Bibliotheca Sacra 146 (1989) 198-216.
Copyright © 1989 by
An Expositional Study of 1 John
Part 5 (of 10 parts):
An Exposition of 1 John 2:29—3:12
Professor Emeritus of New Testament
Mennonite Brethren Biblical
If you know that He is righteous, you know that everyone also who
practices righteousness is born of Him.
See how great a love the Father has bestowed upon us, that we
should be called children of God; and such we are. For this reason the
world does not know us, because it did not know Him. Beloved, now we
are children of God, and it has not appeared as yet what we shall be.
We know that, when He appears, we shall be like Him, because we
shall see Him just as He is. And everyone who has this hope fixed on
Him purifies himself, just as He is pure. Everyone who practices sin
also practices lawlessness; and sin is lawlessness. And you know that
He appeared in order to take away sins; and in Him there is no sin. No
one who abides in Him sins; no one who sins has seen Him or knows
Him. Little children, let no one deceive you; the one who practices
righteousness is righteous, just as He is righteous; the one who prac-
tices sin is of the devil; for the devil has sinned from the beginning. The
Son of God appeared for this purpose, that He might destroy the works
of the devil. No one who is born of God practices sin, because His seed
abides in him; and he cannot sin, because he is born of God. By this
the children of God and the children of the devil are obvious: anyone
who does not practice righteousness is not of God, nor the one who
does not love his brother. For this is the message which you have heard
from the beginning, that we should love one another; not as Cain who
was of the evil one, and slew his brother. And for what reason did he
slay him? Because his deeds were evil, and his brother's were righteous
(1 John 2:29-3:12).
The conflict between the proponents of anti-Christian falsehood
and the adherents to God's revelation in His Son (2:18-28) is now shown
An Exposition of 1 John 2:29—3:12 199
to be a conflict between the children of God and the children of the
devil. The two classes are rigidly distinct in origin and practice.
John presented true believers as children of God, characterized by the
practice of righteousness and by love as the bond that holds the mem-
bers of the family together. He set forth the marks of the children of
God (2:29-3:3), depicted the revelation from the practice of sin (3:4-
8a), held up the provision for deliverance from the practice of sin
(3:8b-9), and declared the distinctness of the two classes (3:10-12).
The Marks of the Children of God
John pointed to the practice of righteousness as the mark of the
new birth (2:29), asserted the reality and dynamic nature of this new
life (3:1-2), and noted the purifying impact of Christian hope on
present conduct (3:3).
THE PRACTICE OF RIGHTEOUSNESS AS THE MARK OF THE NEW BIRTH (2:29)
The practice of righteousness reveals membership in God's fam-
ily. The conditional clause, "If you know that He is righteous" (e]a>n
ei]dh?te o!ti di<kaio<j e]stin), as a third-class condition leaves open
the readers' answer on the matter, but does not imply that John had
personal doubts as to whether they were aware of this fact. The
condition is an appeal to them to confirm openly their personal per-
ception of this reality. The adjective "righteous" denotes one who is
in full accord with what is right and just in character and conduct.
"He is righteous" expresses a well-known truth about the nature of
God. God "is righteous in all his ways: in his laws, his promises, his
verdicts, or a single act of his."1 Used without an expressed subject,
John's reference may be to God the Father, as in 1:9, or to Jesus Christ,
as in 2:1. Westcott holds that since Christ is the subject of verse 28,
"it is therefore most natural to suppose that He is the subject in this
This identification is less certain if verse 29 is accepted as be-
ginning a new division. An obvious difficulty with this identifica-
tion is that the New Testament nowhere explicitly speaks of
believers as "born of Christ." In this letter they are referred to as
"born of God" (3:9; 4:7; 5:1, 4), and in John 3:8 as "born of the Spirit,"
but nowhere as "born of Christ." In 1 John 3:1-2 believers are ex-
pressly called "children of God." Bultmann suggested that there is a
1 R. C. H. Lenski, The Interpretation of the Epistles of St.
2 Brooke Foss Westcott, The Epistles of St John (1892; reprint,
Eerdrnans Publishing Co., 1950), p. 83.
200 Bibliotheca Sacra / April–June 1989
sudden change in the meaning of the pronoun in this verse, from Jesus
to God.3 Marshall holds that the statement "He is righteous" refers
to Christ but that the words "born of Him" refer to God the Father.
"It was probably so self-evident to him and his readers that spiri-
tual birth was from the Father that he was not conscious of gliding
from one antecedent for au]tou? (Christ, 2:28-29a) to another (God,
2:29b)."4 But such a shift of meaning in the pronominal designation
within one sentence is not obvious. More probable is the view that
both pronouns refer to God the Father. But this uncertainty as to the
intended identity of his pronouns is characteristic of John. As West-
cott remarks, "The true solution of the difficulty seems to be that
apart from Christ (comp. c. v. 20). And again he never thinks of
Christ in His human nature without adding the thought of His di-
The conclusion, "you know that everyone also who practices
righteousness is born of Him," underlines that all members of God's
family display the moral nature of their Father. "You know"
(ginw<skete) may be taken as an imperative, "you must recognize,"6
but the indicative is more probable as stating their acquaintance
with the further fact that God's children are identified by their
righteous conduct. The presence of "also" (kai> )7 indicates that the
two aspects belong together. This understanding helps a believer
determine if another is a true Christian.
The sure sign of the new birth is the practice of righteousness:
"everyone who practices righteousness" (pa?j o[ poiw?n th>n dikaio-
su<nhn). "Everyone" (pa?j o[) asserts that this sign is true of all with-
out exception, while "who practices righteousness" (o[ poiw?n th>n
dikaiosu<nhn), literally, "the one doing the righteousness") declares
3 Rudolf Bultmann, The Johannine
Epistles, ed. Robert W. Funk (
Fortress Press, 1973), p. 45. In this supposed sudden shift Bultmann found support for
his view that the phrase, "clumsily appended," demonstrated the composite author-
ship of the epistle.
the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1978), p. 168, n.
