandrian
family, the Latin Vulgate and the Armenian Version and made the follow-
ing translation of the latter half of verse twenty:
He gave them their land for an inheritance--about four
hundred and fifty years. And after these things He
gave them judges until Samuel the prophet.41
This would mean 400 years for the Egyptian bondage. 40 years
for the wilderness journey. and 7 years for the conquest of the land
under Joshua's leadership, making a total of 447 years or "about 450
years" as the text states.
This is of course the alternative to the King James Version.
based on the Byzantine texts, which places the four hundred and fifty
years after the phrase "he gave unto them judges." This positioning
of the figure would tend to indicate that it was meant to apply to the
period of the judges instead of the Egyptian sojourn.42
The first objection to this view is the use of the Septuagint and
Samaritan renderings of Exodus 12:40. As already noted the Massoretic
text is the more reliable text and its rendering of the passage does not
journ in the reference does seem to be contrary to the point of the
28 GRACE JOURNAL
which was to give the years spent in
To make the sojourning run from the return
of Jacob to
to the Exodus on the basis of the use of the appellation "the children
A third objection is the restriction of the beginning of the 430
year period of Galatians 3 to the confirmation of the covenant in Genesis
Jacob returned to
nant to Jacob could very well be seen in Genesis 46 when he entered
to make a great nation of him while in that land. The promise of a
great posterity had its roots in the covenant and consequently its re-
iteration was another confirmation of its provisions. The 430 years
subsequently run from Jacob's entrance into
under Moses' leadership.
In conclusion, this view does not seem to explain adequately the
The View That The Egyptian
Sojourn Was 430 Years
This second most prevalent view simply states the length of
Some of the proponents of this view are Keil and Delitzsch,
Archer,44 Leupold, Toussaint,46 Lenski, 47 Jamieson, Fausset and
Basically, this view takes Genesis 15:13-16; Exodus and
Acts 7:6 in their normal sense. The Genesis 15 passage refers to the
sojourn in a
land not theirs when God has just deeded
Abraham and his seed (cf. 15:7, 18). Along with this it is also noted
Abraham's children did not serve others in
they afflicted by their neighbors in Canaan.50
The 400 years of the passage is to be considered as a rounded
number used in prophetic style51 with the fourth generation reference of
verse 16 denoting the same period of time. Archer has significantly
It is evident that in Abraham's case a generation
was computed at one hundred years, and this was
appropriate enough in view of the fact that Abraham
was precisely one hundred when he became the father
of Isaac. At least four centuries, then, and not a
mere 215 years, would mark the Israelite sojourn in
the foreign land.52
An objection has been raised to the view under discussion be-
cause of the idea of a rounded number being used. The thought is that
such an interpretation could allow too much liberty in the interpretation
of other numbers in the Bible and consequently do damage to the doc-
trine of inspiration.53 However, if it can be shown that the Bible does
use rounded numbers then the doctrine of inspiration is in no way af-
fected.54 Paul, for example, in Acts 13 suggested such a use when he
used the phrase "about the space of" in summarizing the years of the
bondage, the wilderness wanderings and the conquest of
The author of II Samuel rounds off the years of David's reign at 40 and
then explains that the reign was actually composed of 7 years and 6
meration of Job's possessions must have involved the use of rounded
numbers for it would have been trivial for the author to have given an
odd ten or fifty or hundred in /figures running into thousands.55
The Bible then, does contain rounded numbers. The real issue
is determining, mainly by context, the use of such figures in anyone
The normal literal sense of Exodus 12:40, with the Massoretic
preferred, is a 430 year Egyptian sojourn for
The Acts 7:6 passage is evidently a quote of Genesis 15:13. It
reads as follows:
And God spake on this wise, that his seed should sojourn
in a strange land, and that they should bring them into
bondage and treat them ill, four hundred years.
Chadwick sees Peter quoting
. . . plainly and confidently the prediction that the seed
of Abraham should be four hundred years in bondage and
that one nation should entreat them evil four hundred
years. . . .56
A second argument for this view is the support of Acts 13:19, 20.
Following the A. S. V., which is based on B, Aleph, A, and C, the
four best texts according to Westcott and Hort,57 the four hundred and
30 GRACE JOURNAL
fifty years, which preceded the period of the judges, would include the
rounded number of 400 for the Egyptian sojourn. Lenski has arranged
the chronology of the passage as follows:
The round number "about 450 years" covers the time
for the sojourn in
According to Acts 7:6 (Gen. 15:13) 400 years were spent
the desert to
conquering the land which is certainly close to 450
A third argument is the genealogical tables in I Chronicles 7:20-27,
indicating nine or ten generations between Joseph and Joshua. As already
suggested ten generations can hardly be reconciled with a mere 215 years.
