Criswell Theological Review 3.1 (1988) 185-97.

          Copyright © 1988 by The Criswell CollegeCited with permission.    




                     A REVIEW ARTICLE


                  ON THE BOOK OF JOHN




                                          JOHN A. BURNS

                             Criswell College, Dallas, TX 75201



            The Fourth Gospel will soon be the object of Bible study in many churches.

The purpose of this article is to give some hints about the study of the Gospel

            In addition to the direct study of the Gospel's text and the use of

commentaries, there are other considerations in preparing to teach the Fourth

Gospel. The theology of this Gospel emphasizes the importance of signs and

the predominance of glory. Robert Cook's Theology of John and W. F.

Howard's Christianity According to St. John will assist the student in the

theological content of the book.

            A number of themes could be profitably studied in this Gospel, such as its

Jewish background, omissions in the book, the role of John the Baptist, the

Second Exodus theme--and Jesus as the "new Moses," controversy with the

Jews, the Graeco-Roman background of John (e.g., logos, cosmos), the Upper

Room Discourse, worship patterns, apologetic patterns, Jesus' Sonship and

related personal titles, witness in the Fourth Gospel, and truth in this Gospel.

            There are a number of volumes and articles which will assist in the

literary study of the Fourth Gospel. Literary communication takes notice of

the three aspects of the message: the author's literary intention, the written

"signals" and the mindset of the original receivers of this message. It should

not be overlooked that the text of Scripture may have a range of secondary

purposes. Three books which will introduce the student to the literary study

of John are R. A. Culpepper's Anatomy of the Fourth Gospel, P. D. Duke's

Irony in the Fourth Gospel, and L. Ryken's How to Read the Bible as

Literature. A more advanced study in this vein is B. Olsson's Structure and

Meaning in the Fourth Gospel. A helpful general introduction to literary study-

will be found in Literary Approaches to Biblical Interpretation by T. Long-

man III.

            For the student who has no facility with the Greek of the NT, a number

of helps ate available. There are word study helps like A. T. Robertson s

Word Pictures in the New Testament, H. Alford's New Testament, M. Vin-

cent's Word Studies, and the emphasis on word meanings in Barclay's well



known set of commentaries. Those who are adventuresome enough to read

between the lines of Greek and benefit from the English explanations will

greatly profit from the use of such recent commentaries as C. K. Barrett's

masterful The Gospel According to St. John or well known standards like

B. F. Wescott's The Gospel According to St. John. If you can find your way

through theological divergences, you may wish to consult Brown's two

volumes in the Anchor bible or Schnakenburg's three-volume set; both sets

are by Roman Catholic authors. The two-volume commentary by Haenchen

provides, in addition to textual study, an excellent and nearly exhaustive

bibliography at the close of each section. The works of E. C. Hoskyns and

C. H. Dodd still exert great influence.

            A more exhaustive study of key words can be made by using a concor-

dance such as Young's or Strong's, and then consultation of G. W. Bromiley's

translation of Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, edited by Kittel

and Friedrich (either the one-volume abridgement or the full ten-volume

set). Brown's New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology

(3 volumes) can be utilized in thematic study when used with the Scripture

Index to the New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology by

D. Townsley and R. Bjork. It has over 1,250 references to locations in the

three-volume set. Concerning the Fourth Gospel, additional help may be had

from Trench's Synonyms of the New Testament and Earle's Word Meanings

in the New Testament. A model of such doctrinal study can be found in

M. Tenney's volume Galatians, the Charter of Christian Liberty where he

employs several methods of Bible study.

            Whenever the student looks for background studies on John, articles in

the Zondervan Pictorial Bible Dictionary and the more recent International

Bible Encyclopedia (vol. 2) will give a thorough grasp of the development of

this Gospel, its characteristics, authorship, date, relationship to the other

Gospels, and purpose. Alternative solutions to critical questions are proposed

in both works. Seminal studies in this Gospel may be found in W. Graham

Scroggie's Guide to the Gospels and in Morris' Studies in the Fourth Gospel.

