New Testament History, Literature and Theology.
             Session 2: Greek Historical Background down to Herod the Great

                             By Dr. Ted Hildebrandt,


1.  Who destroyed Nineveh in 612 BC (2A)?
            A.        The Sumerians
            *B.       The Babylonians
            C.         The Assyrians
            D.        The Chaldeans
Hint:  We’ve been discussing so far the Persian Empire and the transition from Babylon’s, destruction of Nineveh in 612 BC

2.  Who destroyed the temple in Jerusalem in 586 BC(2A)?
            A.        The Sumerians
            B.         The Assyrians
            *C.       The Babylonians
            D.        The Egyptians
Hint:  We’ve been discussing so far the Persian Empire and the transition from Babylon’s, destruction of Nineveh in 612 BC, and in 586 BC destroying the temple, Nebuchadnezzar

3.  How long were the Jews in exile in Babylon (2A)?
            A.        50 years
            *B.       70 years
            C.         90 years
            D.        100 years
Hint:  Nebuchadnezzar, Daniel, Ezekiel, then down 70 years of exile and then the return under the Persians with Cyrus

4.  Under whom were the Jews allowed to return from the Babylonian exile (2A)?
            A.        Nebuchadnezzar king of the Babylonians
            B.         Zimri Lim king of Mari
            C.         Darius king of Persia
            *D.      Cyrus king of Persia
Hint: Nebuchadnezzar, Daniel, Ezekiel, then down 70 years of exile and then the return under the Persians with Cyrus

5.  Which ruler was called a “Messiah” in the Old Testament (2A)?
            *A.      Cyrus king of Persia
            B.         Nebuchadnezzar king of the Babylonians
            C.         Zimri Lim king of Mari
            D.        Darius king of Persia
Hint:  We’ve talked about Cyrus the Great, the founder of the Persian Empire, a great man called “the Messiah” in the Old Testament. Cyrus was the founder of the Persian Empire

6.  Cambyses as king of Persia had sphere of operation mostly in _________ (2A)
            A.        Babylon
            B.         Asia Minor [Turkey]
            *C.       Egypt
            D.        Greece
Hint:  We talked about Cambyses, his son who was kind of a nobody who went down to Egypt.

7.  Who was the one for whom the Behistun Inscription was written (2A)?
            A.        Cyrus king of Persia
            B.         Nebuchadnezzar king of the Babylonians
            C.         Zimri Lim king of Mari
            (D.       Darius king of Persia
Hint:  Darius was the organizer, created the Behistun Inscription on the side of a mountain.

8.  Under what Persian ruler was the second temple in Jerusalem completed (2A)?
            A.        Cyrus
            *B.       Darius
            C.         Artaxerxes
            D.        Xerxes
Hint: Darius was the organizer, created the Behistun Inscription on the side of a mountain.  Darius is the guy who finished the second temple in 515 BC.

9.  Which Persian ruler was the “husband” of Esther (2A)?
            A.        Cyrus
            B.         Darius
            C.         Artaxerxes
            *D.      Xerxes
Hint: Then you had Xerxes who’s married to Esther

10. For which Persian ruler was Nehemiah cupbearer (2A)?
            A.        Cyrus
            B.         Darius
            *C.       Artaxerxes
            D.        Xerxes
Hint: Artaxerxes for whom Nehemiah was his cup bearer

11.  Who was the last Persian ruler to fight with and oppose Alexander in 333 BC (2A)?
            A.        Cyrus II
            *B.       Darius III
            C.         Artaxerxes IV
            D.        Xerxes V
Hint:  Finally, down to Darius III, and this is around 334-333 B.C., who dukes it out with Alexander the Great and this is when Alexander takes over.

12.  1 and 2 Maccabees are considered part of the ________(2B)
            A.        Old Testament
            B.         Pseudepigrapha
            *C.       Apocrypha
            D.        Antilegomena
Hint:  . We’ll realize 1 and 2 Maccabees, are in the Apocrypha, and they narrate a history right around 165 BC.


13.  Alexander is going to be from what region (2C)?
            A.        Achaia
            *B.       Macedonia
            C.         Thrace
            D.        Peloponnese
Alexander is actually from up here in Macedonia.


14. Who was Alexander’s father that built the army Alexander would ride (2C)?
            A.        Arcippus of Macedon
            B.         Herodotus of Troy
            C.         Aristeas of Philippi
            *D.      Philip of Macedon
Hint:  Philip of Macedon is Alexander’s father. So the name of Philippi is actually named after Alexander’s father Philip in Macedonia.


15.  What contribution did Philip of Macedon make to the ways his army functioned (2D)?
            A.        He built special siege ramps that could crack city walls
            B.         He developed a new technique of archery that could be shot from horses
            C.         He developed a battering ram that could not be stopped
            *D.      He built supply lines so his troops could fight all year round
Philip of Macedon figured out a way of supplying his troops all year round so that his troops could fight all year round rather than just in the spring and the fall


16.  Who did Philip of Macedon have educate his young son Alexander (2D)?
            A.        Socrates
            B.         Plato
            *C.       Aristotle
            D.        Tsung Su
Hint:  Macedon had Aristotle come up and teach his son. Alexander studied under Aristotle.


17.  After Alexander initially defeats the Persians to what city does he go and pay his respects (2E)?
            *A.      Troy
            B.         Antioch
            C.         Ephesus
            D.        Olympus
Hint: He’s never been to Troy. So Alexander goes over and visits Troy where the
Iliad and the Odyssey and Achilles took place.  He pays honor to Troy


18.  What does Alexander do after initially defeating the Persians in north western Turkey that showed his brilliance militarily (2E)?

            A.        He immediately pursued the Persians back to Persia not giving them a chance to

            B.         He had his soldiers travel with his mounted cavalry rather than splitting them up
            *C.       He took the coastal cities in Turkey so his supply lines could not be cut off
            D.        He totally destroyed every city that had given allegiance to the Persians
Hint:  Alexander takes the coastal towns and the Persians can’t cut off his supply lines then, and he’s able to keep the store of supplies coming to his troops rather than pursuing the Persians directly.


