Bibliotheca Sacra 153 (July-September, 1996) 332-43.
Copyright © 1996 by
AND MINOR CHARACTERS
IN MARK'S GOSPEL
Joel F. Williams
How should an interpreter approach the study of dis-
cipleship in the Gospel of Mark?1 For the most part, recent studies
on the topic have focused on Mark's portrayal of the disciples
along with Jesus' teaching to His disciples. In discussing past re-
search on this subject, Malbon states, "Discipleship—that is, fol-
lowing Jesus—has been recognized as a central theme or motif in
the Gospel of Mark. Understandably enough, the portrayal of the
disciples in Mark has often been the focus of scholarly investiga-
tion of the theme of discipleship."2 Malbon points out that past
scholarly investigations are inadequate because "what Mark has
to say about discipleship is understood in reference not only to the
disciples but also to other Markan characters who meet the de-
mands of following Jesus."3 In other words the study of disciple-
ship in Mark's Gospel is broader than a study of the disciples.
In addition to Mark's portrayal of the disciples he included a
number of so-called "minor characters" who followed Jesus and
lived in accord with His teaching. An examination of these mi-
nor characters is important for an understanding of Mark's view
of discipleship, that is, his perspective on what is involved in fol-
Joel F. Williams is Assistant Professor of Bible, Columbia International Univer-
1 This article is a summary of certain theological aspects of the author's disser-
tation, which has been published as Other Followers of Jesus: Minor Characters
as Major Figures in Mark's Gospel, JSNT Supplement Series
Gospel of Mark," Semeia 28 (1983): 29.
3 Ibid., 30.
Discipleship and Minor Characters in Mark's Gospel 333
lowing Jesus and living up to His demands and ideals.4
The main character groups in Mark's Gospel are the disci-
ples, the opponents of Jesus, and the crowd.5 In addition to these
groups, a number of individual characters are included in
Mark's narrative. Some of them, such as Andrew or Peter, are
disciples, while others, such as the high priest or Pilate, oppose Je-
sus. Also a number of minor characters function neither as Je-
sus' disciples nor as His opponents. Instead, these individuals
come from the crowd, in the sense that they belong to the general
population, to the group of people outside of Jesus' disciples or op-
ponents. They were not specifically called and commissioned to
be Jesus' disciples, and they did not align themselves with the re-
ligious and political establishments that opposed Jesus and sought
to destroy Him. These minor characters from the crowd appear in
the narrative when they meet with Jesus, and after their en-
counter with Him, they generally disappear from the narrative.
Some, such as the leper, come to Jesus for help, while others, such
as the poor widow, exemplify the teaching of Jesus. Mark's Gospel
includes twenty-two passages that present these minor characters
from the crowd and their response to Jesus. What would Mark's
view of discipleship look like if his presentation of minor charac-
ters were included in a study of this theme?
Certain principles help guide this study. The first is that
Mark's Gospel is a narrative, that is, a narration of a series of
events. The Gospel of Mark is a historical narrative, but it is a
narrative nonetheless.6 This observation may seem obvious, but
4 For other studies of the minor characters in Mark see Robert C. Tannehill,
"The Gospel of Mark as Narrative Christology," Semeia 16 (1979): 62-68; David
Rhoads and Donald Michie, Mark as Story: An Introduction to the Narrative of a
Gospel (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1982), 129-34; Jack Dean Kingsbury, Conflict in
Mark: Jesus, Authorities, Disciples (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1989), 24-27; and Eliz-
abeth Struthers Malbon, "The Major Importance of the Minor Characters in Mark,"
in The New Literary Criticism and the New Testament, ed. Edgar V. McKnight
and Elizabeth Struthers Malbon (Valley Forge, PA: Trinity, 1994), 58-86.
5 On the validity of referring to people in biblical narratives as characters, see
Tremper Longman III, Literary Approaches to Biblical Interpretation, Founda-
tions of Contemporary Interpretation 3 (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987), 88; and R.
Alan Culpepper, Anatomy of the Fourth Gospel: A Study in Literary Design, Foun-
dations and Facets: New Testament (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983), 105-6.