5 Westcott, The Epistles of
Jones, ed., The New Testament of the
Doubleday & Co., 1969). It was taken as imperative in the Vulgate, by Wycliffe, Tyn-
dale, Cranmer, and the Rhemish version. The New Testament in Today's English Ver-
sion (New York: American Bible Society, 1966) renders, "you should know, then, that
every one who does what is right is God's child."
7 It does not occur in the Textus Receptus, although modern textual editors generally
accept it as original. For the textual evidence see Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum
Graece, 26th ed. (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelstiftung, 1979).
An Exposition of 1 John 2:29—3:12 201
the visible sign. The present participle "denotes a habit of life, the
prevailing principle of one's life, not a single act, but a succession of
acts which make up the life."8 The article with "righteousness"
("the righteousness") may have a possessive force, "His righteous-
ness" as revealing God's character, or it may denote the righteous-
ness which is truly such.
Such a lifestyle does not produce the new birth but is the visible
evidence of being "born of Him" (e]c au]tou? gege<nnhtai). The perfect
tense marks the past fact of the new birth and stresses the continuing
reality of the new life. The expression "of Him" (e]c au]tou?) marks
the source of this new life; it is derived from God. This concept of the
"new birth," first introduced here in 1 John, is prominent in the rest of
the epistle (3:9; 4:7; 5:1, 4, 18); it is a familiar New Testament truth.
Through this divinely imparted spiritual rebirth believers enter
into the family of God, so that they truly are "children of God." It
portrays a spiritual-life relationship with God and carries ethical
consequences. The reality of one's membership in the family of God
is revealed to others through the practice of righteousness. Other
signs of the new birth in this epistle are love of the brethren (4:7)
and faith that Jesus is the Christ (5:1).
THE DYNAMIC REALITY OF THE NEW LIFE OF BELIEVERS (3:1-2)
Having become members of God's family through the new birth,
this new life has deep significance for believers for the present as
well as the future. John called on his readers to contemplate the
amazing reality of present membership in God's family (v. la), re-
minded them that this explains the reaction of the world toward
them (v. lb), and stressed that this new life as God's children has
present and future implications (v. 2).
The amazing love-gift (v. la). The aorist imperative "see"
(i@dete with the accusative of the object of consideration) calls on the
readers to take a heart-moving look at the amazing love which gave
them membership in God's family. They should note carefully "how
great a love" (potaph>n a]ga<phn) the Father has imparted to them.
The adjective rendered "how great" (potaph>n), occurring only seven
times in the New Testament,9 implies a reaction of astonishment,
and usually of admiration, on viewing some person or thing. The ob-
ject of contemplation is God's "love" (a]ga<phn), a love that ever seeks
8 William G. Moorhead, Outline Studies in the New Testament, Catholic Epistles—
James, I and II Peter, I, II, III John, and Jude (New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1910),
p. 104. It is well represented in the NASB rendering who practices." For a discussion
of the Greek present tense see H. E. Dana and Julius R. Mantey, A Manual Grammar of
the Greek New Testament (New York: Macmillan Co., 1967), pp. 181-86.
9 It occurs in Matthew 8:27; Mark 13:1 (twice); Luke 1:29; 7:39; 2 Peter 3:11.
202 Bibliotheca Sacra / April—June 1989
the true welfare of those loved. This love is indeed amazing when
one remembers the destitution of those loved. This love works visi-
ble, transforming results in the lives of its recipients. The perfect
tense "has bestowed" (de<dwken) marks the permanent gift; this love-
gift corresponds to the permanent nature of the new birth (2:29). The
added "upon us" (h[mi?n), after John's directive to the readers, indi-
cates that he included himself among the recipients of this amazing
love. To see that love "aright is to sink down in adoration before it.
It is beyond all comprehension."10 In the original "the Father"
stands at the end of the statement, giving emphasis to the fatherly
character of the Giver and suggests the continuing, intimate relation
He established in making believers His children.
The subordinate clause, "that we should be called children of
God" (i!na te<kna qeou? klhqw?men) explains what God's love does.
The particle "that" (i!na) has been understood as conveying "the
purpose of His love, its tendency and direction."11 Addressed to those
who have experienced the new birth, the clause is definitive and
depicts the effect of God's love. The aorist verb "should be called"
does not point to an anticipated future recognition as being God's
"children," but expresses the fact, the passive indicating that the
name was given by the Father Himself. He thus acknowledged their
status as members of His family. Used without the article "children
of God" calls attention to their character rather than their identity.
The King James Version rendering "sons" does not adequately convey
the original. "John does not stress the legal relationship of a son
(ui[o<j) but the natural relationship of a child (te<knon)."12
The words "and such are we" (kai> e]sme<n) emphatically declare
that believers are God's children not merely in name but also in
reality. They express a ringing note of assurance, "and we are." As
Cox remarks, "God does not call men His children until He makes
them so. God's very nature, which is love, flows into the heart of
the penitent believer and makes him a child of God."13 These words
are not in the King James Version, which follows the Textus Recep-
tus. Divergent evaluations as to their authenticity are advanced.
Some hold that they are "probably a scribal addition,"14 while
10 Lenski, The Interpretation
of the Epistles of St. Peter,
11 A. Plummer, The Epistles of S. John, The
12 Donald W. Burdick, The Letters of John the Apostle (Chicago: Moody Press, 1985),
13 Leo G. Cox, "First, Second, and Third John," in The Wesleyan Bible Commentary
(Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1966), 6: 339-40.