19.  Where does Alexander go after defeating the Persians at Issus at the doorway of Mesopotamia (2E)?

            *A.      He heads down to take Egypt
            B.         He pursues the Persians and takes Babylon
            C.         He sweeps over to the ancient city of Nineveh
            D.        He allows his troops 3 weeks of rest at Issus before they moved on
Hint:  Now as he’s over by Turkey and the corner there, what he does first, he doesn’t just chase after the Persians back over to Persia, Iran, and Iraq. What he does is, he goes down to the Egypt first. And why is that smart? He doesn’t want the Persians to be able to sneak around his back and take his back out


20.  The date we learned for Alexander is _________ (2E)
            A.        586 BC
            B.         400 BC
            *C.       333 BC
            D.        165 BC
Hint:  . He defeats the Persians again at Issus in 333 BC, and this is where I pull the date from Alexander, 333, his victory at Issus.


21.  When Alexander was going down to take Egypt what city did he take fulfilling parts of the prophecy of Ezekiel 26 (2F)?
            A.        Sidon
            *B.       Tyre
            C.         Caesarea
            D.        Gaza
Hint:  Now the city of Tyre has had some prophecies in Ezekiel chapter 26. The prophet Ezekiel had said that Tyre would be made flat as a pancake.


22.  Why did Alexander flatten Tyre like a pancake (2F)?
            A.        He wanted to fulfill biblical prophecy about him
            B.         He had studied about the might of the people of Tyre and wanted to totally decimate it

            *C.       He used the stones of the city to build a causeway out to the island where the people of
                        Tyre were hiding
            D.        He wanted to show what happened to any city that opposed him
Hint:  Alexander then takes the stones from the city and throws them into the ocean. Takes more stones, and throws them in the ocean. He makes a causeway out to the island, fills in the ocean, goes out to that island, and where does he get the stones from for making that causeway, he gets them from the city, that was formerly called Tyre. He flattens the city


23.  Where did Alexander spend over six months in taking of one city thereby fulfilling parts of biblical prophecy (2F)?

            A.        Troy
            B.         Ephesus
            C.         Gaza
            *D.      Tyre
Hint:  But anyway Alexander takes Tyre but it took Alexander, was it six or eight months, six or eight months out of ten years he’s going to conquer the whole world, he spent six or eight months taking Tyre, just that one place. Actually in doing so, he is fulfilling the Scripture in some sense.


24.  How did the Jews win favor with Alexander (2F)?
            *A.      They showed him where he had fulfilled their scriptures by taking Trye

            B.         They paid him a tenth of everything they had as he came through

            C.         They supplied his troops with wheat and olive oil

            D.        They anointed him and proclaimed he was their “anointed one”

Hint:  Yeah, the Jews run out and say, “hey, Alexander, look at that, you took down Tyre, just like our Bible says. Ezekiel said it would be flat, you flattened it.” And Alexander says, “hey the Jews are pretty good people.”


25.  What did Alexander get a little in his head when he was in Egypt (2G)?
            A.        That he was the greatest king ever to have lived

            *B.       That he was somehow connected to the gods

            C.         That he was destined to rule the world

            D.        That he needed to totally wipe out the Persians

Hint:  Alexander gets in Egypt, the king is a god, so he starts getting this in his head.


26.  What country was the woman Roxanne who Alexander married from and that prides itself as never having been conquered (2H)?
            A.        Iran

            B.         Pakistan

            *C.       Afghanistan

            D.        Syria

Hint:  Afghan woman called Roxanne. Now this is important because he’s Greek but yet he’s marrying a Afghan woman.


27.  The Opis Banquet that Alexander invited people to was to support his idea of _____ (2H)

            *A.      Globalization

            B.         His kingship

            C.         His domination

            D.        His generosity

Hint:  Alexander is one of the first people to have this notion of globalization.  So what he does is he makes what’s called an Opis banquet. In this Opis banquet, basically he invites people from all the different countries that he had dominated. He invites them to this culturally diverse banquet where all these people come from all these different countries to eat in Alexander’s presence. So this is the notion, of conquering the whole world. Globalization starts Alexander, doing this


28.  What problem did Alexander have at the end of his life that left his troops feeling not quite as loyal as they were earlier (2H)?

            A.        He started ruling like a tyrant

            B.         He started building a city in honor of himself

            C.         He began rejecting Greek culture

            *D.      He started drinking a lot
Hint:  Frankly, Alexander is drunk quite a bit, that’s why I call him “Alexander the Grape” because he ends up drinking a lot, and he’s drunk and again, his troops lost respect for Alexander


29.  What did Alexander try to encourage his troops to do that made them less loyal to Alexander (2H)?

            A.        Drink and relax rather than fight

            *B.       Intermarry with the woman from the east

            C.         Reject Greek culture

            D.        Start dressing in the robes of the eastern fighters

Hint: Well, the Greeks don’t want to hear that. These guys say, “I’ve got a wife and kids at home, I don’t want to intermarry with anybody here.”  So Alexander says, “no, intermarry.” So his troops start getting a little bit antsy because of the intermarriage. 


30.  Why was Koine Greek was developed by Alexander (2I)?

            A.        So that all nations would speak the same language

            B.         As a means of sending the signal to other nations that they were subjected under Greek

            *C.       So that he could communicate with his troops in a common language

            D.        So that it would signal to the world that the Greeks were conquering the world

Hint:  Koine simply means “common” and what happens is Alexander breaks them out of the city-state dialects, and he makes a universal Greek, a common Greek so these troops can speak.


31.  Prior to the 1880’s what Greek did some suggest the New Testament was written in (2I)?

            A.        Classical Greek

            B.         Jewish Greek

            C.         Christian Greek

            *D.      Holy Spirit Greek

Hint: into the 1880s-1890s didn’t know what Koine Greek was. Some people thought that the New Testament was written in what they called a “Holy Spirit Greek.” They didn’t know what kind of Greek it was.