6 For arguments showing that Mark's Gospel presents a coherent narrative, see
Norman R. Petersen, Literary Criticism for New Testament Critics, Guides to Bib-
lical Scholarship (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1978), 49-80; and idem, "`Point of View' in
Mark's Narrative," Semeia 12 (1978): 97-121. Hans W. Frei also argues for the need
to understand the Gospels as realistic narrative (The Eclipse of Biblical Narra-
tive: A Study of Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Hermeneutics [
334 BIBLIOTHECA SACRA / July–September 1996
it has important implications, especially for Gospel research,
which has often neglected the story elements of the Gospels. In the
past several decades New Testament studies have emphasized the
theological message of the Gospel writers and the significance of
this message for the Gospel writer's community. In such studies
the theological concepts of the Gospel are often extracted from the
text with little concern for how these concepts fit with the narrative
features of the Gospel and the unfolding plot of the story. However,
the Gospels are not theological treatises but narratives, and they
are best understood when they are treated as such.7 This is true
even in an analysis of the theological theme of discipleship, since
Mark uses narrative features such as plot and characterization to display his
perspective on following Jesus. This article examines Mark's portrayal of minor
characters to show how this feature communicates his view of discipleship.
A second principle is that Mark's Gospel as a whole, that is,
every aspect of his text, is important for understanding his view-
points.8 In recent decades critics have treated Mark as a scissors-
and-paste editor, who cut and pieced together traditions to create a
portrait of Jesus. In studying Mark's viewpoints, critics have iso-
lated and set aside the traditional elements in Mark's Gospel and
have concentrated instead on the seams and patches that Mark
contributed to the story. Such an approach, however, often treats
large sections of the Gospel as irrelevant to Mark's message,
even though Mark himself considered these sections important
enough to include them. It is easy to see how an approach that ig-
nores traditional material would diminish the significance of
Bases of Dogmatic
or Will It Break?" in The Bible and the Narrative Tradition, ed. Frank McConnell
7 "Themes and other such literary characteristics rightly belong in the centre of
an interpretation of Mark in a way that ‘theology’ and ‘theological themes’ do not, if
for no other reason than that the form of the Second Gospel is not that of a self-con-
sciously theological treatise. Mark is first of all a narrative and, at least on initial
approach, should be treated as such" (C. Clifton Black, "The Quest of Mark the
Redactor: Why Has It Been Pursued, and What Has It Taught Us?," Journal for the
Study of the New Testament 33 [19881: 32). On this point also see C. Clifton Black,
The Disciples according to Mark: Markan Redaction in Current Debate, JSNT
Supplement Series 27 (Sheffield: JSOT, 1989), 239. For descriptions of how recent
studies examine the narrative features of the Gospels, see Stephen D. Moore,
"Narrative Commentaries on the Bible: Context, Roots, and Prospects," Forum 3
(1987): 29-62; idem, Literary Criticism and the Gospels: The Theoretical Challenge
(New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989), 3-68; Mark Allan Powell, What Is
Narrative Criticism? Guides to Biblical Scholarship (
1990); and Elizabeth Struthers Malbon, "Narrative Criticism: How Does the Story
Mean?" in Mark and Method: New Approaches in Biblical Studies, ed. Janice
Capel Anderson and Stephen D. Moore (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1992), 23–49.
8 Powell, What Is Narrative Criticism? 7, 91–93.
Discipleship and Minor Characters in Mark's Gospel 335
Mark's presentation of minor characters, since most of this ma-
terial would be identified as coming from Mark's sources.
A third principle is that interpreters should give attention to
the sequence of the narrative, to Mark's order of presentation.9 A
narrative is more like a path than a picture. A narrative is not a
spatial object that may be viewed as a whole at any one moment.
Rather a narrative tells a story in sequence, with a beginning,
middle, and end. In a narrative the author takes the reader
through the presentation of a story step by step, and the story may
have twists and turns along the way. Interpreters have sometimes
presented Mark's view of discipleship as a set of abstract con-
cepts. Evidence for these concepts is taken from the Gospel with
little concern for the place of this evidence in the development of
the plot. Such an approach neglects the way in which Mark uses
the twists and turns of the story to affect the way one looks at a
theme such as discipleship. Therefore this article follows Mark's
order of presentation in analyzing the relationship between mi-
nor characters and the theme of discipleship.
A fourth principle is that Mark's Gospel has a rhetorical
function.10 Mark did not write simply to convey historical in-
9 The importance of the sequential flow of the narrative and the temporal nature
of reading is emphasized in the work of some New Testament scholars. See
Richard A. Edwards, Matthew's Story of Jesus (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985), 9;
Robert M. Fowler, Let the Reader Understand: Reader-Response Criticism and
the Gospel of Mark (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1991), 3, 42-46; David B. Howell,
Matthew's Inclusive Story: A Study in the Narrative Rhetoric of the First Gospel,
JSNT Supplement Series 42 (Sheffield: JSOT, 1990), 43–44, 243–45; and Jeffrey L.