14 Zane C. Hodges, "1 John," in The Bible Knowledge Commentary, New Testament,
An Exposition of 1 John 2:29—3:12 203
others regard their absence in various manuscripts as due to "scribal
oversight, perhaps occasioned by graphical similarity with the
preceding word ... or to deliberate editorial pruning of an awkward
On the basis of the textual evidence,16
tual scholars generally accept them as authentic.17
The world's failure to understand believers (v. 1b). The amazing
fact of believers' membership in God's family explains the world's
attitude toward them: "For this reason the world does not know us,
because it did not know Him." "For this reason" (dia> tou?to, "because
of this") points back to the fact that "children of God" are radically
different from "the world" (o[ ko<smoj), the organized masses of lost
humanity in their estrangement from God. As such the world "does
not know us" (ou] ginw<skei h[ma?j), is utterly unable to gain a true un-
derstanding of the believers' new nature. To the world the mystery
of the new birth is incomprehensible (John 3:9-12); it can only regard
as deluded those who testify that they have received a new nature.
Believers understand the world's failure "because it did not
know Him" (ou] ginw<skei h[ma?j). The aorist tense, "did not know"
(e@gnw) records the historical failure of the world to understand di-
vine reality. The precise failure in view is determined by the
identity of "Him." If "Him" is understood as a reference to God the
Father, then John was summarily noting that "the world's whole
course is one great act of non-recognition of God."18 "The world
through its wisdom did not come to know God" (1 Cor. 1:21). But oth-
ers, like White, hold that the aorist tense more naturally refers to
the Incarnate Christ.19 The world failed to understand or receive
God's supreme revelation of Himself in His Son (John 1:10-11). It
haired and rejected Him. This helps explain the world's reaction to
the Son's spiritual brothers and sisters. Barker notes,
ed. John F. Walvoord and Roy B. Zuck (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1983), p. 893.
15 Bruce M. Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New
United Bible Societies, 1971), pp. 711-12.
16 For the textual evidence see Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce
M. Metzger, and Allen Wikgren, The Greek New Testament, 3d ed. (United Bible Soci-
eties, 1975), p. 817; Zane C. Hodges and Arthur L. Farstad, The Greek New Testament
according to the Majority Text (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982).
17 For a thorough discussion of the textual problem see J. Harold Greenlee, Introduc-
tion to New Testament Textual Criticism (
18 Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset, and David Brown, A Commentary, Critical and Ex-
planatory, on the Old and New Testaments, vol. 2: New Testament
S. Scranton Co., n.d.), p. 531.
19 R. E. O. White, Open Letter to Evangelicals: A Devotional and Homiletic Com-
mentary on the First Epistle of John (
1964), p. 248.
204 Bibliotheca Sacra / April—June 1989
The author wants his readers to know that approval by the world is to be
feared, not desired. To be hated by the world may be unpleasant, but
ultimately it should reassure the members of the community of faith
that they are loved by God, which is far more important than the
The implications of God's love-gift (v. 2). Having enjoined his
readers to contemplate God's love-gift, John then gave personal ex-
pression to that love by addressing them as "beloved" ( ]Agaphtoi<)
(cf. 2:7). The recipients of God's love are also loved by the apostle.
He united his readers with himself in contemplating God's saving
love in the present and the future: "Now are we children of God, and
it has not appeared as yet what we shall be" (3:2a). The repeated
assertion that "we are children of God," with the added time ele-
ment "now" (nu?n), sets up the contrast with the future, again em-
phatically marked by "not ... yet" (ou@pw), while "and" (kai>) links
the two aspects of their new life as God's children. This God-im-
parted life "is not static but dynamic. A son grows, develops, ma-
tures. His goal of growth is maturity in the likeness of Christ Him-
self."21 While rejoicing in the present reality of their new life, be-
lievers also look forward to the undisclosed future. They know that
the best is yet to come! What that future holds "has not appeared as
yet." The verb "appeared" (e]fanerw<qh), a favorite word with
John,22 sets forth that the believers' future has not yet received open,
visible display. "A child of God," Lenski remarks, "is here and now,
indeed like a diamond that is crystal white within but is still uncut
and shows no brilliant flashes from reflecting facets."23
While the destiny of God's children has not yet been openly dis-
played, John gave confident expression to its essence: "We know that,
when He appears, we shall be like Him" (oi@damen o!ti e]a>n fan-
erwq^? o!moioi au]t&? e]so<meqa). "We know" (oi@damen) points to a well-
assured recognition grounded in the very nature of the apostolic mes-
sage. That display awaits a future undated event: "if He should ap-
pear" (e]a>n fanerwqh?). As in 2:28, the condition is again stated hypo-
thetically, not that John had any question as to its certainty, but be-
cause the time, from the standpoint of those cherishing this hope, is
entirely unknown. Neither John or his readers, like each generation
20 Glenn W. Barker, "1 John," in The Expositor's Bible Commentary (
Zondervan Publishing House, 1981), 12:330.
21 Edward A. McDowell, "1-2-3 John," in The Broadman Bible Commentary,
(Nashville: Broadman Press, 1972), 12:207.
22 It occurs nine times in 1 John, nine times in the Fourth Gospel, and twice in the Book
23 Lenski, The Interpretation of
the Epistles of St. Peter,
An Exposition of 1 John 2:29—3:12 205
of believers since then, could be sure that it would occur during their
lifetime. But the condition expresses an attitude of expectancy.