An example of a detailed study is to be found in Bargen's Bread from

Heaven, an exegetical study of the concept of Manna in this Gospel. A recent

doctrinal study of interest is Gruenler's The Trinity in the Gospel of John.

Even if one does not share all the author's conclusions, this study points one in

the direction of how John can be studied doctrinally.

            When looking for devotional studies in this Gospel, the reprint of J. C.

Macaulay's Expository Commentary provides a homiletical outline in each of

its 57 chapters and includes helpful illustrations. M. Boice has a multi-volumed

expositional set on John. The material is largely homiletical and often evange-

listic; the reader is challenged spiritually in each chapter. A helpful example

of the devotional-expositional method is presented in the reprint of Rainsford's

work on John 17, Our Lord Prays for His Own. This book of 476 pages is

profitable for study and private meditation.

            Of course, it is best to study any book of the Bible by direct study of the

text, with appeal to reference works whenever necessary. Concordances,

Bible dictionaries, word study helps, volumes dealing with geography, his-


torical background, and biblical customs will greatly enhance the first-hand

study of the Word of God. Once these resources have been used, it is time to

open up new lines of study and to provide confirmation through the employ-

ment of commentaries and periodical articles selected from an Index to

Religious Periodical Literature. At times, a study guide like those on John by

Jensen or Kysar will reinforce the unity of the book studied.

            The following four commentaries have been specifically chosen for dis-

cussion because they are usable by everyone, their cost is not prohibitive,

they have verse-by-verse exposition of the Greek text, and they are not

conditioned by severe and unsympathetic methodologies that are destructive

to confidence in the Bible. It needs to be emphasized that there are many

books and commentaries that are useful to a certain readership, some of them

are extremely technical, others, purposefully simplistic in their treatment of

the Gospel of John. These four selected books have extensive bibliographies

which will guide the advanced student for further study.

G. R. Beasley-Murray, John. Word Bible Commentary. Vol. 3. Waco:

Word, 1987.

            The academic exposure under which the author grew (Dodd, Gardner-

Smith), his reading sources (Hoskyns, Schlatter, Brown, Bultmann and Barrett),

and the range of his preparation (attested by the tables of abbreviations) give

promise of a most useful commentary.

            His introduction of 60 pages deal with the usual matters related to the

nature of this Gospel, its origin in literature, tradition and religion, authorship,

date and place of writing, its theology, purpose and structure. The author

gives us the benefit of his study of a wide range of writers. His observations

regarding the relation of the terms "sign" and "work" are informative (p. xi)

as is his discussion of sources surrounding this Gospel and its preaching

(p. xlii) by the whole church (p. xliv).

            The authorship of the Gospel is in Beasley-Murray's mind anonymous,

the uncertainty of identity not affecting the authority of the message. He

refers to the unknown Beloved Disciple as the messenger of a tradition which

began in Jerusalem and gradually took shape in other geographic areas.

            Beasley-Murray’s position that in addition to Christology, the theology of

the book features soteriology and eschatology is well taken and ably demon-

strated, including a suggestive list of 22 ways in which Jesus is confessed and

described in John's Gospel. Beasley-Murray's interest centers more on the

eschatological contents of John's Gospel than its soteriology. His treatment

of the structure lacks theological cohesion, being built around three features:

the Prologue, the Public Ministry of Jesus, and the Passion and Resurrection

of Jesus. Each sub-segment of the outline carries a well-chosen special


            There are 25 sections in the commentary. Each section begins with a

specific, detailed bibliography and is followed by a fresh translation of the

verses in that segment. The reader will not always agree with certain points in

translation. It would be best to compare any verse in question with other

translations and other commentaries. A case in point is John 1:4 where

Beasley-Murray's translation is, "What has come into being had its life in


him." The explanation in a footnote does not address the first clause. One

might question the translation in v 5 by the word "grasp" and the rendering of

the participle "by coming" in v 9. The word "children" is still a better

rendering of the Greek idea than "son" (v 12). So, though the translation is

quite adequate, it needs to be compared with well-accepted translations for

the sake of certainty.