Staley, The Print's First Kiss: A Rhetorical Investigation of the Implied Reader in
the Fourth Gospel, SBL Dissertation Series 82 (Atlanta: Scholars, 1988), 8–9, 19–20.
For a similar approach to interpretation within the broader field of literary criti-
cism, see Wolfgang Iser, The Act of Reading: A Theory of Aesthetic Response
(Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1978), 108–9; idem, The Implied Reader:
Communication in Prose Fiction from Bunyan to Beckett (
Interpretation and Reader-Response Criticism," Studies in the Literary Imagina-
tion 12 (Spring 1979): 96, 100; Menakhem Perry, "Literary Dynamics: How the Order
of a Text Creates Its Meanings," Poetics Today 1 (Autumn 1979): 35-64, 311-61; Meir
Expositional Modes and Temporal Ordering in Fiction (
Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978), 34, 96–97; and idem, "Time and Reader," in
The Uses of Adversity: Failure and Accommodation in Reader Response, ed. Ellen
Spolsky (Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 1990), 50–51, 77–78, 85.
10 On the rhetorical function of narratives, see Wayne C. Booth, The Rhetoric of
Fiction, 2d ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983), 89-116; Meir Sternberg,
The Poetics of Biblical Narrative: Ideological Literature and the Drama of Read-
ing (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1985), 1-2; idem, "Time and Space
in Biblical (Hi)story Telling: The Grand Chronology," in The Bible and the Text:
The Bible and Literary
91; and Susan R. Suleiman, "Introduction: Varieties of Audience-Oriented Criti-
cism," in The Reader in the Text: Essays on Audience and Interpretation, ed. Su-
336 BIBLIOTHECA SACRA / July—September 1996
formation, theological ideas, or a well-formed story. Mark also
wrote his Gospel to move his readers to follow Jesus and live up to
Jesus' demands. Mark's Gospel is a call to discipleship. A true
interpretation of Mark must not ignore or obscure its rhetorical
purpose, but instead must convey its message in such a way that
the call to follow Jesus will be heard again.
MINOR CHARACTERS IN MARK
What can be learned about discipleship from Mark's treat-
ment of minor characters? Through these individuals Mark em-
phasizes the importance of faith, the open invitation to follow Je-
sus, and the real possibility of failure in discipleship. Mark de-
velops these minor characters in three stages. First, in the chap-
ters that deal with Jesus'
suppliants, that is, as those who come to Jesus asking for His help.
In the second stage, minor characters function as exemplars, as
positive examples of what it means to follow Jesus and to accept
His teachings and values. This second stage begins with the por-
trayal of Bartimaeus at the end of chapter 10 and continues
through the death and burial of Jesus (10:46-16:7). In the final
stage, at the very end of the Gospel (16:8), Mark presents minor
characters as negative examples, as examples of failure and dis-
obedience. This final stage is not an extended section, but rather
an unexpected turn of events at the end of the narrative.
STAGE ONE: MINOR CHARACTERS AS SUPPLIANTS
In his prologue (1:1-15), Mark introduces Jesus as the au-
thoritative Messiah and Son of God, who proclaimed the gospel, a
message that demands repentance and faith in light of the near-
ness of the kingdom. Following the prologue Mark narrates the
initial ministry of Jesus in the region of
chapters of the Gospel introduce different character groups and
show their response to Jesus, so that in a rough pattern of rotation
Jesus interacts with the disciples, the crowd, the demons, and the
religious authorities.11 At times Mark narrates scenes that show
Jesus dealing with more than one character group.12 In the first
three chapters of Mark's Gospel, the minor characters appear in
these mixed episodes, which present more than (me character
group. Often the demons, the disciples, or Jesus' opponents play
the more active role in the passage. The minor characters are
san R. Suleiman and Inge Crosman (
11 Tannehill, "The Gospel of Mark as Narrative Christology," 68.
12 Ibid., 69.
Discipleship and Minor Characters in Mark's Gospel 337
suppliants, needy people who come to Him for help, but the needs of
these individuals serve to highlight some other feature of the nar-
rative. The appearance of a possessed man in the synagogue pro-
vides an occasion for Jesus to display His authority over the
demons (1:21–28). The sickness of Simon Peter's mother-in-law
gives the disciples opportunity to express their trust in Jesus
(1:29–31). The healing of the paralytic (2:1–12) and the healing of
the man with the withered hand (3:1–6) highlight the growing
conflict between Jesus and the religious authorities.