32.  What discovering in the late 19th century resulted in the recognition of Koine Greek (2I)?

            A.        The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls

            B.         The discovery of the Ugaritic tablets

            *C.       The discovery of the papyrus documents in Egypt

            D.        The discovery of the records at St. Catherine’s Monastery in Sinai

Hint:  Then all of a sudden, in around the 1880s-1890s, they started finding these papyri, and the papyrus was written in the same language that the New Testament was written in. What they discovered was that the New Testament was written in the common, what I call “street Greek”, the common Greek


33.  What was Jesus’ native tongue as evidenced in the expressions when he was on the cross (2I)?

            *A.      Aramaic

            B.         Greek

            C.         Hebrew

            D.        Latin

Hint:  By the way, Jesus spoke Aramaic. It is probably his native language. Jesus will say “Eloi Eloi lama sabachthani”  “Eloi Eloi,” “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”


34.  What language did the professor argue was the “language” of today that we should be seeking to express the gospel of Christ in (2I)?

            A.        English

            B.         Mandarin

            C.         All the languages of the world

            *D.      Digital language of 1/0

Hint: The alphabet now is not 26 letters; the alphabet is 1 and 0, the digital medium. Digital 1 and 0 allows you to speak in text. The 1 and 0 allow you to speak in images. You can make pictures and you guys make pictures in Photoshop and in various things. It’s all because of the 1 and 0, the new alphabet, the digital alphabet.


35.  Which was the language Jesus was least likely to have known (2I)?
            A.        Hebrew

            *B.       Latin

            C.         Greek

            D.        Aramaic

Hint: So Jesus, would probably have known Hebrew, Greek, Aramaic, possibly some Latin and some other regional dialects


36.  There is a movement to the oikoumene [civilized world] from the _____ in Alexander’s day (2J).

            A.        Ieron –temple

            *B.       Polis—city

            C.         Nomos—law

            D.        Palace


Hint: This movement is from a very provincial polis, city, to this oikoumene, the whole civilized world.


37. Why did Alexander’s son not take over after his demise (2J)?

            *A.      He was too young

            B.         He was killed by Alexander’s general

            C.         He was not as capable as Alexander was

            D.        He died at birth

Hint: His child is too young, they do some stuff with his wife, but basically his generals take over. The kid’s too young


38.  All of the following were generals who took over after Alexander died EXCEPT (2J)

            A.        Cassander

            B.         Lysimachus

            *C.       Lysias

            D.        Antigonus

            E.         Ptolemy

Hint:  Cassander was one of his generals who got Macedonia, that’s back in Greece, that’s no big deal. He dies. We’re not really worried about that. Thrace, also back by Macedonia goes to Lysimachus. So we’re going to be working through this CLAPS acrostic…. This guy is important, Antigonus. Notice he gets Syria and Mesopotamia. So he gets Syria and Mesopotamia and I believe he also got Turkey. So he’s got Turkey, Syria, and Mesopotamia.  …So who gets Egypt? Egypt, the bread basket, a guy named Ptolemy gets it


39.  Who got the most of Alexander’s empire at his death (2J)?
            A.        Cassander

            B.         Lysimachus

            C.         Seleucus

            *D.      Antigonus

            E.         Ptolemy

Hint:  This guy is important, Antigonus. Notice he gets Syria and Mesopotamia. So he gets Syria and Mesopotamia and I believe he also got Turkey. So he’s got Turkey, Syria, and Mesopotamia.  Antigonus gets this huge territory all the way from Turkey, over to Mesopotamia and beyond. So this Antigonus gets the biggest piece of the pie


40.  Which of Alexander’s got Egypt and then ruled over Israel from about 100 years after Alexander died (2J)?

            A.        Cassander

            B.         Lysimachus

            C.         Seleucus

            D.        Antigonus

            *E.       Ptolemy

Hint:  But anyways, so Ptolemy is going to take over Egypt. … So the Ptolemaic period is 323 to 198 BC, so basically 300 to 200, a hundred year period. The Ptolemies, are going to be tolerant toward the Jews and that’s a good thing.


41.  Who did Ptolemy send up to take part of the kingdom of Antigonus from him (2J)?

            A.        Cassander

            B.         Lysimachus

            *C.       Seleucus

            D.        Antigonus

            E.         Ptolemy

Hint:  Seleucus is basically going to go up and take Syria from Antigonus. So now what you have is Seleucus in Syria,


42.  How were the Ptolemies as they ruled over Israel for 100 years after Alexander’s death (2J)?

            *A.      Tolerant

            B.         Intolerant

            C.         Oppressive

            D.        Reasonable


Hint: The Ptolemies are going to rule Israel from 300 to 200 BC. Largely, the Ptolemies are going to be tolerant. They’ll be kind to the Jews.


43. Who will get Syria a little while after Alexander’s death and have a negative impact on Israel from there (2J)?

            A.        Lysias

            B.         Ximenes

            *C.       Seleucus

            D.        Antigonus

            E.         Ptolemy

Hint: So now what you have is Seleucus in Syria, and Ptolemy in Egypt. What’s in the middle, between Syria and Egypt? What’s in the middle? As it is today, Egypt down south, Syria in the north, Israel’s in the middle. So Seleucus and Ptolemy, those two guys are going to be going back and forth in Israel.

44. What will the city of Alexandria in the delta of the Nile become world famous for (2K)?
            A.        Trading of wheat and barley

            B.         Shipping

            C.         Military might

            *D.      Education

            E.         Lavish palaces

Hint:  The city of Alexandria on the coast, up in the delta area there, little bit to the west, will be built about 200 BC. Alexandria will be a center of learning.


45.  What city would be built in Egypt about 200 BC (2K)?

            A.        Thebes

            B.         Giza

            C.         Memphis

            *D.      Alexandria

Hint: The city of Alexandria on the coast, up in the delta area there, little bit to the west, will be built about 200 BC. Alexandria will be a center of learning.