            The author's treatment of the literary structure of the Prologue is very

helpful, especially his comparison of the Greek and Hebrew terms for "word."

It is apparent throughout the commentary that he has come to grips with the

significant literature on the Fourth Gospel. An illustration of this concerns his

treatment of the Cana miracle and though more should be said about the

meaning and use of the word "sign," Beasley-Murray's comments are very

informative. His treatment of the Temple Cleansing is a case in point. The

student may not sympathize with the author's conclusions regarding source

criticism (see p. 71) or his judgment about 7:53-8:11 but the comments will

familiarize the reader with problems and prepared solutions. An example of

this is found in the comments of chap 11, especially in connection with 11:25-

26. His handling of the problems of chap 12, and especially his translation of

the early part of chap 13, is indicative of the author's range of ability. The

same helpfulness is exhibited in his handling of the word "abide" in chap 15.

Though Beasley-Murray does not deal with the theological problems that

most readers will encounter in this chapter, he does supply information that

can help one refocus on the interpretation of the text. Likewise, he provides a

helpful treatment of the trial of Jesus and an interesting sidelight on Pilate's

character (pp. 332-34). There is a helpful chronology of the events of Jesus'

arrest, examination, trials, passion and burial (p. 321); his c.omments on "It is

finished" are well taken (19:30).

            Beasley-Murray provides close to 50 pages on the resurrection and post-

resurrection ministry of Jesus. The reader will wish that even more space

could have been given to this section of the book which often is treated too

briefly by commentators.

            This up-to-date commentary will stimulate your imagination in Bible

study. As in others of his books, he has given us a work that will be in-

dispensible in the study of the Fourth Gospel.

Tenney, Merrill C. "The Gospel of John" in The Expositor's Bible Com-

mentary. Vol. 9. Ed. F. E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981.

            This commentary series has replaced many other sets for a large segment

of Bible students. It combines general exposition with notes for further study.

Each book has an introduction, bibliography, and at least one map, following

an outline. The translation found at the head of each portion of the outline is

the NIV. The author has been Professor of Bible and Theology at Wheaton

College and is now Emeritus.

            The pages given to the study of John are about one-half of the number in

Beasley-Murray's volume. The approach in the introduction is more general

than that of the previous commentary. Although the bibliography is quite

brief, the author has utilized a broader scope of Johannine literature than he

quotes. Some distinctly evangelical authors are listed in the bibliography;

            Burns: COMMENTING ON COMMENTARIES   189

these are absent from the Word series. Because of the book's size, most

comments are less extensive; this is also true of the treatment of critical

problems, a number of which are not mentioned in this work. Foreign words

are transliterated for the reader; there are occasional notes referring to Greek

grammar (p. 30) and syntax (p. 34). Contact with the literature of other

religions is mentioned, though not extensively, nor in depth.

            The treatment of the Prologue, given the size of the commentary, is quite

brief. Perhaps the author was pledged to accept the NIV translation; at any

rate, he comes to no conclusion about the textual.problem, which, based on

the two most recent Greek editions, should read (at 1:18) "only or uniquely

begotten God." Tenney has an interesting comparison between the days of

the last part of chap 1, and the days of Jesus' last earthly week are worthy of

further study.

            There should be a full treatment of the word "miraculous sign" at 2:11

but there is not even a footnote, let alone linguistic observations about the

terminology of miracle in the Gospels. There could also be a listing of the

"signs" and their individual significance (p. 68 provides no indication of

significance) .

            Tenney's corrective note on the NIV's "again" (3:3) is well taken. His

definition of "born again" is helpful. The discussion of 3:5 is far from adequate,

especially in view of the theological ramifications involved.