In the first three chapters of Mark's Gospel, the minor charac-
ters most fully developed are the leper (1:40–45) and the paralytic
(2:1–12), both people of faith. The leper says to Jesus, "If you are
willing, you are able to cleanse me" (1:40). The paralytic and his
four helpers express their faith by overcoming the obstacle of the
crowd in order to meet with Jesus (2:2–5). In the following narra-
tive, faith continued to be an important feature in Mark's depic-
tion of these characters.
In chapters 4–8, Mark presents minor characters as figures
contrasting to the disciples.13 While the disciples respond to Jesus
with a growing incomprehension and lack of trust, the suppliants
react with faith and insight. Particularly prominent in chapters
4–8 are the three boat scenes in which Jesus travels with His dis-
ciples on the Sea of Galilee.14 In each of these scenes, either Jesus
or the narrator criticizes the disciples for their lack of faith and
understanding (4:40; 6:52; 8:17-18). In the first boat scene (4:35-
41), Jesus stills the storm by rebuking the wind and the waves,
and then He rebukes the disciples for their timidity and lack of
faith. Mark furthers the criticism of the disciples by noting that
they "feared a great fear." This fear was no longer directed at the
fierce storm, but at Jesus, the One who demands the obedience of
the wind and the sea.
The first boat scene is followed by three miracle stories that
present minor characters as people who overcome fear and re-
spond with faith. After calming the sea, Jesus delivers a tor-
mented man, the Gerasene demoniac (5:1–20). With a response
similar to that of the disciples in the preceding episode, the people
of the region become frightened after they learn of the miracle,
and, like the disciples, their fear is directed at Jesus. They ex-
13 For a description of the disciples' story in Mark's Gospel, see Robert C. Tan-
nehill, "The Disciples in Mark: The Function of a Narrative Role," Journal of Reli.
gion 57 (1977): 386-405. For the idea that minor characters serve as foils for the dis-
ciples, see Kingsbury, Conflict in Mark, 25-27; Rhoads and Michie, Mark as Story,
132-34; and Tannehill, "The Disciples in Mark," 391, 404-5.
14 Norman R. Petersen, "The Composition of Mark 4:1-8:26," Harvard Theologi-
cal Review 73 (1980): 195-96.
338 BIBLIOTHECA SACRA / July—September 1996
press their fear by asking Jesus to leave. In contrast to the onlook-
ers and thus in contrast to the disciples, the Gerasene demoniac is
not afraid of Jesus, and instead of wanting to be rid of Jesus, he
begs for permission to be with Him. Faith and fear continue to be
prominent themes in the following scene, which includes the
healing of Jairus' daughter and the healing of the hemorrhaging
woman (5:21-43). According to Jesus, the woman is healed of her
affliction because of her faith. She also overcomes her fear and
comes to Jesus when He insists on making this private miracle a
matter of public record. When Jesus calls on Jairus to put away
fear and to continue to believe, Jairus obeys even though all hope
seems lost after the report of his daughter's death. In this way both
the hemorrhaging woman and Jairus stand in contrast to the dis-
ciples who lack courage and fail to trust.
In the second boat scene (6:45-52), the disciples react with
fear and amazement when Jesus comes to them walking on the
water. According to Mark their amazement is a negative re-
sponse because it grew out of their lack of understanding and
their hardness of heart. The next minor character, the Sy-
rophoenician woman, with her boldness and insight, stands in
contrast to the disciples (7:24-30). She is faced with the dilemma
of Jesus' rejection of her request for help, a rejection that is made
on the basis of her status as a Gentile.15 With humility she accepts
the position of a household dog and does not ask for the privileges
that belong to
hind. The woman has sufficient insight to recognize that she is
able to trust in the abundance of God's mercy. In the next two pas-
sages concerning minor characters, Jesus heals a deaf man
(7:31-37) and the blind man of
these two healing miracles stands the third boat scene (8:14-21).