46.  All of the following would have been ethnic markers separating Jews from their more Hellenistic counter parts EXCEPT (2L)

            *A.      Religious use of olive oil

            B.         Circumcision

            C.         Eating kosher foods

            D.        Worshipping one God

Hint: the Jewish people, you know they do circumcision. The Jewish people eat Kosher, they eat certain foods; they don’t eat other foods. They do certain things that are unclean and other things that are clean. So the Jews have their very ethnic markers. They have their own Jewish markers that mark them as being Jewish.  And they worship Jehovah. They worship one god, Jehovah,


47. What will be a major point of tension between Greco-Roman culture and Christianity (2L)?

            A.        Circumcision

            *B.       Emperor worship

            C.         Paying taxes to Caesar

            D.        Traveling without papers

Hint: The time of the New Testament, you’re going to see emperor worship come in where there will be Roman temples to the emperor in various towns like Ephesus and other places


48. Around what is much of the ancient world around the time of the birth of Christianity is going to be organized (2L)?

            A.        Roman royal palaces

            B.         Administrative districts

            C.         Roman legions occupying areas

            *D.      City states with temples

Hint: The priests will be part of the religion, sacrificial system, temples and temple-states and city-states with temples in them and so you will have the temples and the priesthood


49.  In contrast to sex which is talked about openly what kind of speech is silenced in American public discourse currently (2M)?

            *A.      Religion

            B.         Politics

            C.         The LGBTQ community

            D.        Family issues

Hint:  You can almost have overt sexual relations in public, but yet, but yet religion is supposed to be private.


50.  What Roman legion was stationed in Jerusalem as seen in markings on a stone in the wall of Jerusalem (2N)?

            A.        The six legion

            B.         The twelfth legion

            *C.       The tenth legion

            D.        The twenty-fourth legion

Hint: the Roman 10th legion that was stationed in Jerusalem


51. In terms of the Roman military in Israel what would be one of the most frequent officers that would be seen in the New Testament (2N)?

            A.        Lieutenant

            *B.       Centurion

            C.         Captain

            D.        General

Hint: Centurions will be over the legions and Rome and you’ll have the Roman legions in there I think in Jerusalem


52. The centurions will be a military commander over ______  people (2N)

            A.        24

            B.         50

            C.         75

            *D.      100

Hint:  The centurions are over a hundred soldiers. Jesus will run into a centurion who will ask him to help his servant


53. All of the following are provincial rulers Paul would present himself before EXCEPT (2N)

            *A.      Agrippa

            B.         Felix

            C.         Agrippa

            D.        Fetus

Hint: see Paul going into the Roman court and happen to defend himself before Agrippa and various people like Felix, Festus, and Agrippa in Israel.


54. What governmental or military figure would ask Jesus help for his paralyzed servant (2N)?

            A.        A senator

            B.         A provincial ruler

            *C.       A centurion

            D.        A tax-collector

Hint:  Jesus will run into a centurion who will ask him to help his servant.


55. What benefit did the empire provide to the world of that day (2O)?

            A.        Security and slaves

            *B.       Peace and prosperity

            C.         Law and order

            D.        Religion and roads

Hint:  Rome back and forth, that’s part of the benefit of the empire’s economic prosperity. Peace and prosperity are brought about as a result of the empire


56.  Where did Rome draw much of its food from (2O)?
            A.        Greece

            B.         Turkey

            C.         Syria and Palestine

            *D.      Egypt

Hint: Egypt will send boats to Rome with food, Rome will send commercial goods all over the ancient world


57. What was one thing desired by the Roman empire of its client states (2O)?

            A.        Food

            B.         Warriors

            C.         Silk and spices

            *D.      Taxes

Hint:  Rome, all the empires, what do they want? They want your tax money. This doesn’t change until this day.


58.  Which Jewish group reacted to Hellenism attempting to separate from it rejecting attempts of forcing Hellenism into Judaism (2P)?
            A.        Sadducees

            B.         Essenes

            C.         Zealots

            *D.      Pharisees

Hint:  the Pharisees, the Pharisees will pull back and say, “no, no, we don’t want Greek culture, we’re Jews, and therefore we don’t’ want it.”  They will separate. So basically Jews will separate themselves from Hellenistic


59. What group wanted to preserve their traditions and avoid compromising with Hellenism (2P)?
            A.        Sadducees

            B.         Essenes

            C.         Zealots

            *D.      Pharisees

Hint: Hellenism is seen as compromising of the religion.  So the Pharisees were strict, they wanted to separate to preserve their ideology of Judaism.  So that was the Pharisaic reaction. Hellenism is coming in, the Pharisees say, “no, we want to preserve so we’re going to separate, we’re going to keep our traditions.”


60.  Which group wanted to assimilate with Hellenism (2P)?

            *A.      Sadducees

            B.         Essenes

            C.         Zealots

            D.        Pharisees

Hint: If you want to beat somebody, you assimilate, become part of them. So we want to become part of this Hellenistic culture. So the Sadducees are much more willing to give in. Some of them would go out in the gymnasiums and wrestle.


61. Which group was most willing to do things like wrestle in a gymnasium like the Greeks do (2P)?

            *A.      Sadducees

            B.         Essenes

            C.         Zealots

            D.        Pharisees

Hint: If you want to beat somebody, you assimilate, become part of them. So we want to become part of this Hellenistic culture. So the Sadducees are much more willing to give in. Some of them would go out in the gymnasiums and wrestle.


62. Which group was associated with the Dead Sea Scroll community  (2P) ?

            A.        Sadducees

            *B.       Essenes

            C.         Zealots

            D.        Pharisees
Hint: The Essenes thought (the Essenes are the Dead Sea Scroll people) the Pharisees were too loose. 


63. What group do some associate John the Baptist with (2P)?

            A.        Sadducees

            *B.       Essenes

            C.         Zealots

            D.        Pharisees
Hint: Some people think John the Baptist may be one of these. Basically this one, when Hellenism comes out this group says, “we want to separate so much so that we’re going to withdraw from culture.”


64. Which group wanted to withdraw from any contact with Hellenism and even other more assimilated Jews (2P)?

            A.        Sadducees

            *B.       Essenes

            C.         Zealots

            D.        Pharisees
Hint:  Some people think John the Baptist may be one of these. Basically this one, when Hellenism comes out this group says, “we want to separate so much so that we’re going to withdraw from culture.”  


65. What group looked for an apocalyptic end of the world where they would be justified and evil destroyed (2P)?

            A.        Sadducees

            *B.       Essenes

            C.         Zealots

            D.        Pharisees
Hint:  So they basically withdrew from the culture and then looked to the future when the apocalypse would come and the end of the world would come and then they would be justified and the evil world will be destroyed.