            The author's conclusion about the account of the adulterous woman is

basically the same as Beasley-Murray's. Tenney's footnote gives the teacher an

adequate listing of text-critical evidence. There is no discussion of rabbinic

teaching; such would enhance the information one needs to teach this passage.

The connection between John 11:25 and the Pauline statement (1 Thess

4:16-17) is helpful. It does not seem to be important that Jesus' anger could be

directed against unbelief-or even against the revelation of sin's consequences

(11:33-35). The student will be interested in the comparison of the three words

signifying Jesus' feelings in this passage.

            Tenney's comments on the chronological problems of chap 13 are a good

summary, though many will want a more extensive marshalling of the

information. Mention is made of the significance of the lateness of Jesus'

intrusion into the course of the Passover meal to wash the disciples' feet (13:2).

His observation that Peter may have been speaking for the disciples in his

protestation is interesting. Also useful is the alternate meaning of the word "cut

off," but he does not explain it in relation to the statement that God,

" . . . removes the dead wood from his church. . ." in 15:2. There is no

chronological pattern provided for the arrest and trials of Jesus, though there is

a brief discussion and a note emphasizing the "word" from the cross, "It is


            The comments on chaps 20 and 21 occupy 17 pages. There are notes on

only nine of the verses of these two chapters. The notes on vv five and six and

the note on angels in v 12 provide a few helps not found in the similar works.

There is assistance in the note on page 19 that will qualify as one of the most

informative in the entire volume. It would have been helpful to provide

information about the fish beyond their approximate weight. There is a very


brief but suggestive indication of how to render the verb usually translated "we


            Tenney's volume is not meant to be in the direction of a full commentary,

but it is one that will render assistance to the Bible student who is not looking

for an in-depth treatment of the text and its problems. This overview of the

Gospel of John will provide a vantage point for those whose needs do not

require a great deal of detailed information, but it may be consulted with profit

by pastors as well as other Bible students.

            Bruce, F. F. The Gospel of John, Introduction, Exposition and Notes. Grand

Rapids: Eerdmans, 1983.

            The name of the author is well known to students of Pauline and Lukan

studies. This commentary came out of his early retirement years; it is the

outcome of 30 years of study.

            Although the book is nearly 450 pages in length, it makes no attempt to be

exhaustive. Its introduction to this Gospel is only 17 pages in length. Its

emphasis is on the Evangelist, his gospel, and the message in the context of the

early church. The outline consists of six major points. Bruce, in his preface,

states he has written for the general Christian reader engaged in serious Bible

study. Since it is not targeted for the professional or specialist, critical questions

are only casually treated. There is a five-page bibliography of English language

works from Westcott to Beasley-Murray. There are 56 notes concerning the

introduction alone.

            Chap 1 occupies pp. 28-65, with five and one-half pages of notes for

further study. Each verse segment studied is grouped in clusters of one to five

verses. Explanations are brief but provide a responsible, continuous exposition.

Statements are substituted for explanations because of the intended scope but

are a distillation of extensive study of the Johannine literature. An example of

this procedure is illustrated in the study of such ideas as "word" (p. 29), third

day (p. 30) and sign (p. 72).

            Having declined to identify Nicodemus with a person named in the

Talmud, Bruce regards Nicodemus an exception to most Pharisees. He bases

this on grammatical considerations as well as the Pharisee's actions. He states

there is no difference between being born from above and born of water and

Spirit. The latter expression is used to remind Jesus' inquirer of OT phrase-

ology. (Ezek 36:27).

            The story of the adulterous woman is considered at the close of the

commentary. As is the case with other authors, Bruce considers the account "a

fragment of authentic gospel material not originally included in any of the four

gospels." It is found interspersed in five locations in Luke and John. His

comment that adultery is not committed by one person in solitude (p. 414)

highlights the injustice of this attempt to trap Jesus. Bruce rejects the identifica-

tion of this incident with the one cited in the Gospel according to the Hebrews.