Since the subject of the verb "should appear" is unexpressed, views
differ as to whether to render "He," referring to Christ, or "it" as re-
ferring back to "what we shall be." Interpreters differ in their pref-
erence,74 but it seems more natural to understand "that John would
identify the time of the believer's complete Christlikeness as being
the second coming rather than the time when 'it is
Members of God's family are assured that whenever Christ re-
turns "we shall be like Him" (o!moioi au]t&? e]so<meqa). God's purpose to
develop Christlikeness in all the members of His family will be ful-
filled when Christ returns and all the children are "conformed to the
image of His Son, that He might be the first-born among many
brethren (Rom. 8:29). The indwelling Holy Spirit is already at
work in the lives of believers, inwardly transforming them into the
moral image of the Lord of glory (2 Cor. 3:18); that transformation
will be completed at the return of the glorified Christ, who will also
"transform the body of our humble state into conformity with the
body of His glory" (Phil. 3:21). But this glorious assurance must not
be misinterpreted to mean believers will become little gods. The ad-
jective "like" (o!moioi) denotes qualitative comparison, not equality.
Burdick well remarks, "Believers can never be equal to Christ, since
He is infinite and they are finite; but they can and will be similar to
Him in holiness and in resurrection bodies."26 As the incarnate Son of
God, who died, and rose again in a glorified body, He will ever be
distinct as "the first-born among many brethren" (Rom. 8:29), and the
vast family of redeemed human beings, purified and transformed
into His image, will ever "be to the praise of His glory" (Eph. 1:12).
The explanatory addition, "because we shall see Him just as He
is" (o!ti o]yo<meqa au]to>n kaqw<j e]stin), may indicate either the rea-
son for assurance that believers shall be like Christ, or the cause of
being like Him. In the former view "because" (o!ti) is taken as intro-
ducing a dependent clause relating back to the main verb "we know,"
giving the sense, "we know that we shall be like Him, because we
24 The rendering "it" is preferred by Henry Alford, The New Testament for English
and Lenski, The Interpretation of the Epistles of St.
rendering "He" is preferred by Westcott, The Epistles of St John, p.
The Epistles of John, p. 172, note 29; Stephen S. Smalley, 1, 2, 3 John, Word Biblical
Commentary, vol. 51 (Waco, TX: Word Books Publisher, 1984), pp. 145-46; Simon J.
Kistemaker, Exposition of the Epistle of James and the Epistles of John, New Bible
Commentary (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1986), p. 295, n. 5.
25 Burdick, The Letters of John the Apostle, p. 233.
26 Ibid., p. 234.
206 Bibliotheca Sacra / April-June 1989
shall see Him." This assumes that only those who are like Christ
will then see Him just as He really is. If the clause is connected with
the immediately preceding words "we shall be like Him," John was
explaining that the future face-to-face vision of Him will complete
the transformation into His likeness. Thus the amazing assertion
that "we shall be like Him" received the needed explanation. In
the words of Bruce, "If progressive assimilation to the likeness of
their Lord results from their present beholding of Him through a
glass darkly, to behold Him face to face, to 'see Him even as He is,'
will result in their being perfectly like Him."27 The comparative
adverb "just as" (kaqw<j) emphasizes that beholding Christ will no
longer be the imperfect vision of seeing His reflection in a mirror but
beholding our glorious Lord "face to face" (1 Cor. 13:12).
THE IMPACT OF CHRISTIAN HOPE ON PRESENT LIVING (v. 3)
John returned to the thought of 2:29 that the reality of the new
birth reveals itself in daily conduct. Verse 3 states "an all-important
corollary of the Christian hope." 28 The opening "and" (kai>) marks
the connection: "And everyone who has this hope fixed on Him pur-
ifies himself" (kai> pa?j o[ e@xwn th>n e]lpi<da tau<thn e]p ] au]t&? a[gni<zei
e[auto>n). The comprehensive "everyone" again allows for no excep-
tions for some elite group. The expression (pa?j o[) occurs seven times
in verses 3-15, suggesting that John was refuting some who claimed
special privileges for themselves. John insisted that this purifying
impact is true of "everyone who has this hope fixed on Him."
"This hope" (th>n e]lpi<da tau<thn), emphasized by the definite
article and the demonstrative pronoun, summarizes verse 2. The
word "hope," which occurs only here in the Johannine literature,29
concerns the unseen future but does not imply uncertainty or mere
probability. Christian hope is assured of future realization because
it is grounded in the Person of Christ. The familiar, "Every man that
hath this hope in him" (KJV), may be misunderstood as denoting a
hope the believer harbors in his own heart. John's expression "on
Him" (e]p ] au]t&?) describes this hope as reaching out and resting "on
Him" as its sure and unchanging foundation. It is based on the Person
of our glorified Lord who has promised to come again.
John insisted that every individual who holds to this objective
27 F. F. Bruce, The Epistles of John (Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1975), p.
28 C. H. Dodd, The Johannine Epistles, Moffatt New Testament Commentary (New
29 The noun "hope" occurs 53 times elsewhere in the New Testament. The verb "to
hope" occurs only in John 5:45; 2 John 12; and 3 John 14 in the Johannine writings.
An Exposition of 1 John 2:29-3:12 207
hope "purifies himself" (a]gni<zei e[auto<n); he willingly and repeat-
edly exercises self-purification. In John 11:55, the only other occur-
rence of this verb in the Johannine writings, the reference is to cere-
monial purification; here the term denotes inner moral purification.
The present tense points to the repeated experience, while "himself"
marks his consciousness of his own need for purification. Because of
his hope he cannot live comfortably with sin. In 1 John 1:7 John
stated that the blood of Christ cleanses, while here he wrote of self-
purification. Both are true and necessary. As the begrimed workman
must personally apply soap and water to be cleansed, so the believer
must appropriate the God-given means of cleansing from the moral
defilement that may have been incurred in daily life. Theology
speaks of this repeated cleansing as "progressive sanctification" (cf.
