Bibliotheca Sacra 155 (April-June 1998) 201-10.
Copyright © 1998 by
JESUS' SUPERIORITY OVER
MOSES IN HEBREWS 3:1-6
Brett R. Scott
Hebrews 3:1–6 compares Jesus with Moses in order to lay
a foundation for the exhortation that follows in 3:7–4:11.1 The
comparison points up three important truths. First, the Old
Covenant has been surpassed and superseded by the New
Covenant. Second, the limited access to God through a human
mediator (only Moses was given face-to-face access to God) has
been surpassed by the provision of direct access to God for all His
people. Third, though both Moses and Jesus were faithful in their
positions, the access secured by Moses as a faithful servant of God
has been far surpassed by the access to God enjoyed by Jesus,
God's Son. The contrast between Jesus and Moses serves as a
rhetorical device to persuade the readers to accept the New
Covenant, to enjoy their direct access to God, and to recognize Je-
sus Christ as the faithful Mediator between God and humans.
The contrast is not polemical in purpose,2 for that would den-
igrate Moses3 in order to exalt Jesus.4 Nor does the Book of He-
brews denigrate the Old Covenant; rather it seeks to exalt the New
Covenant, the subject of the discourse. Also rather than denigrat-
ing the access Moses had to God, Hebrews exalts the access be-
lievers now have to God. And instead of denigrating the faithful-
ness of Moses as servant, Hebrews exalts the faithfulness of
Brett R. Scott is a Teaching Assistant of Biblical Greek and New Testament,
1 Harold W. Attridge, The Epistle to the Hebrews (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1989),
2 David A. deSilva, Despising Shame: Honor Discourse and Community Mainte-
nance in the Epistle to the Hebrews (Atlanta: Scholars, 1995), 215.
3 Paul Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews: A Commentary on the Greek
Text (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993), 203.
Biblical Commentary (Dallas: Word, 1991), cxxviii; and deSilva, Despising Shame,
4 Attridge, The Epistle to the Hebrews, 105.
202 BIBLIOTHECA SACRA / April—June 1998
Christ as Son both now and forever. "Christ's superiority to Moses
aims not at disqualifying the latter as a servant within God's
house, but rather at enhancing the honor of the former as Son over
God's house (Heb 3:5)."5 Moses' intimacy with the Law (the Old
Covenant), his face-to-face access to God, and his position as a
faithful servant in God's house served as a "type" of the One to
come who would be greater in all these areas.
Structurally Hebrews 3:1–6 "is a very complex midrashic
treatment of a number of texts,"6 launching a larger section of
3:7–5:10, whose theme is the "high priestly character of the Son."7
The shift in 3:7 from exposition to exhortation shows the author's
skill in combining exposition with exhortation.8 Therefore "an
appreciation of the vital interrelationship between exposition and
exhortation is crucial to an adequate understanding of the func-
tion of either component of the discourse."9
The rhetorical device of comparison (sunkri<sij) is used
prominently throughout the epistle (Jesus/angels, Jesus/Joshua,
New Covenant/Old Covenant, Old Testament sacrifices/Christ's
once-for-all sacrifice, and others) and is the main device used in
3:1–6 (Jesus/Moses).10 According to Aristotle, to achieve rhetori-
cal success the subject (here Jesus) must be compared "with illus-
trious personages for it affords ground for amplification and is
noble, if he (the subject) can be proved better than men of worth."11
This passage focuses the comparison "on a scriptural attested
quality of Moses (Old Testament: Exod, Lev, Num, Deut; New
Testament: Acts 7:17–44), his fidelity, which provides the basis
for the exhortation that follows"12 in 3:7–4:11.
BACKGROUND OF THE JESUS/MOSES COMPARISON:
At first, comparing Jesus to Moses may seem anticlimactic after
the author of Hebrews established Jesus' superiority to angels. "It
would seem to go without saying that he is greater than Moses."13
5 deSilva, Despising Shame, 215.
6 Mary Rose D'Angelo, Moses in
the Letter to the Hebrews (
ars, 1979), 68.
7 Lane, Hebrews 1-8, 68.
8 Ibid., c, 69.
9 Ibid., c.
10 deSilva, Despising Shame, 33.
