Exodus Part II: Sabbath?
Why do we keep 9 out of 10 commandments?
Compare Ex. 20:11 (creation basis) and Deut. 5:15 (deliverance from Egypt basis).
Renunciation of work as master
Role model—God rested
Num 15:34ff Stick gatherer slain-Acts 5; Rom 14:5 grace
Emmanuel concept: Ex. 25:8
“Then have them make a sanctuary for me, and I will dwell among them.”
Heaven on earth? Return to Garden of Eden?
More tenting with his people
On 3 things in/with the ark
Exod 21:22f on fetus as human?
Woman injury -- punishment – eye for eye—lex talionis—case law/apodictic law
Premature birth -- with baby injury -- pay fee
Implications for fetus as human?
Does intent have any effect?
Is the point here abortion?
Leviticus: Be holy as I am
Is religion uniquely personal with few external requirements?
What is the “cult” in OT?
Importance of externals, approach and presence
What in life is secular and what is sacred?
What things are secular to you?
What things are sacred to you?
Leviticus=Whole of person’s life lived out in presence of God
What does holiness mean?
Key verse: Lev 19:2 “Be holy because I, the LORD your God, am holy (1 Pet 1:15f)
Root idea = totally other, sui generis separateness/distinctness/uniqueness/special
Separateness does not = remoteness
Isa 57:15 What does “contrite” mean?
Does holiness mean we should be afraid of Him?
Holy Dread: covering emphasis: Isa 6:
Holiness in action?
Holiness moves to the selection of a special people
Exod 19:6 “you will be for me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.”
Can we make something holy?
Remember Sabbath to keep it holy; (Exod 20:8,11)
Sanctify something = make it holy (separate it, set it apart); special things
What types of things can be holy?
Olive Oil (Exod 30:25)
Incense (Exod 30:35)
Exod 3:5 holy ground
Holy of holies place (Lev 16:16f)
Temple (Hab. 2:20)
Holy Mountain (Ps 2:6)
Sabbath (Exod 20:8,11)
Feasts (Lev 23)
What happens when holy things violated?
Nadab & Abihu: Lev 10:1-3; Uzzah (2 Sam 6:6f) touches ark; King Uzziah (2 Chr 26:19) leprosy
How are things made holy?
Designation / sanctified / set apart for special purpose
Transmission of holiness: touch + oil
Touch altar = holy (Exod 29:37)
—Jesus Mt 9:20ff unclean woman
Why is a pig unclean? Why is a cat fish unclean? Why is a woman unclean after childbirth? (Lev 12:2) Why is married couple unclean after relations? (Lev 15:18) Why was a priest with deformed hand not allowed to serve? (Lev 21:5f; 17ff)
Totally arbitrary: because I said so
Yukkiness view (wholeness view)
How do you eat Kosher?
Land animals (Lev 11)
Rabbits chewing cud (Lev. 11:6)
Bats are not birds (Lev. 11:19)
Prohibition against homosexual
behavior: Lev. 18:22; 20:13;
(cf. 1 Cor. 6:9; 1 Tim. 1:10; Rom. 1:26f)
Sacrifices: Why are there so many types of sacrifices
Aspects of sin
God’s anger -- propitiation
Pollution -- purification
Guilt/shame -- atonement
Damage done -- reparation
Communion broken -- community confession and restoration
5 Types of Sacrifices
Whole burnt offering (Lev 1)—morning/evening
Sin/purification offering (status order: priest, community, leader, commoner, poor Mary) (Lev 4)
Reparation/Trespass/Guilt offering (Lev 5)
Fellowship/Peace offering (freewill, vow, thanksgiving) (Lev 7)
Cereal/Grain offering (Lev 2): oil, salt, no yeast
5 Feasts of Israel: spring/fall
Philosophy // seasons
Spring – wheat/barley
Passover/unleavened bread (Lev 23)
Feast of weeks (Pentecost; Acts 2) gleaning
Feast of trumpets: Rosh Hasannah
Day of Atonement: Yom Kippur
Feast of Tabernacles: Sukkot
Other special times:
Sabbath (Exod 20:8-11);
Sabbatical year (Lev 25:1-7;Deut 15:1-7]
Jubilee (Lev 25)—return to family land
Purim – Esther (usually March)
Hanukkah – Maccabees-Jn 10:22