The author specifies Judas as the branch among his disciples which must

be removed; he says in a related connection" . . . it may be implied that his

word is the means used by the Father to perform his work of pruning" (p. 309)

or cleansing.


            Burns: COMMENTING ON COMMENTATARIES          191

Bruce distinguishes between the sour wine drunk by the soldiers guarding

the crosses and the myrrh mixed wine which was a sedative (p. 373). He makes

a knowledgable comment about the hyssop sponge impaled on a Roman

soldier's weapon. A connection is made between Jesus' cry of accomplishment

and his anticipation of it in 17:4, and there is a concise, illuminating paragraph

about the process of Christ's physical death (p. 375).

            The author makes a significant connection between the Spirit imparted by

Jesus (p. 392) and the verb employed in the LXX of Gen 2:7, where, as a

consequence of the impartation, man became a living being, as well as the

reference in Ezek 37:9. Bruce is correct in noting that there is more in the

incident of the great fish catch, "than meets the eye" (p. 402). He calls it a

parable of "their missionary activity." The author correctly recognizes the four

pairs of synonyms in 21:15-17.

      This volume is worth much more than its weight as a model of exegetically-

based exposition. No student or professional should consider by-passing this

splendid work.

Morris, Leon. The Gospel According to John. NICNT. Grand Rapids:

Eerdmans, 1971.

            The Principal of Ridley College, Melbourne, Australia, has given us an

extensive commentary on the Fourth Gospel. After a few pages of contents,

editor's forward and a one-page author's preface with acknowledgements,

there is a commentary of 930 pages, including 41 pages of indices. There is a

table of abbreviations that doubles as a bibliography.

            The introduction to the book is composed of nine sections of three to five

pages each, except for the discussion of authorship which is 22 pages. Of the

four commentaries examined, only this one calls John the Apostle the author

of this Gospel. He posits a pre-A.D. 70 date after a long oral tradition, with

20:31 as the Apostle's statement of purpose-a theological purpose without

distortion of fact or discount of history. His observation about ancient his-

torians and their writing is worth noticing (p. 48). His evaluation of the

evidences for Johannine dependence must be considered; he sees no evidence

of written connection with the Synoptics.

            Morris cites an important catalog of those who reject displacement

theories. He also surveys the theories of source criticism applied to John. He

reminds us that the style of this Gospel is uniform, not denying that John

made use of sources at Ephesus. The Apostle is aware of Judaism in the

Hellenistic world of thought, and he is acquainted with the same Christ as

Paul without trace of Paulinism or Gnosticism.

            The history of the understanding of 1:7 sheds light on a long-standing

problem of how to deal with the fact that "nothing is outside the range of his

activity in creation and proto-Gnostic claims." Life is one of John's frequently

used terms (36 times). He refers to the recipients of life as "children" of God,

rather than "sons" (1:12). Another correction he makes is at 1:18, where "only

begotten God" is the preferable translation on the basis of impressive textual


            In Appendix G (p. 684ff), Morris discusses at length the word "sign" and

sign-structure of John, but he reminds us that signs are purposed to display


glory. The interpretations of John 3:5, he reminds us, may be classified in

three main groupings: Purification, Procreation and Water Baptism. His pre-

ference is for the second category. He reminds us that John enjoys using

expressions that can be taken in more than one way.

            His consideration of 7:53-8:11 comes in an appendix at the close of this

book (p. 882ff). He does not understand this section as an authentic part of

the Gospel. He reminds us that there are textual variations in addition to the

question of its placement. He concedes that the story is ". . . true to the

character of Jesus" (p. 983) and quite ancient. He recognizes the Pharisees

aim at entrapment first of the woman, then of Jesus.

            Jesus gives more than the promise of resurrection and life. He gives

Himself, and He is both resurrection and life. With personal trust in Jesus, a

man will live even though he dies. The life of the age to come may be

experienced now. Morris is the only one of the four commentators to explain

(in the reviewer's mind) the reason for Jesus' weeping. The other instance of

His weeping is also in a context of Jewish unbelief. The verb "to weep" is

only here in the NT, though the cognate noun occurs ten times.