11 Aristotle, The Art of Rhetoric 1.9.38-39.
12 Attridge, The Epistle to the Hebrews, 105.
13 Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews, 194.
Jesus' Superiority over Moses in Hebrews 3:1-6 203
However, in first-century Jewish thought Moses was held in al-
most God-like esteem, even higher than angels. So contrasting
Jesus to Moses is a step beyond 1:5–13, not a step backward. The
comparison "was not simply a literary exercise that enabled the
writer to speak of the excellence of Jesus or to exhibit his own ex-
egetical skill. . . . He [the writer] chose to acknowledge the faith-
fulness of Moses because this appears to have been a significant
consideration to the men and women whom he addressed."14
The comparison was also bound to arise in the minds of first-
century Christians, for the name of Moses appears more times in
the Old Testament and in fact in all of the Bible (847 total times:
762 in the Old Testament and 85 in the New Testament) than any
other proper name except for Jesus and David. Indeed the compar-
ison may go back to Jesus Himself (Matt. 5:21–48; Mark 10:1–12;
14:24), in addition to early Christian preaching (Acts 3:22–23;
7:17–44), Paul (2 Cor. 3; Gal. 3:19), and John (John 1:17; Rev.
To the Jews, Moses was "the greatest person who ever lived: it was
through Moses that God delivered
Ben Sira wrote of Moses' celebrated honor in the eyes of those liv-
ing in the first century. Ben Sira described Moses' "favor in the
eyes of all," his being beloved by all humanity and "by God and
people," and that he was made "equal of the holy ones in glory,"
that is, the angels (Sir. 45:1–6).17 The Wisdom of Solomon also
paints a rather exalted picture of Moses by referring to him as "a
servant of the Lord" (
(11:1). And 4 Maccabees 9:2 refers to Moses as "our counselor."
Josephus wrote, "The wisest of the Greeks learnt to adopt the con-
ception of God from the principles with which Moses supplied
them."18 Barrett, commenting on this quotation, states, "The no-
tion that the best philosophy was plagiarized from Moses was cur-
rent long before Josephus (e.g. in the Jewish apologist Aristo-
14 Lane, Hebrews 1-8, 79-80.
15 Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews, 194.
16 Donald A. Hagner, Hebrews (Peabody, MS: Hendrickson, 1990), 60. However, Je-
sus said John the Baptist was the greatest man born of women (Matt. 11:11).
17 Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews, 194, and D'Angelo, Moses in the
Letter to the Hebrews, 96-149. The rabbinic tradition provides ample evidence for
the belief that Moses was held in higher esteem than the angels.
18 Josephus, Against Apion 2.164-71.
204 BIBLIOTHECA SACRA / April–June 1998
bus)."19 Philo referred to Moses as king, lawgiver, high priest,
and prophet; the "best of kings"; a man of "special holiness"; "the
holiest of men"; and "the holy prophet."20
In the words of Williamson, "Apart altogether from Philo's
eulogies, Moses was recognised by his countrymen to be their
great deliverer, the giver of God's holy Law, a unique prophet."21
Moses was regarded in the first century as "the supreme example
of perfection in the sense of immediacy and access to God,"22 a
man "bigger than life" in the eyes of the people at the time of the
writing of this epistle. As Lane wrote, "It is difficult to exaggerate
the importance of Moses in Judaism, and the veneration with
which he was regarded."23
JESUS' BACKGROUND: APOSTLE AND HIGH PRIEST
From the beginning of the Epistle to the Hebrews the author estab-
lished in the minds of his audience the supreme honor of Jesus.24
This rhetorical method of establishing the supremacy of the sub-
ject to be exalted is similar to the way in which the supremacy of
Christ is exalted early in Paul's letter to the Colossians.25
In Hebrews 3:1 Jesus is identified as the believers' Apostle
(a]po<stoloj) and High Priest (a]rxiereu<j). These two titles are not
used of Jesus anywhere else in the New Testament.26 The high
priest was chosen by God to provide access to Him for humanity
and to represent God to humanity. According to Josephus the title
"high priest" is the "most honored of revered names,"27 and Philo
claimed that priests are invested with dignity and honor belong-
ing to kings.28 Jesus is also called high priest in Hebrews 2:17
and 10:21. Contrasts between the Levitical priesthood and Jesus'
priesthood are stated throughout the epistle. The title "apostle"
seems a bit more obscure. Though an unusual term to apply to Je-
19 C. K. Barrett, The New Testament Background: Selected Documents (San Fran-
cisco: Harper & Row, 1987), 284.