There the disciples misunderstand Jesus' warning concerning
the leaven of the Pharisees and the leaven of Herod. Jesus scolds
them with a series of pointed questions that highlight their lack of
understanding. Using parabolic language, Jesus asks, "Having
eyes, do you not see, and having ears do you not hear?" (8:18). Je-
sus is able to overcome physical deafness and blindness, but He
has not yet healed the disciples of their spiritual insensitivity.
In chapters 4-8, minor characters stand in contrast to the dis-
ciples, because they express faith in Jesus and because they exem-
plify or symbolize a true understanding of Jesus' ministry and
teaching. In this way Mark shows that following Jesus involves
faith, even when fear is the more natural response.
15 On the enigmatic character of Jesus' remark and its impact, see Jouette M.
Bassler, "The Parable of the Loaves," Journal of Religion 66 (1986): 170-71.
Discipleship and Minor Characters in Mark's Gospel 339
In the so-called "central section" of Mark's Gospel, which ex-
tends from 8:27 through 10:45, Mark continues to present minor
characters as suppliants, but now he includes negative features.
In chapters 8-10, Mark emphasizes the predictions of Jesus con-
cerning His death, the inability of His disciples to understand the
implications of His suffering for His followers, and Jesus' teach-
ing on the cost of discipleship.16 This teaching on discipleship
takes on a new dimension in this section of Mark's Gospel. This
new direction is signaled in 8:34, when Mark states that Jesus di-
rects His instructions concerning discipleship toward the crowd
as well as the disciples.17 Jesus begins to open up the demands
and opportunity of following Him to "anyone" or "whoever" will
come after Him. Discipleship is now for anyone who will deny
self, take up the cross, and accept the way of suffering and ser-
vice. This new dimension in Jesus' teaching creates possibilities
for the portrayal of minor characters, since anyone, including
suppliants and other minor characters, may follow Jesus.
However, at this point in the narrative Mark's treatment of
minor characters takes a surprisingly negative turn. The minor
characters in the central section fail to understand or follow Je-
sus. In contrast to earlier suppliants, the father of the possessed
boy struggles with faith (9:14-29). As part of the unbelieving gen-
eration that Jesus endures, the father questions Jesus' ability to
help. At his best the man's faith is still mixed with doubt, and he
pleads for deliverance from his unbelief. Next is the rich man
who stands apart from the other suppliants in Mark in a number
of ways (10:17-31). He comes to Jesus looking for information
rather than healing. The rich man voices no need, expresses no
faith, displays no understanding, and receives no healing. He
refuses to answer the call to follow Jesus because the deceitfulness
of his riches chokes out the Word.
16 The place of the three passion predictions in the structure of Mark 8-10 is
emphasized in the writings of Eduard Schweizer and Norman Perrin. See Eduard
Schweizer, Das Evangelium nach Markus, 4th ed., Das Neue Testament Deutsch.
(Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1975), 214; idem, "Toward a Christology of
Mark?" in God's Christ and His People, ed. Jacob Jervell and Wayne A. Meeks
(Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1977), 32; idem, "The Portrayal of the Life of Faith in the
Gospel of Mark," Interpretation 32 (1978): 388-89; idem, "Mark's Theological
Achievement," in The Interpretation of Mark, ed. William Telford, Issues in Reli-
gion and Theology 7 (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985), 53-54, 58; Norman Perrin, "The
Christology of Mark: A Study in Methodology," Journal of Religion 51 (1971): 179;
idem, "Towards an Interpretation of the Gospel of Mark," in Christology and a
Modern Pilgrimage: A Discussion with Norman Perrin, ed. Hans Dieter Betz
(Missoula, MT: Scholars, 1974), 3-9; and idem, The New Testament: An Introduc-
tion (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1974), 155-58.
and Readers," Novum Testamentum 28 (1986): 109-10, 124-26.
340 BIBLIOTHECA SACRA / July—September 1996
In the central section of Mark's Gospel the disciples continue
to misunderstand, refusing to accept the idea of a suffering Mes-
siah. Jesus healed the blind
touch, but in spite of repeated instructions from Jesus the disciples
still do not see clearly. The disciples are not exemplary in this
section, but neither are the suppliants, who struggle with faith and
refuse to follow. Significantly, in this section (8:27-10:45) Jesus
repeatedly presents Himself as the true example or paradigm for
His followers. Jesus, as the Son of Man, must suffer many things
and be killed, and so His followers must deny themselves and
lose their lives for His sake. Jesus, as the Son of Man, did not
come to be served but to serve and to give His life, and so His fol-
lowers must take the lowly position of servants. Mark refrains
from referring to other exemplary characters in this section so
that nothing will detract from Jesus' example. Discipleship in-
volves an acceptance of suffering and lowly service because this
is the example Jesus left for His followers.