66. What group wanted to attack Hellenism and destroy it (2P)?

            A.        Sadducees

            B.         Essenes

            *C.       Zealots

            D.        Pharisees
Hint: Zealots said, “we’re going to attack Hellenism and we’re going to kill the Greeks


67. What did many think Paul was while not an official member in this group but had tendencies that way (2P)?

            A.        Sadducees

            B.         Essenes

            *C.       Zealots

            D.        Pharisees
Hint: Many take Paul as being a Zealot, Paul was going out killing Christians because he thought, “hey, this is transgressing Judaism and these people are wicked because of what they are doing violating Judaism.”  Therefore


68.  Why did the Greeks use allegorism (2Q)?

            A.        They enjoyed writing stories about imaginary worlds

            *B.       They didn’t like the gods fighting and so turned them into concepts

            C.         They wrote about animals doing things that humans do

            D.        They prided themselves in metaphorical thinking

Hint: And largely the Greeks used allegories because they didn’t like the gods, Zeus beating up on other gods, and anyways, they had all these god fights.  Some of the Greeks said that’s really kind of backward that these gods are fighting among each other all the time. So what they would do is they take the fighting of the gods and turn them into allegories about various concepts.


69.  What would be a modern day example of allegorism (2Q)?

            A.        To Kill a Mockingbird

            B.         Huckleberry Fin 

            *C.       Pilgrim’s Progress

            D.        Augustine’s Confessions
Hint: An allegory would be Pilgrim’s Progress where you’ve got Pilgrim meeting these people who are personifications of various attributes. So Pilgrim’s Progress or the Narnia series by C.S. Lewis


70.  What book is considered apocalyptic literature and should be interpreted accordingly (2Q)?

            A.        John

            B.         Romans

            C.         Jude

*D.      Revelation
Hint:  You interpret the book of Revelation,  actually, Revelation is really hard to interpret. Apocalyptic literature is really hard to interpret. How do you interpret the symbols of the book of Revelation?


71.  Which of the following is an example of anthropomorphism (2R)?

            *A.      The eyes of the Lord

            B.         The anger of the Lord

            C.         The throne of the Lord

            D.        The Lion of Judah
Hint:  Anthropo-“ means like anthropology. Anthropology means men or humankind. “-morphism” is like morph, when you say somebody morphs into something, it’s changing a form. So anthropomorphism is when you take the form of God and put it in human terms. You morph God into human terms. So it says, “the eyes of the Lord run to and fro.”


72.  Splitting between the material world as evil and the spiritual world as good is a form of _________(2R)
            A.        Formalism

            *B.       Dualism
            C.         Anachronism

            D.        Materialism

Hint: That was offensive to the Greeks because of the split that they had between that which is physical; there was a kind of dualism that said that which is physical is bad and that which is spiritual is good


73.  Who taught that the forms or ideals were really what was significant (2R)?

            A.        Aristotle

            *B.       Plato

            C.         Herodotus

            D.        Cicero

Hint: Platonic ideals, Platonism playing in the back of the forms from the Republic book VII and other places. The forms, these ideals were what were held up.


74.  Koine Greek was used during what period of history (2S)?

            A.        500 BC- 500 AD

            *B.       300 BC – 300 AD

            C.         100 BC – 100 AD

            D.        0 AD - 200 AD

Hint:  It was like what I call “street Greek” and it was from 300 BC to 300 AD. Here’s the problem. They’re in Alexandria in Egypt.


75.  What title do the Jews give when referring to the Law, Prophets and the Writings (2SP)?

            A.        Berith

            B.         Emet

            *C.       Tanak

            D.        Hesed
Hint: The law, the prophets, and the writings, is what makes up the Tanak.


76. Where and under whose initiative was the Hebrew Bible translated into Greek (2S)?

            A.        Seleucus in Syria

            B.         Antigonus in Asia Minor

            C.         Lysias in Jerusalem

            *D.      Ptolemy in Egypt

Hint: So Ptolemy commissioned in Egypt, he said, “you know we need a copy of the Jewish Scripture but nobody here can really read Hebrew.”


77.  What is the Greek translation of the Old Testament called (2S)?

            *A.      The Septuagint./LXX

            B.         The Hexateuch/MCC

            C.         The Amarna/X

            D.        The Vulgate/XD

Hint:  So that rumor of 70 translators in 70 days translating the whole Old Testament, that’s crazy. But my guess is they got a good start on it. You get 70 translators, they can do a lot of work, but they’re translating from Hebrew into Greek. It is around 250 to 150 BC, this gives us the Septuagint translation


78.  What was one of the major benefits of the Septuagint (2S)?

            A.        Now people could read and write and record what Jesus was doing

            *B.       Now people all over the world could read the Jewish Scriptures about the Messiah

            C.         Now people could understand Judaism’s claim of there being only one God

            D.        Now people could teach people to read the Bible in their own language

Hint: By the way, this sets it up, so now people when they read the Old Testament all over the world, are they going to be aware that the Old Testament tells them that there is a coming Messiah who’s going to be the son of David who’s going to rule


79.  What was one of the major benefits of the Septuagint (2S)?

            A.        Now people could read and write and what Jesus was doing and so the Bible could be

            B.         Now people could understand Judaism’s claim of there being only one God

            *C.       Now the Gospel could be spread as synagogues had the same Bibles everywhere

            D.        Now people could teach people to read the Bible in their own language

Hint:  Now the gospel could spread because now wherever Paul would go, he would go into the synagogues and they would have the Greek Bibles that the people there could read


80.  While the Ptolemies ruled over Israel from 300-200 BC who took over after them at about 200 BC (2T)?

            A.        Lysimachus from Jordan

            B.         The Hezbollah from Lebanon

            C.         The Idumeans from the Negev

            *D.      The Seleucids from Syria

Hint:  Around 198 BC, the Seleucids from Syria went down into Israel and conquered Israel.  So the Seleucids around 200 come down into Israel and they are not tolerant of Israel.  So there’s going to be some real conflicts now


81. What was prompting the Syrians to dominate Israel (2T)?

            A.        There was a famine in the land of Syria

            *B.       The Romans were taxing the Syrians

            C.         The Syrians were trying to reinstitute Alexander’s empire

Hint: So that’s basically what’s going to be happening here. Roman taxing is putting pressure on Syria and so they’re going to go after Israel.