From this a fourth argument is derived. The increase of the
Hebrew population from 70 to approximately one million is more plaus-
ible with nine or ten generations in 430 years than with three or four
generations in 215 years. Such an increase in 215 years is very dif-
ficult to comprehend, although it is divinely possible, of course.
Archer has demonstrated the plausibility of the increase in 430
years in the following quotation:
If the sojourn lasted 430 years, then the desired mul-
tiplication would result from an average of three sons
and three daughters to every married couple during the
first six generations, and an average of two sons and
two daughters in the last four generations. At this
rate, by the tenth generation there would be (accord-
ing to Delitzsch, Pentateuch, II, 30) 478,224 sons above
twenty by the four hundreth year of the sojourn, while
125,326 males of military age would still be left over
from the ninth generation. These together, then, would
total 603,550 men at arms.59
The problem in connection with this genealogical consideration is
the genealogical line in Exodus 6:16-20. This is admittedly a difficult
problem. The solution may very well be that there were two men by
the name of Amram in this line.60 Amram, the son of Kohath, was
probably an earlier ancestor of Amram, the father of Moses.
In fact, a simple comparison of this genealogy with Numbers
3:27, 28 will show the impossibility of assuming that the father of Moses
in verse 20 was the son of Kohath mentioned in verse 18. According
to Numbers , 28 the Kohathites were divided (in Moses' time) into
the four branches, Amramites, Isharites, Hebronites, and Uzzielites,
who consisted together of 8,600 men and boys. If divided equally a
fourth, or 2,150 men, would belong to the Amramites. According to
Exodus 18:3, 4, Moses himself had only two sons. Consequently, if
Amram the son of Kohath, and tribal father of the Amramites, was the
same person as Amram the father of Moses, Moses must have had
2,147 brothers and brothers' sons. But this would be absolutely im-
possible and it must be granted that an indefinitely long list of genera-
tions has been omitted between the former and latter descendant of the
Kitchen argues that Exodus 6:16-20 gives the tribe (Levi), clan
(Kohath) and family-group (Amram by Jochebed) to which Moses and
Aaron belong and not their actual parents.62
In connection with this 430 year view, there is the problem of
Paul's statement in Galatians 3:17 which seems to indicate the time
from Abraham to Sinai was 430 years.
Some possible solutions have been suggested. Lenski's sugges-
tion is that the time is an understatement on the part of Paul. His pur-
pose was to convince his opponents the number could have been larger
by understating it.63 This is, however, a very weak argument and
does not fit the exactness that characterizes the Apostle in his writings
A second solution has been given by Jamieson, Fausset and Brown.
The assertion of this view is that the 430 years are to be reckoned from
Jacob to the giving of the law.64 The objection to this view is that the
context of Galatians 3 concerns Abraham and not Jacob.
A more satisfactory solution is the one offered by Toussaint
which is as follows:
Paul here is considering periods of time. The promises
were given during the lives of Abraham, Isaac, and
Jacob. This period of time preceded the giving of the
Mosaic law at Sinai by 430 years, the length of the
sojourn in Egypt.65
As previously discussed, the last recorded confirmation is given
46 when Jacob went down into
corded confirmation to the Exodus 430 years elapsed.
In conclusion, the 430 year view is based upon a normal inter-
pretation of Exodus 12:40 which indicates a 430 year Egyptian sojourn
32 GRACE JOURNAL
ing rounded numbers. This is true also of Acts 13:19, 20 which sum-
marizes the "about" 450 years before the judges.
Further confirmation of this view is the genealogical table of
I Chronicles 7:20-27 which indicates at least nine or ten generations be-
tween Joseph and Joshua, making the increase from 70 to approximately
one million more plausible. The problem of Amram in Exodus 6:16-20
can be answered by the argument of there being two men in that line by
The interpretation of Galatians 3:17 is answered by the sugges-
tion Paul is referring to periods or ages, i. e., 430 years elapsed be-
tween the period of the confirmation of the Abrahamic covenant and the
beginning of the period of the law.
The purpose of this study has been to consider three solutions
problem of the length of
of 215 years and 400 years are rejected as inadequate basically be-
cause of their interpretation of Exodus 12:40, i. e., their acceptance
of the Septuagint and Samaritan Pentateuch readings of the verse in
contra-distinction to the Massoretic text.
The view of 430 years is set forth as the true solution to the
problem, being based upon the better text, the Massoretic, and pro-
perly interpreting the pertinent scripture references in their normal
1. Martin Anstey, The Romance of Bible
Marshall Brothers, 1913), p. 114.
2. H. A. W. Meyer, The Epistle to the
and T. Clark, 1873), p. 167.
3. John Eadie, A Commentary on the Greek Text of the Epistle of
Paul to the Galatians (Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark, 1869), p. 260.
4. Henry Alford, The Greek Testament (
1958), III. IV., 31.
