Andrews University Seminary Studies, Spring 1992, Vol. 30, No.1, 3-13.

                  Copyright ©1992 by Andrews University Press.  Cited with permission.




                     THE USE OF MISKAN AND

                'OHEL MO'ED IN EXODUS 25-40



                                    RALPH E. HENDRIX

                                  Institute of Archaeology

                            Berrien Springs, MI 49104-0990


     The previous study1 in this series on miskan and 'ohel mo'ed in

Exod 25-40 concluded that miskan means "dwelling place," that it

concerns a "place" or "site" (similar to the modem noun "camp"),

and that it carries connotations of transience.  It should not be

limited to a specific form or kind of "dwelling" (particularly not

what is implied by the English word "tent" and by the Latin

tabernaculum), since such a usage leads to confusion with 'ohel.

Regarding the phrase 'ohel mo'ed we found that it is a genitival

construct which means "tent of assembly" or "tent of encounter,"

that this was the name of the structure in which the Divine and the

human met, and that the term emphasizes the event rather than the


     The previous study further revealed that Ugaritic parallels to

these two Hebrew terms provide no additional helpful information

beyond what is already known from the Hebrew itself, except

possibly that the Hebrew differentiation between nonsedentary and

sedentary connotations of the words seems to be lost in the

Ugaritic.  I suggested that the reason for this difference in usage

could be the fact that Ugarit was sedentary and urban at the time

the literature we examined was written (MB III [II C) to LB I),

whereas Israel was nonsedentary during the period depicted in the

book of Exodus.


     1Ralph E. Hendrix, "Miskan and 'Ohel Mo'ed:  Etymology, Lexical Definitions,

and Extra-biblical Usage," AUSS 29/3 (1991):213-224.  The author here wishes to

express appreciation to J. Bjonar Storfjell, Richard M. Davidson, and Randall W.

Younker, members of the faculty of the Seventh-day Adventist Theological

Seminary, Andrews University, for their patience in overseeing the preparation of

this and related studies.


4        RALPH E. HENDRIX:  Andrews University Seminary Studies


Finally, we found that by translating both miskan (dwelling

place) and 'ohel (tent) as skene (tent), the LXX has obscured the

difference between the two Hebrew terms, as does the Vulgate in

its use of tabernaculum.  I suggested that perhaps the two terms

were considered to be synonyms by the time of the translation of

the LXX, and that if so, this may be another example of

sedentarization obscuring the terms.

      Building upon this initial etymological analysis, subsequent

study of the MT of Exod 25-40 has revealed that the expressions

miskan and 'ohel mo'ed are discrete and specific; they are not

interchangeable.  The term selected in each case depends on the

literary context in which the term appears.  Miskan is the biblical

writer's expression of choice when the construction or assembling

of the dwelling place is the subject, while 'ohel mo'ed is the

expression of choice when the context is cultic.  Thus the habitation

of YHWH may properly be called the "Cultic Dwelling Place," a

phrase which conveys both aspects of this duality.

     Both past and contemporary structural analyses of Exod 25-40

lack sensitivity to the distinctions between miskan and 'ohel mo'ed.2

This may be due to the application of an external methodology


      2Brevard S. Childs, Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture (Philadelphia:

Fortress Press), 73, d. 100; John I. Durham, Exodus, Word Biblical Commentary,

vol. 3 (Waco, TX: Word Books, 1987), 353, 371 (for examples of scholarly analyses,

see pp. 350-499); and George V. Pixley, On Exodus: A Liberation Perspective, trans.

Robert R. Barr (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1987), xvii.  On terminological

insensitivity, see (chronologically): Julius Wellhausen, Prolegomena to the History of

Ancient Israel, trans. J. Sutherland Black and Allan Menzies (Edinburgh: Adam &

Charles Black, 1885), 44; Baruch A. Levine, "The Descriptive Tabernacle Texts of the

Pentateuch," JAOS 85 (1965): 307-318; U. Cassuto, A Commentary on the Book of

Exodus, trans. Israel Abrahams (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1967), 346, 370; R. Alan

Cole, Exodus: An Introduction and Commentary, vol. 2, Tyndale Old Testament

Commentary (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1973), 52; Charles L. Feinberg,

"Tabernacle," Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, ed. Merrill C. Tenney

(Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1975), 5:572-573; P. J. Kearney, "Creation and Liturgy:

The P Redaction of Ex 25-40," ZAW 89 (1977): 386; Joe O. Lewis, "The Ark and the

Tent," RevExp 74 (1977): 537; Victor (Avigdor) Hurowitz, 'The Priestly Account of

Building the Tabernacle," JAOS 105 (1985): 22; John J. Davis, Moses and the Gods of

Egypt: Studies in Exodus, 2d ed. (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1986), 255; Durham, ix-x;

Pixley, 195; W. Johnstone, Exodus, Old Testament Guides (Sheffield, England: JSOT

Press, 1990), passim; Terence E. Fretheim, Exodus, Interpretation: A Bible

Commentary for Teaching and Preaching (Louisville: John Knox Press, 1991), esp.

263-316; and Nahum M. Sarna, The JPS Torah Commentary: Exodus (New York: Jewish

Publication Society, 1991), esp. 49, 158, 176.

USE OF MISKAN AND 'OHEL MO'ED               5


rather than making use of a literary-structural analysis.3  Under

these circumstances, a terminologically sensitive analysis of Exod

25-40 is timely. The present study is an endeavor to fill this

vacuum for Exod 25-40.  A third (and concluding) article will

present an overview of the literary structure of Exod 25-40, through

which this terminological pattern weaves.4


1. Occurrences of the Terms

Statistical Analysis

     Miskan and 'ohel (most often in the phrase 'ohel mo'ed) are

names of YHWH's habitation which the text of Exod 25-40

indicates Moses was commanded to construct, equip, and

ceremonially prepare for service.  Other appellative expressions for

this habitation either do not occur in chapters 25-40 or occur only

once, whereas miskan and 'ohel occur in reference to the habitation

some fifty-eight times each.5  The present study will be limited to

the contextual usage of these two denominatives.


     3By "external methodology" is meant the type popularized by Julius

Wellhausen in his Prolegomena, and summarized by Edgar Krentz, The Historical-

Critical Method (Philadelphia: Forcress Press, 1975),55-61. This method has mutated

through time (see Douglas A. Knight, "The Pentateuch," in The Bible and Its Modern

Interpreters, ed. Douglas A. Knight and Gene M. Tucker [Philadelphia: Forcress Press,

19851, 265-287), but still retains at least one essential Wellhausian theme: namely, the

etiological nature of the Cultic Dwelling Place of YHWH (Wellhausen, 37: "For the

truth is, that the tabernacle is the copy, not the prototype, of the temple in

Jerusalem").  On this matter, see also (chronologically):  J. Coert Rylaarsdam,

"Introduction to the Book of Exodus," IB (New York: Abingdon Press, 1952) 1:845;

idem, "Exegesis of the Book of Exodus," IB (New York: Abingdon Press, 1952),

1:1027; James Muilenberg, "The History of the Religion of Israel," IDB, ed. G. A.

Buttrick (New York: Abingdon Press, 1962), 308-309; Martin Noth, Exodus: A

Commentary, crans. J. S. Bowden (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1962), 211; Jack

P. Lewis, "Mo'ed," Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, ed. R. Laird Harris,

Gleason L. Archer, Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke (Chicago: Moody Press, 1980), 1:389;

Durham, 352; and Johnstone, 63.

     4Ralph E. Hendrix, "A Literary-Structural Overview of Exod 25-40," AUSS


     5All statistical data are derived from Gerhard Usowsky and Leonhard Rost,

Konkordanz zum Hebraischen Alten Testament (Stuttgart Wurttembergische

Bibelanstalt, 1958).  Hekal (palace, temple) does not occur in Exod 25-40.  Miqdas (holy

precinct), and Bayit (house) in reference to the divine dwelling, each occurs only

once, in Exod 25:8 and 34:26 respectively.

6        RALPH E. HENDRIX:  Andrews University Seminary Studies


     The word miskan (dwelling place) occurs 139 times in the OT.

Of these occurrences, 104 (74.8%) are found in the Pentateuch as

follows:  fifty-eight (55.8%) in Exodus, four (3.9%) in Leviticus, and

forty-two (40.4%) in Numbers, with none in Genesis and

Deuteronomy.  Every occurrence of miskan in Exodus (41.7% of all

OT occurrences) are found in Exod 25-40.