STAGE TWO: MINOR CHARACTERS AS POSITIVE EXAMPLES
Blind Bartimaeus functions as a transitional figure in
Mark's presentation of minor characters (10:46-52) Like earlier
minor characters he is a needy suppliant who comes to Jesus in
faith, so that he might receive healing. In fact Bartimaeus has an
exuberant faith that is commended by Jesus. Yet he is not only the
last of the suppliants but also the first of a series of minor charac-
ters who serve as positive examples of what it means to follow Je-
sus and live up to His demands. In his final comment on the
healed blind man, Mark states that Bartimaeus received his sight
and was following Jesus in the way. Thus Mark characterizes
Bartimaeus as someone who has taken on a devotion to Jesus and
His teaching. Jesus is on the way to
and Bartimaeus follows Jesus on this path of service. Bartimaeus
stands in direct contrast to the rich man who would not follow Je-
sus because of his many possessions.
In chapters 11-13, Mark organizes his material around Je-
sus' activity in the temple on three consecutive days.18 The next
two minor characters after Bartimaeus, the wise scribe (12:28-34)
and the poor widow (12:41-44), appear in the midst of the contro-
versy stories that take place on Jesus' third day in the temple. Both
individuals are commended by Jesus, because in some way they
understand or live up to His expectations. Mark portrays the wise
scribe as unusually perceptive both because of his willingness to
18 Werner H. Kelber, Mark's Story of Jesus (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1979): 57. For
a similar approach, see Stephen H. Smith, "The Literary Structure of Mark 11:1—
12:40," Novum Testamentum 31 (1989): 112.
Discipleship and Minor Characters in Mark's Gospel 341
ask about the foremost commandment and because of his accep-
tance of Jesus' answer. Jesus recognizes in this scribe an open-
ness to God's demands and thus an openness to the kingdom of
God. Jesus also commends the sacrificial giving of the poor
widow. The scribe agreed with Jesus concerning the importance
of loving God with one's whole heart, understanding, and
strength. Then Jesus points to the poor widow as an example of
such a wholehearted response to God. In contrast to the rich man
who possesses a shallow understanding of God's commandments
and refuses to enter the kingdom, the wise scribe shows insight
into the commandments and stands open to God's kingdom. Un-
like the rich man, the poor widow gives all that she owns.
In chapter 14 the disciples move from misunderstanding to
failure. They have repeatedly displayed confusion about the ne-
cessity of taking the way of the cross, and so when they are called
on to suffer, they cease to follow Jesus. Mark implies that there is
a future restoration for the disciples beyond the resurrection and
that the disciples will indeed become "fishers of men." However,
Mark concludes his portrayal of the disciples with their failure,
with Peter weeping after he denied Christ.
In light of the desertion of the disciples, Mark once again in
the passion narrative contrasts minor characters with the disci-
ples. Minor characters fulfill certain duties that the disciples
should accomplish but do not, because they abandon their respon-
sibility to follow Jesus. Mark expresses the action of Simon of
sus' teaching to His followers concerning the necessity of taking
up the cross (8:34). Thus Simon of Cyrene serves Jesus in a way
that is appropriate for a follower. The centurion confesses that Je-
sus is the Son of God and does so in the face of His suffering and
death on the cross (15:39). The disciples recognize Jesus' mes-
sianic identity, but they seem unable to accept His way of suffer-
ing. The centurion, however, is able to view together the divine
sonship of Jesus and His destiny on the cross.
Joseph of Arimathea takes the corpse of Jesus down from the
cross, wraps it in a linen cloth, and lays it in a tomb (15:42-47).
By taking on the duty of Jesus' burial, Joseph acts in a manner
that has been associated with discipleship earlier in Mark's nar-
rative. After John the Baptist is beheaded, his disciples come and
take his corpse and lay it in a tomb (6:29). After the crucifixion
Jesus' disciples are absent, and so Joseph of Arimathea assumes
responsibility for the burial. Yet Joseph is not the only minor
character who cares for Jesus' burial. Earlier, a woman in
costly perfume (14:3-9). Jesus interprets this good deed as an
342 BIBLIOTHECA SACRA / July—September 1996
anointing for His burial before His death.