20 Of the Life of Moses 2.92; 187, 201; Of Cherubim 45; Allegories of the Laws 3.185.
21 Ronald Williamson, Philo and the Epistle to the Hebrews (Leiden: Brill, 1970),
22 Lane, Hebrews 1–8, 74.
24 deSilva, Despising Shame, 211.
25 This rhetorical method is often used in modern worship services, in which the
supremacy of Christ is exalted through music as a precursor to the message being
26 Justin Martyr, though, called Christ an a]po<stoloj (Apologia 1.12.9; 63.5–10).
27 Josephus, The Jewish Wars 4.146.
28 Philo, Of Special Laws 1.142.
Jesus' Superiority over Moses in Hebrews 3:1-6 205
sus, it alludes to His accepted role as the Messenger or "sent
one."29 In secular language an "apostle" is an ambassador,30 one
sent with delegated authority. Applied to Christ, it has a "plenipo-
tentiary" meaning as an ambassador with full powers, God's
ambassador.31 This reference to Jesus as "apostle" also connotes
that He bears God's revelation to humankind (1:1–2; 2:1-4).
Under the Old Covenant Moses and Aaron would perhaps
have been regarded as apostle and high priest respectively, but
under the New Covenant the two offices are combined in the per-
son of Jesus Christ.32 The two titles complement each other: Jesus
is "the sent one" (a]po<stoloj) from the Father, and He is "the
provider of access to God" (a]rxiereu<j) for humanity.
EXEGESIS OF THE JESUS/MOSES COMPARISON:
These verses emphasize three foundational themes: covenant,
access to God, and faithfulness.
The theme of oi#koj ("house") is used throughout this passage:
the faithfulness of Jesus to the house of God is greater than Moses'
faithfulness (v. 2); the honor of Jesus as the builder of the house is
greater than Moses' honor (v. 3); a parenthetical extension of the
"house" analogy is introduced regarding God, the builder of all
things (v. 4);33 Jesus is the Son over the house whereas Moses was
a servant in the house (vv. 5–6); and believers are described as
"God's house" (v. 6). The author "could have stressed that Moses
was not faithful (Num. 20:12)."34 However, Moses' faithfulness is
acknowledged because of the high regard in which he was held in
the first century.35 The statement in Hebrews 3:5 that Moses was
faithful in all God's house alludes to Numbers 12:7, where God
said, "My servant Moses . . . is faithful in all My household."
Here God's house means the sphere of Moses' stewardship, the
household, comprising in this case the whole "family" of Israel.36
29 Attridge, The Epistle to the Hebrews, 107; and Lane, Hebrews 1-8, 75.
30 Paul Ellingworth and Eugene A. Nida, A Translator's Handbook on the Letter
to the Hebrews (New York: United Bible Societies, 1983), 52.
32 Philip Edgcumbe Hughes, A Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews
(Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1977), 5.
33 Attridge, The Epistle to the Hebrews, 104.
34 Lane, Hebrews 1-8, 79-80. As stated earlier, to stress Moses' unfaithfulness
would have served a polemical purpose (a purpose the author of Hebrews did not
have in mind).
35 Attridge, The Epistle to the Hebrews, 105.
36 Hughes, A Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews, 130-31.
206 BIBLIOTHECA SACRA / April—June 1998
The metaphor of God's people as a household is widespread in
the New Testament. Paul and other New Testament writers used
the term "family" to include all people who believe on Jesus (Gal.
6:10; Eph. 2:19; 1 Tim. 3:15; 1 Pet. 4:17).
The six New Testament references to "house" vary in mean-
ing between a building, a household, a family, and a nation.37
Throughout the Scriptures and other ancient writings the Greek
word oi#koj has several meanings: the temple (Acts 7:47; 1 Kings
3:2; 6:1–7:51; 8:16–18; and Josephus, The Jewish Wars 4.4.5,
281); various communal groups or "households" (Ps. 114:1; Jer.