82.  Antiochus Epiphanes was a foreshadowing of what figure (2T)?

            A.        Ahab

            B.         Pontus Pilate

            *C.       The antichrist

            D.        The false prophet

Hint:  Antiochus IV is going to be in the Book of Daniel chapter 11 and other places. He’s going to be a foreshadow or be an adumbration of the antichrist.


83. Antiochus Epiphanes did all of the following to violate Judaism and drive them into Hellenism EXCEPT (2T)
            A.        Burned the scriptures

            B.         Forbade circumcision

            C.         Burned pigs on their altars

            *D.      Made the priests eat pork

            E.         Put pagan deities on the temple mount

Hint:  He required that people not circumcise their children.  So now, a mother of twins…

He offers pigs on the altar… The Scriptures, the Syrians realize the importance of the book and the Syrians would burn the Scriptures whenever they found them


84. While Antiochus was called Epiphanes [the illustrious] what did some name him (2T)?

            *A.      Epimanes [madman]

            B.         Epithanates [the murderer]

            C.         Epipseudes [the butcher]

            D.        Epiphalletes [the tyrant]

Hint:  He calls himself Epiphanes, Antiochus Epiphanes,  Antiochus the Illustrious. The people misnamed him in kind of play on words, “Epimenes,” which means Antiochus the Madman.


85.  How did Onias get the high priesthood (2U)?

            A.        He killed the former high priest

            B.         He offered a pig as a sacrifice

            *C.       He paid money for the position

            D.        He set up pagan altars by the temple

Hint: Onias wanted to be high priest. So now you’ve got these Syrians pushing down so Onias tries to buy the high priesthood for money.


86.  Why was Menelaus such a poor choice for the high priesthood even though he paid Syria the temple treasure (2U)?

            A.        He was a murderer

            B.         He offered a pig up on the altar

            *C.       He was from the tribe of Benjamin

            D.        He

Hint:  He takes over and uses the Jewish temple treasure and pays it to the Syrians so that he can be high priest. He’s out of the tribe of Benjamin. In order to be a priest, you had to be of what tribe? The tribe of Levi and a descendant of Aaron somehow.


87.  Daniel had mentioned the abomination of desolation 350 years before Antiochus.  What did Antiochus do that fulfilled the abomination of desolation (2U)?

            *A.      He set up an image of himself on the altar and makes people worship it

            B.         He killed the high priest and mixed his blood with the blood of pigs

            C.         He forced the Jews to worship Zeus

            D.        He walked into the holy of holies thereby desecrating it
Hint: This abomination of desolation is done by Antiochus Epiphanes. He sets up apparently an altar with an image of himself and enforces people to worship him


88. Who was the father of the Maccabees boys (2V)?
            A.        Daniel
            B.         Simon
            *C.       Matthias
            D.        Justus
Hint: Mattathias then revolts against the Syrian legate but Mattathias, the old man, gets killed fairly quickly, but he’s got five sons.  His five sons are called the Big Macs, and they are the Maccabees.


89. Who did Mattathias Maccabee initially kill that got the revolt started (2V)?
            A.        The Roman centurion who was collecting the taxes for the Syrians
            *B.       A young Jew who was going to make an unclean sacrifice
            C.         A delegate sent to ask him to come to Jerusalem to defile the temple
            D.        A mother who refused to circumcise her child
Hint: Well, this kid looks at Mattathias, “hey, Mattathias, you’re an old man, if you get killed, you’ve lived your whole life.  I’m a young kid, I’ve got my whole life before me.” So this young kid takes that which was unclean, goes up, and he’s going to offer it on the altar. Mattathias the old man grabs the young kid who is Jewish and kills him on the spot before he can offer it on there.

90.  Which Maccabee was known as the “hammer” (2W)?

            A.        Eleazar

            B.         Simon

            *C.       Judas

            D.        Jonathan

Hint: He’s Judas Maccabeus. Judas Maccabeus, he is called the Maccabee, “Maccabee” means hammer.  Judas Maccabeus was a warrior


91.  Which Maccabee was best portrayed as a warrior (2W)?

            A.        Eleazar

            B.         Simon

            C          Jonathan

            *D.      Judas

Hint:  He’s Judas Maccabeus. Judas Maccabeus, he is called the Maccabee, “Maccabee” means hammer.  Judas Maccabeus was a warrior


92.  What was Judas Maccabees’ greatest accomplishment (2W)?

            *A.      He purifies the temple

            B.         He kills the Syrian general

            C.         He takes out a Syrian elephant

            D.        He makes peace with Antiochus

Hint: Judas Maccabee attacks, goes up to Jerusalem, and actually takes Jerusalem. He takes Jerusalem and he purifies the temple. He takes it, throws down all the defiling images of Antiochus


93.  What Jewish feast is mentioned in the New Testament and remembering the events of Judas Maccabeus (2W)? 

            A.        Pentecost

            B.         Purim

            C.         Yom Kippur

            *D.      Hanukkah

Hint: then becomes what’s known as the Feast of Lights. The Jews to this day celebrate the Maccabean purification of the temple in 167 BC.  It’s called the Feast of Lights in the New Testament. Actually Jesus celebrates this purifying of the temple. Today you guys know it as Hanukkah. You say, “Happy Hanukkah


94. What was the feast of Hanukkah called in the New Testament that even Jesus observed (2W)?

            A.        The Feast of Swords

            *B.       The Feast of Lights

            C.         The Feast of the New Moon

            D.        The Feast of Purification

Hint:  then becomes what’s known as the Feast of Lights. The Jews to this day celebrate the Maccabean purification of the temple in 167 BC.  It’s called the Feast of Lights in the New Testament. Actually Jesus celebrates this purifying of the temple. Today you guys know it as Hanukkah. You say, “Happy Hanukkah


95.  Approximately when does Judas Maccabee revolt and purify the temple from the defiled plots of Antiochus Epiphanes (2W)?