            The first footnote in chap 13 reminds us that there are many allusions in

Jesus' Farewell Discourse to Moses's Farewell Discourse in Deuteronomy.

Morris rejects the idea of Judas' heart being entered, preferring with some

others to mean, "the devil made up his mind that Judas. . . ." There is,

however, an altered reading of the text concerning the event that transpired

"during supper."

            Morris reminds us of the widespread background of the vine motif in the

OT. He connects the true vine idea to that of the believer in Christ; the

connection is that of vitality between Christ and His own. He is the only one

of the four commentators who directly addresses the theological difficulties in

15:2. The point is that left to itself "a vine will produce a good deal of

unproductive growth, thus pruning is an essential work of the Father."

            Attention should be called to an entire series of added notes and ap-

pendices sprinkled through the book. One is at the end of his extensive

treatment of the Roman trial of Jesus--a note on the Last Supper and the

Passover. It explores several of the problems of this subject. His conclusions

about chronology are some of the best features of the book. He concludes the

note by offering some special bibliography.

            Morris has an extensive footnote concerning "hyssop." He explains its

connection with the Passover and with the Cross. In chap 19 he refuses a

drink that would have dulled his mind but accepts a different kind that will

moisten his dry throat. Amid suffering there is the thought of Jesus' peaceful

death. His trust in His Father is indicated by the bowing of his head (only in

John); the same expression is used for "going to bed."

            The "forgiving" and retaining of sins (20:23) is explained, together with

objections to understanding this as the power of forgiveness of sins of indi-

vidual men. He notes also the importance of the perfect verb tense. The

intention of the text is to remind the entire church that under the leadership of

the Spirit they will express what has already been determined in heaven.

            Burns: COMMENTING ON COMMENTARIES   193

            Even under Peter's expert organization, the net was too heavy with fish

to be moved. Morris rejects any symbolic meaning to the number of fish

caught, believing there is no actual evidence to support the view. It remains,

however, the only other place (besides the feeding of the multitude) when the

count of fish is provided. The differing views of Jesus' words about Peter's

love is discussed in both text and in footnotes. The author's intent is to show

Peter's restoration has been accomplished.

            Certainly this is the best extended treatment of the Fourth Gospel, just as

Bruce's work is the best shorter commentary.


                        Selected Bibliography on the Gospel of John

Barclay, William. The Gospel of John. 2 vols. Edinburgh: St. Andrews, 1956.

Barrett, C. K. The Gospel According to St. John. Philadelphia: Westminster,


Beasley-Murray, George R. "John." Word Biblical Commentary. Volume 36.

            Waco: Word, 1987.

Bernard, J. H. The Gospel According to St. John. 2 vols. ICC. Edinburgh:

            T & T Clark, 1928.

Blank, J. The Gospel According to St. John. New York: Crossroad, 1981.

Blum, Ed. "John." The Bible Knowledge Commentary. Edited by J. Walvoord

            and R. Zuck. Wheaton: Victor, 1981.

Boice, James M. The Gospel of John. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1979.

________. Witness and Revelation in the Gospel of John. Grand Rapids: Zonder-

            van, 1970.

Bonneau, N. R. "The Woman at the Well: John 4 and Genesis 24." The Bible

            Today 67 (1973) 1~2-59.

Bowman, John. "The Fourth Gospel and the Samaritans." BJRL 40 (1958)


Brown, Raymond E. The Community of the Beloved Disciple. New York:

            Paulist, 1979.

_______. The Gospel According to John. 2 vols. AB. Garden City: Doubleday,


_______. “Incidents That are Units in the Synoptic Gospels, but Dispersed in

St. John." CBQ 23 (1963) 143-00.