12:7; 31:31 [cited in Heb. 8:8]; Hos. 9:15; Matt. 10:6; 15:24; and
Acts 2:36); the Davidic dynasty (Luke 1:27, 69; 2:4); and various
and Christian communities (
Hebrews 3:4 refers to God as the builder of everything (cf.
Gen. 14:19; Ps. 127:1). The greatest honor is to be paid to the one
who conceived, designed, and built the universe,39 namely, God.
The Epistle to the Hebrews is not suggesting that Jesus is the
builder of the house, but that God the Father is the builder of "all
things" (pa<nta, Heb. 1:2b; 2:10). Of course God created all things
through Jesus (1:2c).
Three parallels serve as a background to the Jesus/Moses
comparison: Moses delivered the Israelites from the bondage of
bondage of sin and damnation (2:14–15). Through Moses, God
constituted the Israelites as the people of God, while Jesus consti-
tutes all believers as the sons of God (2:10). Moses brought the Is-
raelites the Old Covenant, whereas Jesus brings all believers into
the New Covenant, establishing a greater access to God for them
which had been only for
Jesus' superiority He replaced—and exceeded—all Moses did.
The three foundations are elaborated on in the following sec-
tions of this article. Each foundation is actually an integral part
of the entire' epistle. Hebrews includes fifty-six allusions to the
covenant (oath, Law, etc.), twenty-six allusions to access to God,
and fifty-four allusions to faithfulness.
THE "COVENANT" THEME
Jesus' superiority over Moses and the establishment of His high
priesthood leads to the bold conclusion that the Old Covenant has
37 Ellingworth and Nida, A Translator's Handbook on the Letter to the Hebrews,
53; and Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews, 196. "Two main ideas are involved,
that of community and that of structure."
38 Attridge, The Epistle to the Hebrews, 108-109.
39 Ray C. Stedman, Hebrews, IVP New Testament Commentary (
IL: InterVarsity, 1992), 48; and Attridge, The Epistle to the Hebrews, 110.
Jesus' Superiority over Moses in Hebrews 3:1-6 207
been replaced (7:12, 18; 8:6-7, 13; 10:9). To establish the New
Covenant and show it valid, the argument must be considered that
the One bringing in the New Covenant is greater than Moses, who
brought in the Old Covenant. Now that Jesus' priesthood replaced
that of Levi, the Law of Moses must also be replaced because it was
the legal basis of the Levitical priesthood (7:11–19). To the Jews,
the Law was given the highest honor over everything except God
Himself. Moses not only wrote the books of the Law, but Moses
and the Law are intertwined throughout the Scriptures, almost in-
separably. Twenty-one times in the Scriptures the Law is called
the Law of Moses, and in the New Testament, Moses' name is
used synonymously with the Law (Matt. 8:4; 19:8; 22:24; Mark
7:10; 10:4; Luke 16:31; 24:27; Acts 6:11; 15:21; 21:21; 2 Cor. 3:15).
The connections drawn between the sacrifices and the Law
and between the offering of Christ and the will of God are extraor-
dinarily important. They also prepare for the revolutionary
statement that the Old Covenant has been annulled with the ar-
rival of the New. The author of Hebrews validated this bold
statement by appealing to the Old Testament (Ps. 40:6–8; Jer.
31:31-34). The Old Covenant was a necessary but provisional
episode in the accomplishment of redemptive history. However,
with the entrance of the New Covenant the Old was set aside.
For both Jesus and the New Testament authors the prophecy of
a new covenant was of paramount importance.40 As Bruce writes,
"It is the Epistle to the Hebrews that chiefly presents the pattern of
promise and fulfillment in terms of the two covenants."41 Jesus is
referred to as the Mediator or Guarantor of a New Covenant in
Hebrews 7:22; 8:6; 9:15; and 12:24. The first covenant had a me-
diator (Gal. 3:19-20), but no surety is mentioned in connection
with it. The New Covenant has a greater Mediator who is a surety
(Guarantor) because by His blood His people are sanctified (Heb.
10:14, 29) and the eternal covenant (13:20) is established, never to
be superseded by another.42 Jesus presented Himself as an un-
blemished offering, following the Law's requirements for a sac-
rificial victim (9:14; Exod. 29:1; Lev. 1:3).43 However, even
40 Henry M. Shires, Finding the Old Testament in the New (
minster, 1974), 111.