Moreover, Jesus' followers include a number of women who
serve Jesus and follow Him all the way to the cross (15:40-41).
This group of women includes Mary Magdalene, Mary the
mother of James, and Salome, who come to the tomb on the first
day of the week to anoint Jesus' body with spices (16:1-3). There-
fore a number of minor characters continue to demonstrate their
devotion to Jesus, even after the disciples deserted Him.
From Bartimaeus to the end of the passion narrative, minor
characters exemplify the truth that following Jesus is open to all.
Discipleship is not simply for those like the disciples; who receive
a specific call to follow (1:16-20; 3:13-19) and a unique commis-
sion to preach and have authority (3:13-19; 6:7-13). Those who
read Mark's Gospel, like these minor characters, may respond to
the general call to discipleship that goes out to "anyone." or
"whomever." Mark's minor characters are unlikely heroes: a
blind beggar, a scribe, a poor widow, a woman in the house of a
leper, a passerby, a soldier, a member of the Sanhedrin, a small
group of women followers. Yet these individuals accept Jesus'
teaching, fulfill His demands, and live with devotion toward
Him. They illustrate that in God's kingdom the first will be last
and the last will be first (10:31).
STAGE THREE: MINOR CHARACTERS AS NEGATIVE EXAMPLES
The end of Mark's Gospel presents a number of problems, not
the least of which is a major text-critical problem. The assump-
tion of this article is that Mark intended to conclude his Gospel at
16:8.19 This would mean that the final passage (16:1-8) deals with
minor characters, with the three women followers, and that the
final verse of the book (16:8) records their surprising reactions.
The women flee from the tomb with trembling and terror, and
they speak to no one because of their fear. The young man at the
tomb had just reported the resurrection to the women and com-
manded them to tell Peter and
the disciples to go to
they would see Jesus. The young man's words clearly point back
to the promise of Jesus in Mark 14:28, where Jesus predicted He
would meet with the disciples in
Apparently the purpose for this meeting was to bring about a
restoration for the disciples, so that they might fulfill their mis-
sion as Jesus' apostles. The command of the young man, there-
fore, is a message of hope for disciples who have failed.
Mark follows the command in 16:7 with the negative reaction
19 For a further discussion of this point, see Williams, Other Followers of Jesus,
Discipleship and Minor Characters in Mark's Gospel 343
of the women in 16:8. The flight of the women from the tomb is
similar to the cowardly flight of the disciples after Jesus' arrest in
the garden. Their trembling and terror is a rejection of the young
man's call to them to put aside their amazement. Out of fear, the
women remain silent, and as a result they disobey the command
of the young man and fail to pass on the message to the disciples.
The disobedient silence of the women forces the reader to re-
flect again on the message of hope given in Mark 16:7. Does the
disobedience of the women negate the promise implied in the
young man's message for the disciples? No, the promise holds
true because it is based on Jesus' word, which will never pass
away. Therefore the anticipated meeting predicted by Jesus and
confirmed by the young man would take place in spite of the dis-
obedience of the women. However, the failure of the women must
not be neglected, because it carries a significant warning for oth-
ers who seek to follow Jesus. The women's failure warns that dis-
obedience and fear are not simply part of the disciples' condition
before the resurrection. The time between the resurrection and
Christ's coming again, or, in other words, the present time, is also
a period of potential fear and failure.
In 16:7-8, Mark juxtaposes promise and failure.20 The pre-
diction in verse 7 implies a promise that restoration to disciple-
ship is possible in spite of disobedience. The fear and silence of
the women in verse 7 shows that failure in discipleship is a real
possibility in the present time. Therefore in the end Mark uses
minor characters as negative examples for a warning concern-
ing the potential problems of discipleship.
Mark's presentation of minor characters is both a call and a
caution. The call to follow Jesus is open to anyone, but it involves
self-denial, sacrifice, and willing, humble service. Through the
failure of the disciples and then that of minor characters, Mark
cautions that the demands Jesus places on His followers are diffi-
cult. Fear and disobedience are potential problems for any who
choose to follow Jesus. In this way Mark's narrative, including
his presentation of minor characters, carries a twofold message:
"Anyone can be a follower; no one finds it easy."21
20 On this point, see Andrew T. Lincoln, "The Promise and the Failure: Mark
16:7,8," Journal of Biblical Literature 108 (1989): 283-300.
21 Malbon, "Fallible Followers," 46.
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