2 Cor. 7:1). In 1 Peter 1:22 Peter used this verb in the perfect tense,
"seeing ye have purified your souls in your obedience to the truth"
(ASV) to denote the cleansing that took place at regeneration (cf. John
13:10; 15:3; 17:19). That initial purification with its transforming
result is the necessary antecedent to this personal self-cleansing in
daily experience. The more intimate the believer's fellowship with
God, who is "light" (1 John 1:5), the more aware he is of his need to
cleanse himself from all that is moral darkness (1:5-7). The more he
contemplates this assured hope of being conformed to the image of
Christ, the more eagerly he strives for present purity (Phil. 3:13-14).
The added words, "just as He is pure" (kaqw>j e]kei?noj a[gno<j
e]stin) sets before the believer the pattern for self-purification.
"He" renders the demonstrative pronoun, "that one" (e]kei?noj),
referring to Christ. “We are not to judge our lives by other peoples,”
but by Christ's, who is the standard or goal toward which we are to
move."30 As a man among men, Jesus was "pure" (a[gno<j), morally
blameless, uncontaminated and sinless in character and conduct. John
did not say "just as He purified Himself," but rather "is pure," thus
asserting His unchanging nature. As such He is the perfect Model,
challenging believers constantly to purify themselves.
The Revelation from the Practice of Sin
John now showed that the practice of sin is a serious matter
which cannot be ignored. Since the false teachers seem to have held
that knowledge was all-important and conduct did not matter, John
insisted that sin and its practice is irreconcilable with the very na-
ture of Christianity. He had already mentioned "sin" before (1:7-9;
30 Herschel H. Hobbs, The Epistles of John (
1983), p. 81.
208 Bibliotheca Sacra / April—June 1989
2:2, 12), but now in 3:4-9 he mentioned the concept of sin no less than
10 times. He pointed out that the practice of sin reveals its true na-
ture (vv. 4-5) and established the distinctness between the two
classes of humanity (vv. 6-8a).
THE REVELATION OF THE NATURE OF SIN (vv. 4-5)
John stated that the nature of sin is lawlessness (v. 4) and is con-
trary to the very mission and character of Christ (v. 5).
Sin as lawlessness (v. 4). Again John made a statement that al-
lows for no exceptions: "everyone who practices sin also practices
lawlessness" (pa?j o[ poiw?n th>n a[marti<an kai> th>n a]nomi<an poiei?).
It pictures a class that is the opposite of those practicing righteous-
ness (2:29). The articular present participle (o[ poiw?n) portrays an
individual characteristically engaged in the practice of sin. Burdick
notes that "the KJV translation, 'committeth,' is misleading in that
it suggests a point of action rather than the continuing practice."31
The definite article with both "sin" and "lawlessness" shows that
John was thinking of two inclusive concepts rather than single occur-
rences. In classical Greek the word "sin" denoted "to miss, to fail, to
fall short,"32 but in the New Testament this negative meaning is
largely lost sight of and sin is viewed as positive and active, a de-
liberate deviation from the standard of right. It is a willful rebel-
lion, arising from the deliberate choice of the sinner. "Sin is the
greatest tragedy of the entire universe. It's actually rebellion
against God."33 Thus by its very nature the practice of sin has the
character of lawlessness.
The added clause, "and sin is lawlessness" (kai> h[ a[marti<a
e]sti>n h[ a]nomi<a), states the essential nature of sin. Since both nouns
have the definite article, the terms are interchangeable. Sin by its
very nature involves an element of lawlessness, and every form of
lawlessness is sin. "Lawlessness" (a]nomi<a) denotes not the absence of
law but the willful rejection of the law, or the will of God, and the
substitution of the will of self. It is thus the very opposite of righ-
teousness, which is conformity to the standard or law of right.
Sin as incompatible with Christ's mission (v. 5). John's words
"and you know" (kai> oi#date) remind his readers that this further
revelation of the nature of sin will be obvious to all those who have
experienced the truth of the apostolic message about Christ's re-
31 Burdick, The Letters of John the Apostle, p. 236.
32 Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, 7th ed. (
Clarendon Press, 1890), p. 72.
33 Quinton J. Everest, Messages from I John (
1982), p. 90.
An Exposition of 1 John 2:29–3:12 209
demptive mission. The message, "that He appeared in order to take
away sins" (o!ti e]kei?noj e]fanerwqh i!na ta>j a[marti<aj a@r^), de-
clared that the practice of sin is incompatible with Christ's mission.
The use of the demonstrative pronoun "that one" (e]kei?noj) as the
subject of the verb points back to the unique Person who "appeared"
on the scene of human history. John did not say Christ "was born" but
that He "appeared" or was made visible to human eyes. This im-
plies His preexistence before His incarnate appearance among
mankind. He appeared "in order to take away sins," literally, "the
sins" (ta>j a[marti<aj), that is, the multitudinous acts of human sin.
The plural is in keeping with John's concern with the practice of sin
rather than the sinful inner nature prompting them.
Christ came "to take away" (a@r^) those sins. The verb may
mean "to lift and bear" or "to take away." The latter is the meaning
here. That this involved His expiatory sacrifice on the cross is cer-
tain, but that is not the point here. In view is the effect of the
atonement on human practice. Bultmann remarks that this stated
purpose is parallel to the purpose in verse 8, "that He might destroy
the works of the devil."34
The reading "to take away our sins" (KJV) follows the Textus Re-
ceptus (ta>j a[marti<aj h[mw?n a@r^). The manuscript evidence for "our"
is divided,35 and it is not easy to decide whether it is authentic. If it
is original, it adds to the forcefulness of John's reminder to the readers
that the practice of sin is contrary to Christ's purpose for believers.
For a professed believer to persist in the practice of sin shows that
he is still spiritually blind to the purpose of Christ, or demonstrates
that he willfully scorns and rejects the intention of Christ for him.