41 F. F. Bruce, The New Testament Development of Old Testament Themes (Grand
Rapids: Eerdmans, 1970), 55. "Perhaps, however, it is going too far to conceive of the
contents of the Epistle solely, or even mainly, in terms of the covenant principle.
Yet the contrast between the old covenant and the new makes a substantial contri-
bution to the argument" (ibid.).
42 Ibid., 57.
43 Richard D. Nelson, Raising Up a Faithful Priest: Community and Priesthood
in Biblical Theology (
208 BIBLIOTHECA SACRA / April-June 1998
though both the Levitical sacrifice and Jesus' offering of Himself
have to do with providing satisfaction to God for sin, the Levitical
law never required a human victim.44 The New Covenant is es-
tablished by sacrifice, but it is a new and unique kind of sacri-
fice, namely, the death of Jesus Christ, as explained and vali-
dated by the author's quotation of Psalm 40:6-8.
THE "ACCESS TO GOD" THEME
For believers, Christ is their divine Mediator (or "broker" in
terms of the patron-client relationships that existed in the first-
century world). In the patronal society of the ancient Mediter-
ranean world, "those who dispense second-order resources [i.e.,
strategic contacts or access to patrons] are brokers."45 Seen in the
capacity of a "broker," Jesus secures favor from God on behalf of
those committed to Him.46 Believers have access through Christ,
their Mediator, to God, greatest of all patrons.
To have access to the house of a patron through a servant is
good; however, to have access to the house through a son is far bet-
ter. A son, more than a servant in a house, would be sought after
as a mediator to the ruler of the house.47 "The role of a servant and
of a son in a house are worlds apart."48 The subject of servant and
son is taken up in greater detail in the section on faithfulness.
The removal of the barrier between God and human beings is
an important theme in Hebrews. This removal involves the
cleansing of one's guilty conscience as a prerequisite for unhin-
dered access to God (Heb. 10:22).49 "The Jews then were not able to
see the face of Moses glorified, and this although he was their fel-
low slave and kinsman. But you have seen the face of Christ in
his glory. And Paul cries out: We with unveiled faces gaze upon
the glory of the Lord."50 Just as priests going in to sacrifice
"crossed the boundary lines into the perilous zone of the holy . . .
for the benefit of the whole people,"51 so believers have been al-
lowed to cross this great boundary between God and man through
the "once-for-all sacrifice" of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.
44 deSilva, Despising Shame, 231.
45 David A. deSilva, "Exchanging Favor
for Wrath: Apostasy in Hebrews and
tron-Client Relationships," Journal of Biblical Literature 115 (1996): 93.
46 Ibid., 95.
47 Ibid., 96.
48 Stedman, Hebrews, 49.
49 Lane, Hebrews 1-8, 261.
50 John Chrysostom, Catechesis 3.25, from Huit Catecheses Baptismales, cited in
D'Angelo, Moses in the Letter to the Hebrews, 263.
51 Nelson, Raising Up a Faithful Priest, 83.
Jesus' Superiority over Moses in Hebrews 3:1-6 209
THE "FAITHFULNESS" THEME
In Hebrews, both Jesus and Moses are portrayed as faithful. The
statement that Moses was faithful in God's house (Heb. 3:2, 5) al-
ludes to Numbers 12:7, where God said, "My servant Moses . . . is
faithful in all My household."52 Jesus was faithful in God's house
in His superior position of Son. Thus the contrast is not between
the faithfulness of Jesus and Moses, but between the position in
which each was faithful. If the contrast had been the superior
faithfulness of Jesus over Moses,
Moses' unfaithfulness in
(Exod. 2:11–12) and at the rock of Meribah (Num. 20:10–12)
would surely have been presented as evidence. In fact in He-
brews, Moses' faithfulness is commended (Heb. 3:2, 5; 11:23–28).
