Exodus Part II:    Sabbath?

Why do we keep 9 out of 10 commandments?

Compare Ex. 20:11 (creation basis) and Deut. 5:15 (deliverance from Egypt basis).

Remembrance principle

Rhythm/cycles principle

Renunciation of work as master


Role model—God rested


Num 15:34ff Stick gatherer slain-Acts 5;  Rom 14:5 grace


Emmanuel concept: Ex. 25:8
“Then have them make a sanctuary for me, and I will dwell among them.”

Heaven on earth? Return to Garden of Eden?

More tenting with his people








On 3 things in/with the ark

Exod 21:22f on fetus as human?

Woman injury -- punishment – eye for eye—lex talionis—case law/apodictic law

Premature birth -- with baby injury -- pay fee

Implications for fetus as human? 

Does intent have any effect?

Is the point here abortion?


                                    Leviticus:  Be holy as I am

External Religion?

Is religion uniquely personal with few external requirements?

What is the “cult” in OT?

Importance of externals, approach and presence

What in life is secular and what is sacred?

What things are secular to you? 

What things are sacred to you?

Leviticus=Whole of person’s life lived out in presence of God

What does holiness mean?

Key verse:  Lev 19:2  “Be holy because I, the LORD your God, am holy  (1 Pet 1:15f)

Root idea = totally other, sui generis separateness/distinctness/uniqueness/special

Isa 40:25:  

Separateness does not = remoteness

Isa 57:15  What does “contrite” mean?

Does holiness mean we should be afraid of Him?

Holy Dread:  covering emphasis:   Isa 6:    

Holiness in action?

Holiness moves to the selection of a special people

Exod 19:6  “you will be for me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.”

Can we make something holy? 

Remember Sabbath to keep it holy; (Exod 20:8,11)

Sanctify something = make it holy (separate it, set it apart);  special things

What types of things can be holy?

Holy Things: 

                Olive Oil (Exod 30:25)

                Incense (Exod 30:35)

       Holy places

                Exod 3:5  holy ground

                Holy of holies place (Lev 16:16f)

Temple (Hab. 2:20)

                Holy Mountain (Ps 2:6)

         Holy days

                Sabbath (Exod 20:8,11)

                Feasts (Lev 23)

What happens when holy things violated?

                Nadab & Abihu:   Lev 10:1-3; Uzzah (2 Sam 6:6f)  touches ark; King Uzziah (2 Chr 26:19) leprosy

How are things made holy?
                Designation / sanctified / set apart for special purpose
                Transmission of holiness:   touch + oil     
                                Touch altar = holy (Exod 29:37)
                                —Jesus Mt 9:20ff unclean woman

Holiness chart

        Sanctify                      Cleanse

Holy                         Clean                        Unclean

        Profane                      Pollute/Defile

Purity Laws

Why is a pig unclean? Why is a cat fish unclean? Why is a woman unclean after childbirth? (Lev 12:2) Why is married couple unclean after relations? (Lev 15:18) Why was a priest with deformed hand not allowed to serve? (Lev 21:5f; 17ff)

Purity Explanations

Totally arbitrary:  because I said so

Cultic/culture explanation

Hygenic explanation

Yukkiness view (wholeness view)

How do you eat Kosher?

Land animals (Lev 11)

Sea creatures

Flying creatures—death/blood


3 problems

Rabbits chewing cud (Lev. 11:6)

Bats are not birds (Lev. 11:19)

Prohibition against homosexual behavior: Lev. 18:22; 20:13;
(cf. 1 Cor. 6:9; 1 Tim. 1:10; Rom. 1:26f)

Sacrifices: Why are there so many types of sacrifices

Aspects of sin

God’s anger -- propitiation

Pollution -- purification

Guilt/shame -- atonement

Damage done -- reparation

Communion broken -- community confession and restoration

5 Types of Sacrifices

Whole burnt offering (Lev 1)—morning/evening

Sin/purification offering (status order: priest, community, leader, commoner, poor Mary) (Lev 4)

Reparation/Trespass/Guilt offering (Lev 5)

Fellowship/Peace offering (freewill, vow, thanksgiving) (Lev 7)

Cereal/Grain offering (Lev 2): oil, salt, no yeast

5 Feasts of Israel:  spring/fall

Philosophy // seasons

Spring – wheat/barley

Passover/unleavened bread (Lev 23)

Feast of weeks (Pentecost; Acts 2) gleaning


Feast of trumpets: Rosh Hasannah

Day of Atonement: Yom Kippur

Feast of Tabernacles: Sukkot

Other special times:
                Sabbath (Exod 20:8-11);
                Sabbatical year (Lev 25:1-7;Deut 15:1-7]
                Jubilee (Lev 25)—return to family land
                Purim – Esther (usually March)
                Hanukkah – Maccabees-Jn 10:22