The added words, "and in Him there is no sin," underline the
sinless nature of the Redeemer. As "righteous" (2:1) and "pure" (3:3),
He who opposes sins in the lives of His people is Himself without
sin. His sinlessness, Smalley observes, "was a feature of his exis-
tence to which Christian witness was constantly borne (in the NT,
see 2 Cor. 5:21; Heb. 4:15; 1 Pet. 1:19; 2:21-22; cf. John 8:46; Heb. 7:26; 1
Pet. 3:18)."36 As such He is the perfect Pattern of what the child of
God should be.
THE REVELATION OF TWO DISTINCT CLASSES OF HUMANITY (vv. 6-8a)
Viewed in the light of Christ's mission (v. 5), the moral quality
of their habitual conduct reveals two distinct classes of humanity.
34 Bultmann, The Johannine Epistles, p. 51.
35 For the textual evidence see Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum Graece, 26th ed.
36 Smalley, 1, 2, 3 John, p. 157.
210 Bibliotheca Sacra I April-June 1989
John wrote of their contrasted conduct (v. 6) and thus established
their distinctive character (vv. 7-8a).
The practice of the two classes (v. 6). The distinctive practice of
the two classes is tersely stated: "No one who abides in Him sins; no
one who sins has seen Him or knows Him." In both statements "no
one" (literally, "everyone" combined with the negative, pa?j o[ . . .
ou]x) marks a distinct group with no exceptions.
Everyone in the first class is characterized as "one who abides in
Him" (pa?j o[ e]n au]t&? me<nwn, "every one in Him abiding"). The po-
sition of "in Him" between the article and the participle marks his
intimate relationship with Christ as an essential part of his iden-
tity, while the present tense participle denotes the on-going re-
lationship being maintained. To "abide in Christ means to "obey"
Him (John 15:10). Of such a one John asserted that "not he sins" (ou]x
a[marta<nei); he does not continue in willful, habitual sin. John al-
ready indicated that the believer cannot claim never to commit an
act of sin (1:8-9; 2:1). Sin may enter his experience as an exception
needing confession and cleansing; he is not at liberty to make occa-
sional excursions into sin, but must seek to avoid any lapses into sin.
John's apparently contradictory statements concerning sin and the
believer reflect the inner tension Paul discussed in Romans 7.
On the other hand, "no one who sins has seen Him or knows
Him." The construction again depicts a distinct class, all character-
ized by the practice of sin as the ruling principle of their lives. Of
each one in this class John asserted that he has not "seen Him," has
never experienced a dynamic visual encounter with Christ, nor
"knows Him," has never gained an intimate acquaintance with Hirn.
The two negations are not identical in meaning. "To see a person is to
view his external likeness, but to know a person is to become familiar
with the characteristics of his personality."37 The first verb, "has
seen" (e[w<raken), here does not refer to a literal seeing of Jesus in the
flesh, as in 1 John 1:2-3, but denotes a spiritual vision of Him through
faith (cf. Eph. 1:18; Heb. 11:27).
The character of the two classes (vv. 7-8a). The moral identity
of each group is established by their characteristic conduct. John
first expressed a pastoral warning (v. 7a) and then presented a clear
character evaluation of each group (vv. 7b-8a).
The tender address directed to the readers, "little children" (tek-
ni<a; see 2:1, 12), appeals to their consciousness that they are members
of God's family. The warning, "let no one deceive you" (mhdei>j pla-
na<tw u[ma?j), calls on them to be alert constantly to the danger from
the false teachers, apparently those who had left their assemblies
37 Burdick, The Letters of John the Apostle, p. 240.
An Exposition of 1 John 2:29—3:12 211
(2:19) but were aggressively promulgating their false views. While
the negative (mh<) with the present imperative generally calls for ces-
sation of an action already in progress, John did not mean that his
readers were already being deceived. He called on them to be alert
against the danger. In 2:26 the warning was against doctrinal
deception; here the warning is against moral deception. John well
knew that "the false teachers with their sophistry were capable not
merely of condoning sin, but of making it seem virtuous."38 To avoid de-
ception they needed to discern the moral identity of the individual.
The criterion for a true believer is stated in the words, "the one
who practices righteousness is righteous" (o[ poiw?n th>n dikaiosu<nhn
di<kaio<j e]stin). The test is not the believer's performance of an
occasional righteous deed, but rather his habitual practice of
"righteousness," literally, "the righteousness" which is the product
of the new birth (cf. 2:29). The practice of righteousness does not
make him righteous but reveals his inner nature. It is the test of
Matthew 7:16, "you will know them by their fruits." It refutes any
claim by the heretical teachers to be righteous because of their pro-
fessed esoteric knowledge.
The opposite is also true: "the one who practices sin is of the
devil" (o[ poiw?n th>n a[marti<an e]k tou? diabo<lou e]sti<n). The prac-
tice of sin also reveals family identity. One who practices "the sin,"
as marking the realm of the devil, thereby reveals his diabolical
nature. John did not say such a one is "born of the devil" (contrast
2:29), but "is of the devil." The "of" (e]k) denotes source, not of his
existence, but of the evil that dominates his life and practice (John
8:41-44). By neglecting and rejecting the moral requirements of God's
Word the heretics clearly revealed that their priorities were rooted
in the realm of the devil.
The words, "for the devil has sinned from the beginning" (o!ti
ap ] a]rxh?j o[ dia<boloj a[marta<nei), explain why the practice of sin
is diabolical; he is its originator. The phrase "from the beginning,"
placed emphatically forward, does not mean from the beginning of
the devil's existence; that would make God responsible for this evil
being. It rather points back to that primeval disaster when this au-
gust being arose in self-willed rebellion against God and thus became
the arch-opponent of God and His good purposes.39 Ever since his
fall the devil "has sinned" (a[marta<nei), "goes on sinning" as his un-
38 Bruce, The Epistles of John, p. 91.
39 For a survey of the biblical picture of the devil see The Zondervan Pictorial Ency-
clopedia of the Bible, s.v. "Satan," by D. Edmond Hiebert, 5:282-86.