    The word 'ohel (tent) occurs 344 times in the OT.  In the

Pentateuch it is found 214 times in one or another of the

expressions 'ohel (tent), 'ohel mo'ed (tent of meeting), 'ohel

hamiskan (tent over the dwelling place), and 'ohel ha'edut (tent of the

testimony).  It is used in the Pentateuch to refer to a personal tent

forty-seven times (13.7%), with all twenty-three occurrences in

Genesis (6.7%) being of this nature.  It occurs forty-four times in

Leviticus, forty-three (97.7%) of which are in the phrase 'ohel mo'ed.

In Numbers, it occurs seventy-six times, of which fifty-six (73.7%)

are in the phrase 'ohel mo'ed.  Deuteronomy has nine occurrences,

four times (45.4%) either in the phrase 'ohel mo'ed or with this

phrase as its antecedent.

     In Exodus 'ohel without an antecedent appears four times

(6.5%).  It occurs in the phrase 'ohel mo'ed thirty-four times, plus

three more times with 'ohel mo'ed as its antecedent, for a total of

thirty-seven occurrences (59.7% of its Exodus occurrences).  It is

found in the phrase 'ohel al-hamiskan two times, but with twelve

more occurrences with 'ohel in reference to 'ohel al-hamiskan, for a

total of fourteen times (22.5% of the total Exodus occurrences).  In

Exod 33 it is found seven times as the 'ohel of Moses (11.3% of the

Exodus occurrences).  'Ohel ha'edut (tent of the testimony) does not

occur in Exodus.  Thus, in one form or another 'ohel occurs a total

of sixty-two times in Exod 25-40 (29.1% of its OT occurrences).

There are fifty-eight times in Exod 25-40 wherein some form of

'ohel refers to the habitation of YHWH, the most common being

thirty-four occurrences in the phrase 'ohel mo'ed.


The Patterning of the Occurrences

     A sequential listing of the occurrences of miskan and 'ohel

mo'ed in Exod 25-40 reveals a terminological pattern.6  The data in


    6This is S. Bar-Efrat's "verbal level," as suggested in "Some Observations on

the Analysis of Structure in Biblical Narrative," VT 30 (1980): 157.                  

USE OF MISKAN AND 'OHEL MO'ED                         7


the Table on page 8 (derived from Lisowsky and Rost)7 make it

apparent that the use of miskan continues uninterrupted (nineteen

times) from Exod 25:9 through 27:19.  Then in Exod 27:20, the

beginning of a second terminological unit is evidenced by an

abrupt shift to 'ohel mo'ed, a term which continues through to Exod

33:7 (seventeen occurrences in all).8  In Exod 35:1-39:43 we find a

third termi-nological unit, one that is "predominantly miskan."  In it,

miskan occurs twenty-two times while 'ohel mo'ed occurs five times.

Finally, a fourth terminological unit constitutes a "mixed" miskan

and 'ohel mo'ed passage encompassing Exod 40:1-38.  Here miskan

occurs seventeen times and 'ohel mo'ed twelve times.

     The terminological structure of miskan and 'ohel mo'ed in Exod

25-40 consists therefore of four compositional units:  miskan only,

'ohel mo'ed only, predominantly miskan, and mixed miskan and 'ohel

mo'ed expressions.  Why is this so?


2. Explanations and Solutions

     Among the scholarly analyses noted, only that of G. V. Pixley

acknowledges a terminological aspect of the text.  He does so,

however, only once and without explanation.9  I suggest that it is

the literary context in which each of these expressions is used that

provides the key to understanding the terminological structure.  A

broad study of the literary structure of Exod 25-40 will be

presented in a forthcoming article; however, the overview that will

be given therein is not necessary in order for us to analyze here the

contextual usages of miskan and 'ohel mo'ed.10


"Miskan Only" Terminological Unit

(Exod 25:9-27:19) I


      Miskan (occurring nineteen times) is the only term used to

name the habitation of YHWH in the text of Exod 25:9-27:19.  This


      7Lisowsky and Rost, 30-33, 873-874.

      8Pixley, 199.

      9See specific references in Cole, Durham, Fretheim, Hurowitz, Johnstone,

Kearney, Joe O. Lewis, Noth, and Rylaarsdam mentioned in n. 2, above.  See also

Pixley, 199, and Sarna, 176, regarding the shift from miskan to 'ohel mo'ed in Exod


     10This article is scheduled for publication in the next issue of AUSS.