The contrast is between the position of a servant and that of a son
and the difference in the resulting access (or mediation) pro-
vided. Moses as a faithful servant provided a certain level of ac-
cess to God. However, believers, as already stated, have the Son as
their Mediator of God's favor. Greater is the favor assured by Je-
sus, for He stands in closest proximity to God, actually bearing
the reflected radiance of God's glory (1:3).53 Moses was faithful
in (e]n) God's house as a servant (qera<pwn54), whereas Christ is
faithful as a son (ui[o<j) over (e]pi<) God's house (3:5-6). Jesus is
more highly honored than Moses, not because Moses' faithfulness
was in any way defective,55 but because Jesus occupies a higher
office,56 as Son, High Priest, King, and Mediator of a greater
covenant. "Each is pisto<j appointed/faithful as leader or head of
the people, but the former as servant, the later as son."57
Psalm 116 extols God for His faithfulness, showing that
praise is the proper response to God's infinite faithfulness (vv. 14,
52 Hughes, A Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews, 130-31. However,
D'Angelo tends to think the reference here and elsewhere may also point to 1
Chronicles 17:14 (LXX) (Moses in the Letter to the Hebrews, 92). However, as
Ellingworth says, D'Angelo's suggestion may mean 1 Chronicles 17:14 is only a sec-
ondary allusion (The Epistle to the Hebrews, 194-95, 201). Furthermore references
to Moses as God's "servant" are plentiful in the Scriptures (Exod. 4:10; 14:31; Num.
11:1; Deut. 3:24; Josh 1:2).
53 deSilva, "Exchanging Favor for Wrath," 96.
54 qera<pwn occurs only here in the New Testament. The term normally used is
dou?loj ("bondslave"). "The term qera<pwn does not have the same pejorative connota-
tion of forced servitude as does dou?loj, which is used in those (other) passages"
(Attridge, The Epistle to the Hebrews, 111). Cf. Kenneth S. Wuest, Hebrews in the
Greek New Testament for the English Reader (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1947), 71.
qera<pwn speaks of service that is of a nobler and freer character than that of
55 As noted previously, Moses' unfaithfulness is not considered in this passage.
56 Ellingworth, The Epistle to the Hebrews, 203.
57 D'Angelo, Moses in the Letter to the Hebrews, 92.
210 BIBLIOTHECA SACRA / April—June 1998
18). Similarly believers today should respond to the faithfulness
of Jesus by expressing gratitude and by being faithful. In He-
brews 10:19–36 readers are challenged to "hold fast the confession
of our hope without wavering" (v. 23), to spur one another on and
encourage each other (vv. 24–25), to stand firm (v. 32), and to per-
severe (v. 36).
Hebrews 3:1–6 points to Jesus' supreme honor, faithfulness, and
access to God the Father as a High Priest, and His position as
Apostle and Son. Therefore in view of His superiority, believers,
having entered a New Covenant with God, have gained greater
access to Him than was ever possible under the Old Covenant. In
response believers should be faithful to Him and should hold fast
to their confession of, their hope in, and their faith in "Jesus the
pioneer and perfecter of faith" (th?j pi<stewj a]rxhgo>n kai> telei-
wth>n ]Ihsou?n, Heb. 12:2).
Jesus did away with the Old Covenant and replaced it with a
new one only after He fully satisfied and fulfilled the Old
Covenant by His righteous death as a "once-for-all" sacrifice for
sins (10:10). As a "boundary crosser" who entered the holy place,
Jesus is also a "trailblazer" or "pioneer" (a]rxhgo>n) who leads
many sons and daughters into glory (2:10; 12:2).58 As a result be-
lievers have "confidence to enter the holy place by the blood of Je-
sus, by a new and living way which He inaugurated for us
through the veil, that is, His flesh" (10:19–20). "When He said, ‘A
new covenant,’ He has made the first obsolete" (8:13). If the ser-
vant's (Moses') prayers offered on behalf of the people were an-
swered, "how much more" will the prayers of the Son offered for
believers be answered. The closeness of the Son to the Father is
passed on to those who believe, so that they receive greater access
to God than Moses experienced. Believers enjoy "so much more"
the benefits of sonship now that they are heirs and adopted chil-
dren of God. Therefore the writer to the Hebrews exhorted his
readers, "Let us hold unswervingly [kare<xwmen] to the hope we pro-
fess, for he who promised is faithful" (10:23, NIV).
Hughes suggests that these truths may best be "summed up for
us by Herveus, an expositor of the twelfth century: ‘For it has been
shown that Christ is far more noble than Moses, so that we should
cling to Christ alone, in whom we have all things.’"59
58 Nelson, Raising Up a Faithful Priest, 150.
59 Hughes, A Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews, 140.
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