212 Bibliotheca Sacra / April-June 1989
The Deliverance from the Practice of Sin
The nature and results of sin make inevitable God's opposition to
sin and the work of the devil. John wrote of the divine provision for
deliverance from sin (v. 8b) and the human experience of deliverance
through the new birth (v. 9).
DIVINE PROVISION FOR DELIVERANCE FROM SIN (v. 8b)
Deliverance from sin is grounded in the work of the incarnate
Son of God. God took the initiative: "The Son of God appeared for
this purpose, that He might destroy the works of the devil." The
distinctive title, "the Son of God," underlines the true identity of the
One who "appeared" to crush the power of Satan and sin. The verb
"appeared," indicating His visible manifestation in the Incarnation,
points back to His preexistence as the eternal Son of God. His iden-
tity marks the supernatural struggle involved in God's purpose "that
He might destroy the works of the devil." His work was not accom-
plished through a dramatic act of divine omnipotence, but rather
was wrought by the incarnate Son who identified Himself with
mankind in taking on Himself human nature to be their Deliverer.
The stated purpose, "that He might destroy the works of the
devil" (i!na lu<s^ ta> e@rga tou? diabo<lou), presents Christ's redemp-
tive mission as it relates to that great spiritual antagonist of God
and Mankind. The plural "the works" points to the massive activi-
ties of the devil in leading human beings into sin. All those works
have a certain coherence as being prompted by satanic hatred and
rebellion against God. The aorist verb "might destroy" (lu<s^) im-
plies a decisive occurrence and seems naturally to refer to Christ's
victory over the devil on the cross (John 12:31; Heb. 2:14). The verb
does not mean "to annihilate" but variously means "to loose, untie,
break up, give release," as when the disciples loosed the colt in
Matthew 21:2. In His victory over the devil on the cross Christ broke
the chains of sin whereby the devil had brought mankind under his
domination (Heb. 2:14-15). This undoing of the devil's works in
breaking the power of sin was effectively
now going forward through the Spirit-empowered preaching of the
gospel, and will be consummated at Christ's return and the
incarceration of the devil (Rev. 20:1-3).
HUMAN EXPERIENCE OF DELIVERANCE THROUGH THE NEW BIRTH (v. 9)
John gave a double statement of the human experience of deliv-
erance from sin as Christ's provision is apprehended and appropri-
ated by faith. The first statement, "no one who is born of God prac-
tices sin" (pa?j o[ gegennhme<noj e]k tou? qeou? a[marti<an ou] poei?,
literally, "Everyone having been born of God sin not is doing"), again
An Exposition of 1 John 2:29—3:12 213
expresses a universal with no exceptions. The articular perfect pas-
sive participle (o[ gegennhme<noj) points to the individual's experi-
ence of the new birth with the result that he is now a newborn being.
The full phrase "born of God" occurs here in 1 John for the first time
(cf. 2:29, "born of Him") and is repeatedly used hereafter. Concern-
ing everyone who is such a born-again individual John asserted, "sin
not he is doing" (Gr.). The NASB rendering "practices" adequately
gives the meaning. It is a restatement of verse 6. There the believer's
abiding in Christ explains his conduct; here it is his new nature.
John explained what has happened: "because His seed abides in
him" (o!ti spe<rma au]tou? e]n au]t&? me<nei). The indwelling of "His
seed" motivates the believer's moral conduct. The metaphorical
designation "His seed" is variously understood. It may be taken to
denote the Word of God, or the gospel, as the regenerating agent that
produces the new birth (cf. James 1:18, 21; 1 Pet. 1:23-25).40 Others
take the term more generally as designating the divine principle of
life, the new birth, which God implants in the believer.41 Still oth-
ers hold that the reference is to the Holy Spirit as the life-giving
Agent.42 Though the term "seed" is not elsewhere directly used of
the Holy Spirit, this view is in keeping with John 3:5-8, where Jesus
associated the Holy Spirit with the new birth, and the fact that
"He is also the producer of Christian character in the believer (2
Cor. 3:18; Gal. 5:22-23)."43 In view of these varied views Smalley
holds that "the most satisfactory exegesis of this passage is one
which brings together the two concepts of 'word' and
viously the Word of God is the life-giving means which the Holy
Spirit uses to implant and develop the new nature in the believer.
John further stated of the believer, "and he cannot sin, because
he is born of God" (kai> ou] du<natai a[marta<nein, o!ti e]k tou? qeou?
gege<nnhtai). It is often felt that these words are difficult, or even
inconsistent with John's teaching in 1:8-2:3, as well as the experience
of the most saintly believer. John's stated impossibility is grounded
in the moral incongruity between the practice of sin and the nature of
40 Dodd, The Johannine Epistles, pp. 77-78; William Barclay, The Letters of John and
Jude (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1960), p. 94; Lenski, The Interpretation of the
Epistles of St. Peter,
41 Westcott, The Epistles of
Kistemaker, Exposition of the Epistle of James and the Epistles of John, p. 303.
42 Burdick, The Letters of John the Apostle, p. 247; A. E. Brooke, A Critical and Ex-
egetical Commentary on the Johannine Epistles, International Critical Commentary
(New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1912), p. 89.