5. Donald McDonald, "Chronology", The Imperial Bible Dictionary.
Ed. Patrick Fairbairn (London: Blackie and Son, 1887), p. 31.
6. Anstey, p. 117.
8. Ibid., p. 114.
9. Ibid., p. 117.
11. McDonald, p. 31.
12. Anstey, p. 127.
13. Ibid., p. 129.
14. James Fergusson, An Exposition of the Epistles of Paul, (Evans-
15. Meyer, p. 167; see also Alford, p. 31.
Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, and Green, 1863), p. 61.
See also Alford, p. 31.
17. McDonald, p. 31.
18. Anstey, p. 124.
19. Anstey, p. 123.
21. Wilhelm Moller, "The Book of Exodus", The International Stand-
ard Bible Encyclopaedia (
Publishing Company, 1957), II, 1965-66.
22. Joseph Agar Beet, Commentary on
Galatians (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1903), p. 89.
25. C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, Biblical Commentary on the Old
pany, 1959), I, 216.
26. Merrill F. Unger, Introductory Guide to the Old Testament.
(Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1951), pp. 144 and
156ff; F. F. Bruce, The Books and the Parchments (Westwood,
lical Studies (Part I), Bibliotheca Sacra, CXII (October-Decem-
ber, 1955), p. 351.
27. Beet, p. 89.
28. Herman Ridderbos, The Epistle of Paul to
the Churches of
1953), p. 136.
29. Keil and Delitzsch, II, 30.
34 GRACE JOURNAL
32. Gleason L. Archer, A Survey of Old Testament Introduction
(Chicago: Moody Press, 1964), p. 212.
33. Edwin R. Thiele, "Chronology, Old Testament," The Zonder-
van Pictorial Bible Dictionary, ed. Merrill C. Tenney (Grand
Rapids; Zondervan Publishing Company, 1963), p. 167. Thiele
argues that it is impossible to give a categorical answer as to
all that is involved in the 430 year sojourn, but then goes on to
imply that on the bases of Galatians 3:16, 17 the sojourn must
have included both Canaan and
34. Archer, p. 212.
35. John Rea, "The Historical Setting of the Exodus and the Conquest"
(Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Grace Theological Seminary,
1958), pp. 80ff.
36. Harold W. Hoehner, "The Duration of the Egyptian Bondage,"
Bibliotheca Sacra, CXXVI (October-December, 1969), pp. 313 -16.
37. Rea, p. 80. Hoehner does not place much stock in either the
Septuagint or Samaritan Pentateuch for chronological notices, but
does comment that the inclusion of "in the
both texts "may point back to some early tradition in the text.
It is somewhat difficult to explain its inclusion except that there
was some sort of early tradition for this reading," pp. 315-16.
38. Rea, p. 80.
39. Hoehner, pp. 313-14.
40. Rea, p. 81. He actually holds that the Egyptian sojourn was 396
years due to the 34 years mentioned above. The number 400 is
an approximate number. Hoehner would see the 400 years as
exact due to the doctrine of inspiration, p. 313.
43. Keil and Delitzsch, I, p. 216.
44. Archer, p. 211.
45. H. C. Leupold, Exposition of Genesis (
burg Press, 1942), p. 486.
46. Toussaint, P.. 72.
47. R. C. H. Lenski, The Interpretation of the Acts of the Apostles
(Columbus, Ohio: The Wartburg Press, 1944), p. 520.
48. Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset and David Brown, Commentary
on the Old and New
lishing House, 1934), p. 330.
49. K. A. Kitchen, Ancient Orient and Old
Inter-Varsity Press, 1966), pp. 52-53.
50. Ibid., See also Rea, p. 136.
51. Keil and Delitzsch, I, 216.
52. Archer, p. 211; See also Leupold, p. 486.
53. Hoehner, p. 313.
54. See the following for listing and discussions of rounded numbers
in the Bible: John J. Davis, Biblical Numerology (Grand
Rapids: Baker Book House, 1968), pp. 51-54; William T.Smith,
"Number, " The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed.
James Orr (
pany, 1957), IV, 2158-69.
55. J. Sidlow Baxter, Explore The Book (
and Scott, 1952), III, 29-30.
56. B. A. Chadwick, "The Book of Exodus," The Expositor's Bible.
W. Robertson Nicoll (
1903), pp. 197. 98.
57. Brooke Foss Westcott and Fenton John Anthony Hort, The New
Testament in the
Original Greek (
Company, 1948, p. 567.
58. Lenski, p. 520.
59. Archer, p. 212.
60. Toussaint, p. 72.
61. Keil and De1itzsch, I, 470.
62. Kitchen, p. 54.
63. R. C. H. Lenski, The Interpretation of
the Galatians, to the Ephesians and to the Philippians (Columbus,
64. Jamieson, Fausset and Brown, p. 330.
65. Toussaint, p. 71.
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