_______."The Passion According to John: Chapters 18 and 19." Worship 49

            (1975) 126-34.

Bruce, F. F. The Gospel of John. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1983.

Bultmann, Rudolf. The Gospel of John. Trans. G. R. Beasley-Murray. Phila-

            delphia: Westminster, 1971.

Calvin, John. The Gospel According to St. John and the First Epistle of John.

            Trans. T. H. L. Parker. 2 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1983.

Carson, D. A. "Current Source Criticism in the Fourth Gospel: Some Metho-

            dological Questions." JBL 97 (1978) 111-29.

_______. Divine Sovereignty and Human Responsibility. Atlanta: John Knox,




________. “Historical Tradition in the Fourth Gospel: After Dodd, What?"

            Gospel Perspectives. Edited by J. Wenham and R. France. Sheffield:

            JSNT Press (1981) 83-145.

________. “Understanding Misunderstanding in the Fourth Gospel." TynBul 33

            (1982) 59-91.

Collins, R. F. “The Representative Figures of the Fourth Gospel.” The Down-

            side Review 94 (1976) 26-46, 118-32.

Connick, C. M. “The Dramatic Character of the Fourth Gospel.” JBL 67

            (1948) 159-69.

Cook, Robert. Theology of John. Chicago: Moody, 1976.

Cross, F. L., ed. Studies in the Fourth Gospel. London: Maybray, 1957.

Cullmann, Oscar. The Johannine Circle: Its Place in Judaism, Among the

            Early Disciples and in Early Christianity. Trans. John Bowden. London:

            SCM, 1975.

_________. Early Christian Worship. Trans. by A. S. Todd and J. B. Torrence.

            London: SCM, 1953.

Culpepper, R. Alan. Anatomy of the Fourth Gospel: A Study in Literary

            Design. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983.

________. The Johannine School. SBLDS. Missoula: Scholars Press, 1975.

________. "The Pivot of John's Prologue." NTS 27 (1980) 1-31.

Dodd, C. H. Historical Tradition in the Fourth Gospel. Cambridge: University

            Press, 1963.

________. Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel. Cambridge: University Press,


Duke, Paul D. Irony in the Fourth Gospel. Atlanta: John Knox, 1985.

Dunn, James D. G. "The Washing of the Disciples' Feet in John 13:1-20."

            ZNW 61 (1970) 246-52.

Edwards, H. E. The Disciple Who Wrote These Things. London: Clarke,


Epp, E. J. "Wisdom, Torah, Word: The Johannine Prologue and the Purpose

            of the Fourth Gospel." Current Issues in Biblical and Patristic Interpreta-

            tion. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1975.

Fenton, J. C. The Gospel According to John. NCIB. Oxford: Clarendon, 1970.

Findlay, J. A. The Fourth Gospel. London: Epworth,1956.

Fortna, R. T. The Gospel of Signs. SNTSMS. Cambridge: University Press,


Freed, E. D. "Samaritan Influence in the Gospel of John." CBQ 30 (1968) 580-87.

Gaebelein, A. C. The Gospel of John. Neptune: Loizeaux, 1965 (reprint).

Gardner-Smith, P. St. John and the Synoptic Gospels. Cambridge: University

            Press, 1938.

Giblin, C. H. "Suggestion, Negative Response, and Positive Action in St.

            John's Portrayal of Jesus (John 2:1-11; 4:46-56; 7:2-14; 11:1-44)" NTS 26

            (1980) 197-211.

Godet, Frederick. Commentary on the Gospel of St. John. 3 vols. Edinburgh:

            T & T Clark, 1899-1900.

Haenchen, Ernst. A Commentary on the Gospel of John. 2 vols. Hermeneia.

            Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984.

            Burns: COMMENTING ON COMMENTARIES               195

________. "History and Interpretation in the Johannine Passion Narrative." Int

            24 (1970) 198-219.

Headlam, A. C. The Fourth Gospel as History. Oxford: Blackwell, 1948.

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