            A.        333 BC

            *B.       167 BC

            C.         98 BC

            D.        5 BC

Hint: Maccabean purification of the temple in 167 BC. 


96.  Which Maccabee was famous for killing the elephant in the attack of Bethzur (2X)?

            *A.      Eleazar

            B.         Judas

            C.         Simon

            D.        Jonathan

Hint:  So Eleazar he gets himself under the elephant so they can’t shoot him, and then when he’s under the elephant, he starts stabbing the elephant from underneath. He picks the biggest elephant and he goes after it. He stabs from underneath but the problem is when you’re stabbing the elephant from underneath, yes indeed, he killed the elephant, but when the elephant is stabbed underneath and gets killed, the elephant falls flat and poor Eleazar


97.  Which Maccabee did the Syrians allow to become high priest (2Y)?

            A.        Eleazar

            B.         Judas

            *C.       Jonathan

            D.        Simon

Hint:  . So now Jonathan, a Maccabee, becomes the high priest.  He’s in the priestly line as his father was


98.  Which Maccabee was known as the most diplomatic (2Y)?

            A.        Eleazar

            B.         Judas

            C.         Simon

            *D.      Jonathan

Hint:  Jonathan plays more of a diplomatic role. So you have this military punch followed up by a diplomat. As a diplomat, Jonathan takes over and the Syrians allow him to become high priest.


99.  Which Maccabee starts the Hasmonean dynast that last 100 years (2Z)?

            A.        Eleazar

            B.         Judas

            *C.       Simon

            D.        Jonathan

Hint:  Simon and his descendants build the dynasty out of the Maccabees that is called the Hasmonean dynasty


100.  Who is the first of the Hasmonean dynasty (2AB)?

            A.        Alexander Jannaeus

            B.         Herod Agrippa

            *C.       John Hyrcanus

D.        Aristobolus Antipater
Hint:  The first guy that comes in the Hasmoneans dynasty is a guy named John Hyrcanus.


101.  All of the following where found in the reign of John Hyrcanus EXCEPT  (2AB)

            A.        Pharisee and Sadducee parties develop

            *B.       He rebuilt the temple court yards

            C.         He expands the territorial boundaries of Israel

            D.        He has his children educated by the Greek

Hint:   P is for parties, E is for expansion, Circumcision and Children, PECC. Aristobolus is going to be one of his kids… he’s not going to be


102.  Which Hasmonean ruler force circumcision on the Edomites (2AB)?

            A.        Alexander Jannaeus

            B.         Salome Alexandra

            *C.       John Hyrcanus

D.        Aristobolus Antipater

Hint:  When John Hyrcanus takes over, he goes to the Edomites and says, “hey, we’re Jewish, we rule your territory, you guys all have to be circumcised.”

103.  Who did Alexander Jannaeus favor (2AC)?

            *A.      The Saduccees

            B.         The Pharisees

            C.         The Zealots

            D.        The Essenes

Hint:  Alexander Jannaeus, he had some problems. He favored the Sadducees more.


104.  Which Hasmonean ruler was pelted with citrons for defiling the Feast of Tabernacles [Sukkot] by pouring the holy water on the ground and then he crucified 800 Pharisees (2AC)?

            *A.      Alexander Jannaeus

            B.         Salome Alexandra

            C.         John Hyrcanus

D.        Aristobolus Antipater

Hint: These guys all got their citrons in their hand, the king defiles the water, all these people start pelting the king with these citrons. Now, by the way, when the king gets pelted with citrons, he didn’t like this. What’s the king going to do? These people are poor people down here, he is the mighty big king so what does he do? He gets the Pharisees and he crucifies about 800 Pharisees


105.  In the days of Alexander Jannaeus who did the Pharisees ironically seek help from to oppose their own king as he crucified 800 Pharisees (2AC)? 
            A.        The Romans

            *B.       The Syrians

            C.         The Idumeans

            D.        The Egyptians

Hint:  The Pharisees go to the Syrians for help. Now, don’t you find that ironic? The Syrians before were forcing the Jews to be Hellenized,


106.  Who was the wife of Alexander Jannaeus who takes over after him (2AD)?

            A.        Mary of Magada

            B.         Priscilla Andreas

            C.         Elizabeth Hasmoneus

            *D.      Salome Alexandra

Hint:  Alexander Jannaeus’ wife is going to take over and her name is Salome Alexandra


107.  To which one of her sons did Salome Alexandra give the army (2AD)?

            *A.      Aristobolus

            B.         Hyrcanus

            C.         Aretas

            D.        Antipater

Hint:  Hyrcanus gets the high priesthood, Aristobolus gets the army.


108.  To which one of her sons did Salome Alexandra give the high priesthood (2AD)?

            A.        Aristobolus

            *B.       Hyrcanus

            C.         Aretas

            D.        Antipater

Hint:  Hyrcanus gets the high priesthood, Aristobolus gets the army.


109.  To whom does Hycanus II go to for help against his brother Aristobolus who was attacking backed by the army (2AD)?

            A.        Antiochus the Syrian

            B.         Ptolemy the Egyptian

            *C.       Aretas the Idumean

            D.        Herod the Nabatean

Hint: Hyrcanus, he’s got the high priesthood. He doesn’t have the military gear to fight his brother. So what happens is he goes to Aretas, who is kind of down with Idumea over in Edom


110.  What was the ostensible reason why Roman stepped in to take control of Palestine (2AE)?

            A.        They wanted to subdue the Jews and get the gold of their temple

            B.         They wanted to extent the boundaries of their empire

            C.         They wanted to protect the Jews against Syrian domination

            *D.      They wanted to stop the fighting of the two Jewish brothers who were leaders

Hint:  So what happens is Rome in 63 BC, and this is a big transition, the two brothers, Aristobolus and Hyrcanus are duking it out in 63. Rome steps in and says back off, brothers, no more fighting, each to your corner, you know, take a time out here. Basically Rome in 63 BC steps in and takes over Palestine.