8        RALPH E. HENDRIX:  Andrews University Seminary Studies


Occurrences of Miskan and 'Ohel Mo'ed in Exodus 25-40

Miskan 'Ohel Mo'ed                 Miskan 'Ohel Mo'ed

"Miskan Only"                                      "Predominantly Miskan"

25:9                                                      35:11

26:1                                                           :15

     :6                                                          :18               35:21

     :7                                                     36:8

     :12                                                      :13

     :13                                                        :14

     :15                                                        :20

     :17                                                        :22

     :18                                                        :23

     :20                                                        :25

     :22                                                        :27

                  :23                                                       :28

     :26                                                        :31

     :27                                                        :32

                 :27                                                        :32

     :30                                                                           38:8

     :35                                                   38:20

  27:9                                                        :21

     :19                                                       :21



39:32                      :32


     :40                     :40


"'Ohel Mo'ed Only.                                Mixed Terminology

27:21                                        40:2                       :2

28:43                                             :5

29:4                                               :6                       :6

    :10                                             :7

    :11                                             :9

    :30                                             :12

    :32                                             :17

                            :42                                            :18

    :44                                             :19

30:16                                             :21

    :18                                             :22         :22

      :20                                           :24         :24

      :26                                           :26

      :36                                           :28

31:7                                               :29         :29

33:7                                               :30

     :7                                              :32


     :34         :34

     :35         :35



USE OF MISKAN AND 'OHEL MO'ED               9


passage is part of a slightly larger section (Exod 25:1-27:19), the

content of which consists of commands for constructing the

dwelling:  its size, pattern, and materials.  This section also details

the physical arrangements of the dwelling:  an ark (throne), a table

(for eating), a lampstand (for light), an audience chamber and

private compartment, an altar (kitchen), and a courtyard (public

area).  All of these elements were common to dwellings in general,

and thus the writer's use of miskan is not surprising.


"'Ohel Mo'ed Only" Terminological Unit

(Exod 27:20-34:35)

      In Exod 27:20, there is a change of context which witnesses an

abrupt shift in denominatives. Exod 27:21 contains the first instance

of the use of the term 'ohel mo'ed.  This phrase, which occurs

seventeen times, is used exclusively for the divine habitation in

Exod 21:20-33:7.

     Whereas the literary context of miskan was about construction,

the literary context of 'ohel mo'ed appears to involve the function of

the cult of YHWH.  Exod 27:20-21 concerns the cultic function and

use of oil in the liturgy.  Exod 28:1-43 concerns the priests, their

garments (ephod, breastpiece, robe, turban, tunic, and under-

garments), along with the time and manner of their function in the

cult.  Exod 29:1-46 describes the process of consecrating and

dressing the priests.  It also speaks of offerings (sin, burnt, and

wave); ordination; and the continuous, "daily" burnt offering. Exod

30:1-10 concerns the incense altar: its placement, use, and

perpetuity, but these verses do not give evidence of either name for

YHWH's habitation.  Exod 30:11-31:18 concerns atonement money,

the priests' wash basin, the anointing oil, incense, the providential

provision of craftsmen, and the sabbath(s).  Where an expression

naming the habitation of YHWH is found in each of these literary

subsections of Exod 27:20-33:7, the term is exclusively 'ohel mo'ed.

In this cult-functional context, the biblical writer chose 'ohel mo'ed

rather than the previously used miskan.

     Because of the cult-functional use of 'ohel mo'ed, this phrase

continues into the four narratives of Exod 32-34.  It occurs twice in

Exod 33:7, in the narrative of the Theophany in Moses' Tent.  In the

preceding narrative about the Golden Calf and in the subsequent

two narratives about the Theophany on the Mountain and the

Episode of the Second Tablets, the phrase does not occur.  Thus,

although the phrase is used only twice, and this in conjunction

10      RALPH E. HENDRIX:  Andrews University Seminary Studies


with only the second narrative, all four narratives are apparently

cultic and may be considered as being in a cult-functional context.