43 Burdick, The Letters of John the Apostle, p. 247.
44 Smalley, 1, 2, 3 John, p. 173.
214 Bibliotheca Sacra I April—June 1989
the divinely bestowed new birth. Here again the force of the present
tenses as suggesting habitual practice must be kept in view. This
moral incompatibility between sin and the new birth reflects the
conflict between God and the devil. The new birth inevitably im-
plants this conflict between the two powers into the experience of
the believer. As Bruce observes,
The new birth involves a radical change in human nature; for those who
have not experienced it, sin is natural, whereas for those who have ex-
perienced it, sin is unnatural—so unnatural, indeed, that its practice
constitutes a powerful refutation of any claim to possess the divine life.
John's antitheses are clear-cut. While they are to be understood in the
context of his letter and of the situation which it presupposes, any at-
tempt to weaken them out of regard for human infirmity, or to make
them less sharp and uncompromising than they are, is to misinterpret
John's present tense "he cannot sin" (ou] du<natai a[marta<nein)
does not declare a perfectionism that insists that the believer no
longer commits an act of sin. Rather, as Barclay, states,
He is demanding a life which is ever on the watch against sin, a life
which ever fights the battle of goodness, a life which has never surren-
dered to sin, a life in which sin is not the permanent state, but only the
temporary aberration, a life in which sin is not the normal accepted
way, but the abnormal moment of defeat.46
The Sign of the Children of God
and the Children of the Devil
In verses 10-11 John restated the sign of the children of God and
the children of the devil and emphasized the significance of brother-
love. In verse 12 he appended the negative illustration of Cain.
THE CRITERIA FOR THE TWO CLASSES OF HUMANITY (vv. 10-11)
The words, "By this the children of God and the children of the
devil are obvious," mark a summary of the discussion of the two
classes of mankind. "By this" (e]n tou<t&) may refer either to what
precedes or what follows. The plural adjective "obvious" (fanera<),
meaning "visible, plainly to be seen," calls attention to the visible
deeds of each group as establishing their spiritual parentage. "A
man's principles are invisible," Plummer notes, "but their results are
visible."47 This test reveals only two classes, "the children of God
and the children of the devil." John knew of no intermediate class.
45 Bruce, The Epistles of John, p. 92.
46 Barclay, The Letters of John and Jude, pp. 96-97.
47 Plummer, The Epistles of S. John, p. 128.
An Exposition of 1 John 2:29-3:12 215
The children of the devil (v. 10b). The designation, "children of
the devil," occurs only here in the New Testament (but compare "son
of the devil" [Acts 13:10] and "your father the devil" [John 8:44] as
synonymous). "Of the devil" (tou? diabo<lou) does not mean unbe-
lievers owe their existence to the devil, but rather that "a creature
endowed with free will can choose his own parent in the moral
world" 48 (cf. John 1:12).
John restated the evidence from personal conduct: "Anyone who
does not practice rightousness is not of God" (pa?j o[ mh> poiw?n
dikaiosu<nhn ou]k e@stin e]k tou? qeou?). The universal negation al-
lows for no exceptions. His deeds lack the quality of righteousness.
The added characterization, "nor the one who does not love his
brother" (kai> o[ mh> a]gapw?n to>n a]delfo>n au]tou?) makes clear that
the love of the brethren is an important aspect of the practice of
righteousness. Love is righteousness in relation to others: "For all
the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this; Thou shalt love thy
neighbour as thyself" (Gal. 5:14, KJV). "His brother" here denotes a
fellow believer. His failure to love another member of the family
was tangible evidence that he lacked the inner bond uniting the
members of the family. He was motivated by a different spirit.
The children of God (v. 11). The opening word "For" (o!ti) intro-
duces a verification of the preceding negative assertion. The absence
of love in the life of a professed believer, is inconsistent with the
apostolic message proclaimed to them. That message declared "that
we should love one another" (i!na a]gapw?men a]llh<louj), that the
practice of mutual love was fundamental to the Christian faith. The
reciprocal pronoun "one another" (a]llh<louj) stresses the mutual op-
eration of love in social relations, each lovingly seeking the welfare
of the other. It was the command of Christ Himself (John 15:12, 17).
THE NEGATIVE ILLUSTRATION OF CAIN (v. 12)
John cited the illustration of Cain as evidence that absence of
love marks a child of the devil. This is the only reference to an Old
Testament event in John's epistles. It established that love and ha-
tred, characterizing the children of God and the children of the
devil, have been operative since the earliest days of human history.
The opening negative, "not as Cain, who was of the evil one," in-
troduces a contrast to verse 11. Cain is identified as "of the evil one"
(e]k tou? ponhrou?), another name for the devil marking his malignant
and destructive nature. Cain "drew his inspiration from the evil one,
the devil, who is himself the archetypal murderer (Jn. 8:46)."49
49 Marshall, The Epistles of John, p. 189.
216 Bibliotheca Sacra / April–June 1989
Cain's evil deed, "and slew his brother," demonstrated his evil
character. The verb "slew" (e@sfacen) portrays the violence of his
action. It occurs in the New Testament only here and in the Book of
Revelation (Rev. 5:6, 9, 12; 6:4, 9; 13:3, 8; 18:24). Used of the slaying
of sacrificial animals, it points out the coldblooded, vicious action of
John's unexpected rhetorical question, "And for what reason did
he slay him?" elicits the motive for his vicious deed. It brings out
more strongly the diabolical nature of the act and its agent. John's
own answer, "Because his deeds were evil, and his brother's were
righteous," stresses the contrast between the deeds of the two broth-
ers as manifestations of their character. The righteous deeds of Abel
evoked Cain's jealousy and hatred and led to murder. "Jealousy-ha-
tred-murder is a natural and terrible sequence."50
It is still true the believer's righteous character and conduct
arouse the world's hatred. And, as in the case of Cain, that hatred
is often expressed in vicious and violent action against the righteous.
50 J. R. W. Stott, The Epistles of John, The Tyndale New Testament Commentaries
(Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1964), p. 140.
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