111.  Who was the Roman general that took over Palestine in 63 BC (2AE)?

            A.        Titus

            B.         Sergius Paulus

            *C.       Pompey

            D.        Mark Anthony

Hint:  So 63 Rome takes over, a Roman general named Pompey comes in, walks in the holy of holies in the Temple Mount, looks around, apparently didn’t see anything, says, “hey there’s nothing in here,” walks around the holy of holies, then walks on out.


112.  When Roman took over Israel in 63 BC what relationship did Israel have with Rome after that (2AE)?

            *A.      They had a client / patron relationship as a client state

            B.         They had a slave / master relationship as a slave state

            C.         They had a dependent / independent relationship as a dependent state

            D.        They had a subject / king relationship as a subjected state
Hint:  So you’ve got the imperial provinces, you’ve got legions, army legions that answer to the emperor, and then you’ve got this kind of client state setup.  This client state setup is where Israel would be a client state to Rome.  So that would be like a patron and a client,


113.  What proves that Jesus was born about 5 BC (2AF)?

            A.        Rome gave the order for taxing Palestine in 5 BC

            *B.       Herod dies 4 BC

            C.         The star the magi followed was known to be about 4 BC

            D.        Quirinius the Roman governor at Christ’s birth was dismissed about 4 BC

Hint:  Herod the Great, he dies as we said before in 4 BC. Actually Jesus was born about 5 BC


114. Why did Herod the Great marry Marriamne (2AF)?

            A.        She was the most beautiful woman in the land

            B.         She was related to

            *C.       She was of Hasmonean descent

            D.        She was good friends with Cleopatra in Egypt

Hint:  The Hasmoneans who were the leaders of Israel. So he marries this princess of the Jews that goes back to the Maccabees. So he’s very smart. He marries Mariamne.


115.  Who hated Herod and sent him on all sorts of wild goose chases pursuing desert Bedouin (2AF)?
            *A.      Cleopatra

            B.         Caesar

            C.         Pontius Pilate

            D.        The high priest

Hint:  Cleopatra hates Herod’s guts. … So she sends him on these all wild goose chases out in the desert. And she says, “Herod, I want you to chase the Bedouin for there’s some Bedouin out in Arabia.


116.  How does Herod treat Marriamne his Hasmonean princess (2AF)?

            A.        He sends her away to Egypt

            B.         He puts her in prison

            C.         He treats her as his favorite wife

            *D.      He kills her

Hint:  Needless to say, their relationship starts fracturing and Herod ultimately ends up killing Mariamne


117.  Who was Caesar when Christ was born (2AG)?

            A.        Julius Caesar

            B.         Diocletian

            C.         Octavian

            *D.      Augustus

Hint:  The time of Augustus Caesar is when Jesus is born


118.  Why did Herod want to build Caesarea (2AG)?

            A.        To show his loyalty to Caesar

            *B.       To get another port city on the coast

            C.         To provide him a place to protect himself

            D.        To make a city to rival Alexandria in Israel

Hint: Just up the street he says, “I want to build, my own harbor up at Caesarea.” So he goes up the coast a ways from Joppa or Tel Aviv, and he builds a place called Caesarea on the Mediterranean Sea.


119. What did Herod do on the temple mount that can still be seen to this day (2AG)?

            A.        He rebuilt the temple of Ezra’s day

            B.         He set up a huge stairway going up to the temple

            C.         He built several bronze pillars at the entrance of the temple area

            *D.      He extended the platform on which the temple area sat

Hint:  By the way, talking about the temple, Herod extended the Temple Mount, took the small temple that was built in the time of Ezra-Nehemiah, and he remodeled it and made it one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. A huge temple on a huge platform, and that platform, by the way, is still used by the Dome of the Rock on the Al Aqsa Mosque even till this day


120. When Jesus told the Jews he would destroy the temple and raise it in three days, how long did the Jews say Herod himself had taken to build it (2AG)?

            A.        12 years

            B.         23 years

            C.         37 years

            *D.      46 years

Hint: Jesus said “Destroy this temple and I’ll raise it up in three days,” and the people just freaked out. Herod took 46 years, how are you going to do this?


121. Why did Herod build a fortress at Masada (2AH)?

            A.        It was his southern entry into Judea that he was trying to defend

            B.         It was already built he just stocked it with food and water

            C.         Caesar had ordered him to build it

            *D.      He was paranoid and wanted a place of security

Hint: Herod was paranoid. He thought people were trying to kill him. The problem is, were people trying to kill him? Very likely, they were. So Herod was scared, so what he did was he went down to a place called Masada.


122.  What happened on Masada after the Romans broke the walls down and entered Masada (2AH)?

            A.        They found silver and gold treasures Herod had left there

            B.         They found the articles of the temple including the ark

            *C.       They found 900 dead Jews who had committed suicide

            D.        They found the Jews had abandoned it the night before

Hint:  There were 900 dead Jews. They had all killed themselves and committed suicide.  There were 900 Jews, dead, on the top of Masada.  What do the Romans get out of that? 3 years of working in the hot desert and what did they get? There were 900 dead Jews, in the middle of the desert.


123.  What did Caesar say about Herod (2AI)?

            *A.      I’d rather be Herod’s pig than his son

            B.         I’d rather be Herod’s dog than his wife

            C.         I’d rather have Herod dead than alive

            D.        I’d rather be Herod’s servant than his wife

Hint:  Now, one more thing about Herod. Caesar said of Herod. “I’d rather be Herod’s hus than his huis. I’d rather be Herod’s hus [pig] than his huis [son].”  Herod would not eat or kill pigs in deference to the Jews.  However, what did Herod do to his own sons? He was paranoid that somebody was going to try to kill him


124.  What did Herod do with his son (2AI)?

            A.        He sent him for training in Rome

            B.         He set him up as the high priest and king over the Jews

            *C.       He killed his son in a pool in Jericho

            D.        He sent him to Egypt to rule there so they wouldn’t threaten him

Hint:  he stood in a pool down at New Testament Jericho.  You know why I did that? Because Herod did what to his son in that pool? Herod sent his son down to the pool at Jericho and then told his guards to basically hold the kid under water and drown him in the pool