Predominantly Miskan Terminological Unit

(Exod 35:1-39:43)

     The suggested term-context association seen in the first two

terminological units appears straightforward. Individual expres-

sions are used in clearly definable literary contexts.  However, the

two mixed terminological units found in Exod 35:1-39:43 and 40:1-

38 provide both a challenge to, and vindication of, the term-context

relationship suggested in this study.  We find within the literary

structure of Exod 35:1-39:43 that miskan occurs twenty-two times,

while 'ohel mo'ed occurs five times.  For convenience, it is designated

as a "predominantly miskan" terminological unit.

     Exod 35:1-36:7 relates to the construction of the equipment of

the habitation (which explains the presence miskan), but it also

includes the mention of the cult function (hence the presence of

ohel mo’ed in Exod 35:21).  Miskan is used three times in the

construction context; 'ohel mo'ed occurs once, in a cult-function


     Exod 36:8-38:20 is an "assembly" passage which parallels the

"command" passage in Exod 25:8-31:18.  It primarily concerns

construction. Thus the writer uses miskan, except in Exod 38:8,

where the concern is cult-functional (necessitating the use of 'ohel

mo'ed).  Miskan is used thirteen times, in construction contexts; and

'ohel ma'ed is used once, in a cult-function context.

     Exod 38:21-31 concerns the metal used in constructing

components of the habitation.  Here miskan occurs three times in

construction contexts, and 'ohel mo'ed occurs once in the context of

the bronze altar.  This is the altar of burnt offering (the incense altar

was gold) and may be considered as cult-functional.

    Finally, Exod 39:1-43, the "assembly" parallel to the Exod 28:1-

43 "command" section, concerns the priestly garments, ephod,

stones, breastpiece, robe, tunic, and plate/turban. Here, however,

the emphasis is not on the cultic function of this equipment, but on

its construction.

     Apparent exceptions to this construction context are Exod

39:32 and 39:40, where both miskan and 'ohel mo'ed are found in the

same literary phrase.  The two verses are worded in the Hebrew in

such a way as to be rendered in English as "the dwelling place of

USE OF MISKAN AND 'OHEL MO'ED               11


the Tent of Assembly."11  Here the context is still construction:

namely, the construction of the dwelling place of the Tent of

Meeting.  Up to this point, miskan has been used solely in reference

to YHWH's Dwelling Place.  But just as 'ohel can refer to other tents

besides YHWH's, so too can miskan simply mean a "dwelling

place."  Here it is consistent with the previous differentiation of

terms for miskan to mean "dwelling place" as a reference to the

dwelling place of the 'ohel mo'ed.


The Combined Miskan and 'Ohel Mo'ed Context

(Exod 40:1-38)

      The fourth unit, Exod 40:1-38, exemplifies the combined miskan

and 'ohel mo'ed context.  Here miskan occurs seventeen times and

'ohel mo'ed twelve times.  The terminological distinction is much

more narrow (as an "assembly" context might require); however,

the same constructional and cult-functional usages are detectable.

Exod 40:1-8 concerns the assembling of the whole Cult-

Dwelling from component parts.  Although the cult articles are

mentioned, this is in the context of construction.  Hence miskan

occurs once as the Dwelling Place of YHWH, and it also occurs

twice as the "dwelling place" of the Tent of Meeting (in genitival

construct).  'Ohel mo'ed occurs alone only in Exod 40:7, in the

context of the placement of the priests' wash basin--clearly a cultic

object that pertains to cult-function.

     Exod 40:9-16 concerns the command to anoint the miskan, its

furnishings, the altar of burnt offerings and its utensils, and the

wash basin and stand, as well as the priests. That this is clearly

cult-functional (as the term "anoint" suggests) is verified by the

presence of 'ohel mo'ed.  Here the command to anoint the miskan

may seem troublesome unless one allows for its generic meaning

"dwelling place."  The apparent problem is resolved, however, if

one reads miskan as the "dwelling place" of the Tent of Assembly,

rather than as the "Dwelling Place" of YHWH.

     Exod 40:17-33 concerns the placement of certain objects.  Miskan

is the primary term of the passage where it refers to the Dwelling


       11My translation.  Exod 39:32 is simply a genitival construct wherein miskan is

in the construct state and 'ohel mo'ed is its genitive: "dwelling place of the Tent of

Assembly."  Exod 39:40 is not a genitival construct, but 'ohel mo'ed is preceded by the

dative prefix le, which may carry the genitival idea "of" and therefore retains the

same meaning and translation in Exod 39:40 as in Exod 39:32.

12      RALPH E. HENDRIX:  Andrews University Seminary Studies


Place of YHWH (v. 17) and the typical dwelling furniture therein

(vv. 18-21).  In vv. 22-24, a very close association of miskan and 'ohel

is witnessed; however, this is not in actual or effective genitival

construct as before, but rather in a literary association with

theological import:  YHWH's dwelling furniture (table and

lampstand) are placed in the structure that is called by its cult-

functional name!  This suggests that the act of placing the furniture

was considered by the biblical writer to be cultic, not

constructional.  In other words, there is more to the placing of this

particular furniture than merely mimicking what is done with

household furniture.  The text, in mid-sentence, explicitly unites the

constructional and cult-functional aspects of the Cult-Dwelling:

YHWH both dwells and conducts cultic placement of furniture in

a single physical structure.  Thus there is one Structure with two


     In v. 29, the same genitival construct relationship is witnessed

as before: "the dwelling place of the Tent of Meeting," a

construction context.  In vv. 30-32, straightforward cult-functional

contexts (concerning the washing of the priests) use 'ohel mo'ed

without difficulty for the reader.  Finally, in v. 33, the writer

switches back to miskan in the constructional context of putting up

the curtain around the courtyard.

     Exod 40:34-38, the final passage of Exod 25-40, exhibits the

closest literary relationship between miskan and 'ohel mo'ed found

in this study up to this point.  Here the subject is the indwelling of

YHWH in the Cult-Dwelling.  As one might expect in the light of

YHWH's roles, the indwelling occurs simultaneously in the miskan

and the 'ohel mo'ed, since both are dual aspects of one single

physical entity.  The terms remain connotatively distinct while

referring to the same physical Structure.  The Glory of YHWH

resides inside the miskan, while the Cloud hovers above the

entrance of the 'ohel mo'ed.


3. Summary and Conclusions

      Four terminological units occur within the basic literary

structure of Exod 25-40.  This terminological "axis" has generally

been overlooked by scholars, resulting in an insensitivity to the

discrete and separate connotations of miskan and 'ohel mo'ed.  By

tracing the terms along the terminological axis through the literary

structure, this study has suggested that miskan is used in

constructional contexts, primarily associated with commands to

USE OF MISKAN AND 'OHEL MO'ED               13


manufacture and assemble the Dwelling Place of YHWH, but

secondarily in its generic sense as simply "dwelling place."  The

phrase 'ohel mo'ed appears in literary contexts where the cultic

function of the habitation is the concern.

     This relationship between the context and the precise term that

is used suggests intentionality:  i.e., particular terms are used in

particular contexts.  Specifically, what is suggested by the usage is

that the biblical writer wished to associate miskan with construction

contexts and 'ohel mo'ed with liturgical, cult-functional contexts.

When writing about the command to construct a dwelling and to

establish the cult, the writer could easily use the discrete terms

separately.  The writer dealt first with one subject (construction),

and used an appropriately "constructional" name for the structure.

In dealing with the second subject (cult-function), the writer used

a totally distinct, but equally appropriate expression.  We must

realize that the writer was distinguishing dual, yet discrete, aspects

of a single physical reality.

      When describing the assembly process, these discrete

denominatives are used in close association, but not necessarily

synonymously. Even though the two terms occur at times in a

single paragraph or sentence, it is always with discrete conno-

tations.  This is evident in the two terminological units where

miskan and 'ohel mo'ed occur separately, and it is discernibly

consistent in the latter two terminological units, where, in tightly-

worded texts, the terms are in close association.

     Thus, in all contexts within Exod 25-40 the biblical writer has

masterfully controlled the use of miskan and 'ohel mo'ed in order to

clarify the dual nature of YHWH's habitation.  That habitation was

to be understood as a transient dwelling place, such as was

consistent with the dwelling places of nomadic peoples; therefore

the choice of miskan.  But yet, that habitation also had the

continuing function of fostering the cultic relationship, and this

aspect was best expressed by the choice of 'ohel mo'ed.  


This material is cited with gracious permission from:

Andrews University Seminary Studies

SDA Theological Seminary
Berrien Springs
, MI 49104-1500

Please report any errors to Ted Hildebrandt at: