New Testament History, Literature, and Theology

                             Session 1:  Persian Empire up to Alexander

                                              Dr. Ted Hildebrandt

                                              Session 1 Questions


1.  Who said “Behold, the Lamb of God which takes away the sin of the world.”
            A.        Peter

            B.        John the apostle

            C.        John the Baptist

            D.        Joseph, Mary’s husband

Hint:  So when the New Testament opens up with John the Baptist saying to Jesus, “Behold, the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world.” That is an incredible statement, and if one does not understand from John 1:29


2.  In order to understand the statement “Behold, the Lamb of God which takes away the sin of the world” all of the following Old Testament backgrounds must be understood EXCEPT

            A.        The sacrificial system

            B.        The Feast of Pentecost

            C.        The temple cult

            D.        The levitical movement


Hint:  if one does not understand John the Baptist’s statement and the importance of the sacrificial system, and the temple cult that came out of the levitical movement of Judaism in the Old Testament,


3.  What institution did Moses announce in Deuteronomy 18 that Jesus would fulfill?

            A.        Priest

            B.        King
            C.        Prophet
            D.        Messiah


Hint: And so in Deuteronomy chapter 18, Moses says that there’s going to come a prophet like him, and God is going to speak through that prophet: Jesus Christ.


4.  How will Jesus be beyond the Old Testament vision of the prophet as pointed out in John 1?

            A.        Jesus would say “Thus saith the Lord”

            B.        Jesus would predict the future in the Olivet Discourse
            C.        Jesus would tell the people to repent like a prophet
            D.        Jesus would be the “word” of God incarnate


Hint:  And this “word” or this “revelation,” this logos is going to speak the prophetic message, not in physical, not in words: “thus saith the Lord,” although Jesus will speak in words, but Jesus will speak by the incarnation. He will incarnate the word of God


5.  John said while the prophets spoke the word of God, Jesus in himself would be the word of God.  What Greek word is used for Jesus being the “word”?
            A.        Logos

            B.        Hesed

            C.        Charis

            D.        Dabar


Hint:  He is the logos of God -- whereas the prophets say, “thus saith the Lord,” Jesus will say, and John will say of Jesus, that he is the logos.  He is the word of God:

6.  Malachi ended the Old Testament about what date?
            A.        250 BC
            B.        400 BC
            C.        586 BC

            D.        333 BC


Hint: Malachi chapter 4, verse 5, in the last statements of the Old Testament, as the Old Testament is winding down in Malachi, the last prophet of the Old Testament, around 400 BC or so, he says, “There’s coming a time where this prophet will come before the great dreadful day of the Lord.”


7.  What did the people of Jesus’ day ask him based on Malachi 4 at the end of the Old Testament?

            A.        Enoch

            B.        Melchizedek

            C.        Moses

            D.        Elijah


Hint: So Malachi tells them that basically Elijah will come before the day of the Lord. So that’s why, when Jesus comes on the scene, many people ask, “Are you Elijah who is to come?”


8.  Who did Jesus identify as Elijah who was to come as predicted by Malachi?

            A.        John the Baptist

            B.        Paul, the apostle

            C.        Agabus

            D.        Peter


Hint: that John the Baptist comes in the spirit and power of Elijah. So John the Baptist will be the forerunner who announces Jesus would come. So John the Baptist is Elijah, “if you will hear it,” as Jesus says. So, Malachi chapter 4, verse 5 ends the Old Testament, it kind


9. Jesus as the “Son of David” fills what Old Testament institution?

            A.        Prophet
            B.        Priesthood

            C.        Kingship

            D.        Judge


Hint: Jesus as the king, will come as David’s greater son.  Jesus will be the son of David, and many people say “hosanna”, as they’re singing as Jesus is coming into Jerusalem.  They will say, “Hosannah, the son of David!”


10.  When did the people cry out that Jesus was the “Son of David”?

            A.        When he was crucified

            B.        When Jesus entered Jerusalem on Palm Sunday

            C.        When Jesus came down from the Mount of Transfiguration

            D.        When Jesus entered the temple area


Hint: “hosanna”, as they’re singing as Jesus is coming into Jerusalem.  They will say, “Hosannah, the son of David!” And the “son of David” goes back to 2 Samuel chapter 7,


11.  How is Jesus the fulfillment of the Abrahamic covenant?

            A.        His body stands for the land that Abraham was promised

            B.        He was the seed that was promised

            C.        He was the king who would sit on the throne of Israel

            D.        He was the way the all nations would be blessed


Hint: He is the fulfillment of the Abrahamic covenant. And so basically, Abraham was told that he would be blessed with land and seed, that his seed would multiply and that he would be a blessing to all nations. That “blessing to all nations” comes through Jesus Christ. 


12.  How does the sign over Jesus’ head when he was crucified a fulfillment of an Old Testament institution?
            A.        “Behold the lamb of God”

            B.        “Here is Jesus, King of the Jews

            C.        “Israel, here is your Elijah”

            D.        “Jesus of Nazareth the prophet from Galilee”

Hint: And they’ll put a sign over his head at the end saying, “Here’s Jesus, King of the Jews.” The Jews will object to that, of course, and want the sign to be taken down, but the rulers will say, “No, the sign stands as I’ve written it.”


13.  What tribe is Jesus from that gives him access to the title “king”?
            A.        Benjamin

            B.        Judah

            C.        Dan

            D.        Levi

Hint: And the priest basically--the problem is you have with Jesus is that Jesus, because he’s the son of David, he’s from the tribe of Judah. The tribe of Judah, they didn’t do priests and things. The priestly tribe was the tribe of Levi. So what you’ve got is this conflict between “How can he be king?” and “How can he be a priest?”


14.  What tribe is Jesus from that gives him access to the title “priest”?
            A.        Benjamin

            B.        Judah

            C.        Dan

            D.        Levi

Hint: And the priest basically--the problem is you have with Jesus is that Jesus, because he’s the son of David, he’s from the tribe of Judah. The tribe of Judah, they didn’t do priests and things. The priestly tribe was the tribe of Levi. So what you’ve got is this conflict between “How can he be king?” and “How can he be a priest?”


15. What line in the tribe of Levi did priests have be from?
            A.        Eliezer

            B.        Moses

            C.        Aaron

            D.        Samuel


Hint: Levite of the tribe or the line of Aaron, or the Zadokian priesthood--from the Levites down to Aaron the priest, down to Zadok and things. Jesus is not a Levitical priest,


16.  While Jesus is not of the Aaronic priesthood, of what order of priests does he derive from?

            A.        Methuselah

            B.        Enoch

            C.        Abimelech
            D.        Melchizedek


Hint:. Actually Hebrews picks this up later on and says, “Wait, Jesus is the priest after the order of Melchizedek,” who was a king-priest, and Abraham paid a tenth of all he had in the book of Genesis. And so, Jesus will be a priest after the order of Melchizadek.


17.  Right from the start the New Testament let’s know what is the main function Jesus will fulfill?

            A.        The one who would take away the sin of the world
            B.        The one who would bring justice to the earth
            C.        The king who would inaugurate the kingdom of God on earth

            D.        The one would to speak to us for God as a prophet

Hint: that tells us right up front, Jesus’ main function “The Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world.” Jesus is not going to conquer Rome. Jesus is not going to create a big movement for social justice. Jesus is going to be removing sin through the sacrifice of himself.

18. What tension or conflict can be seen between Peter and Mark? 
            A.        Peter said God doesn’t want any to perish but Mark says Jesus told parables so some would not understand

            B.        Peter said he was the Rock and Mark said that Jesus was the rock

            C.        Peter said slaves were to obey but Paul said they were to be set free as brothers in Christ

            D.        Peter says that Abraham was saved by what he did and Mark said Abraham believed God and was saved


Hint: Peter say that God does not want anyone to perish? Peter says, “God is not willing that any should perish.” But yet in the book of Mark, it claims that Christ told his parables to prevent the repentance of some that heard it. So comparing 2 Peter 3:9 “God is not willing that any should perish,” to Mark chapter 4, verse 12, where he says, “Some of the parables were meant so that the people would not understand what He was saying.”

19. How do Mark and Matthew conflict?
            A.        Mark says Abraham was saved by faith and Matthew says it was by what he did

            B. Matthew said God doesn’t want any to perish but Mark says Jesus told parables so some would not understand

            C.        Mark says Jesus nullified the Mosaic dietary laws while Matthew says Jesus said nothing from the law would disappear

            D.        Matthew said slaves were to obey but Mark said they were to be set free as brothers in Christ


Hint: Another kind of conflict between writers, would be “How can Jesus nullify the Mosaic dietary laws?” by Jesus saying, “All things are clean now” in Mark’s gospel, Mark chapter 7, verse 15 and 19. But then over in Matthew, Matthew claims, and Luke as well, that “not one jot or tiddle, not a dot or tiddle, a little seraph, in the Law will disappear until all is fulfilled” in Matthew chapter 5, verse 18


20. Who is often contrasted as one saying salvation is by faith alone and the other says it is by works that one is saved?
            A.        Matthew versus Mark
            B.        Peter versus Mark

            C.        Paul versus John

            D.        Paul versus James

Hint: Paul will take that same example of Abraham and say, “Abraham believed God and it was credited to him for righteousness. Therefore a person is justified by faith, and by faith alone.” James says, “No, it’s not by faith alone, faith without works is dead.”


21.  Who talks about slaves being equal to those who own them and yet says slaves should obey their master’s?

            A.        Paul
            B.        Peter

            C.        John
            D.        James
 Hint: How can Paul say that there is neither slave nor free? In Galatians 3:28, a very famous verse, that in Christ there’s neither bond nor free, male nor female, in Christ we’re all one. And yet at the same time, he tells slaves to obey their earthly masters over in Ephesians chapter 6, verse 5. 


22.  When a single writer of the New Testament says things that are in conflict often one must seek the solution in _______
            A.        Is the translation at fault

            B.        Were there different situations

            C.        Were there different editors
            D.        Is one figurative and the other literal
Hint: .” So you get this conflict even within Paul himself.  You have to ask, were there different situations? What caused Paul to say the different messages?

23.  With what can one contrast to the theology of the cross and suffering of Paul?
            A.        The theology of victory in James

            B.        The theology of glory in Luke
            C.        The gospel of prosperity

            D.        The theology of salvation

Hint: How does the theology of glory, advocated by Luke-Acts -- Luke-Acts talks about the theology of glory -- fit with the theology of the cross, the despising of the cross and the way to the cross of Paul?


24. What is the Old Testament covenant promises to Israel contrasted to?
            A.        The Abrahamic covenant where the world would be blessed

            B.        The Davidic covenant with his rule over the Gentiles

            C.        The prophecies of the turning away of the Jews

            D.        The new covenant with its focus on the Gentiles


Hint: So how do you work the Old Testament new covenant promises to Israel, with the church and the focus on Gentiles?


25.  What did the New Testament writers not do?
            A.        Try to harmonize their diverse messages

            B.        Edit their books to make them agree

            C.        Collect the books that agreed with one another

            D.        Write from a unified perspective

Hint:  One of the wonderful things about the Bible is that they let each person speak for themselves and they let the conflicts stay. They did not try to harmonize and smooth over things, they let the roughness and the rough-and-tumble of the different writers, they let it stand as the way it was


26.  What does the diversity of the New Testament text confirm?
            A.        That God respects different people and allowed them to speak their minds

            B.        That there are many ways to interpret the Bible

            C.        That the Bible is the word of God and that nobody “fixed” it
            D.        That everyone can interpret the Bible as they like


Hint: This is a kind of confirmation that this book is the Word of God, and that nobody messed with it. They just let the stuff stay, they didn’t try to smooth it out, they left it the way it was


27.  What two things were used to account for the diversity of the New Testament text?

            A.        Different levels of maturity and different ways of seeing the world

            B.        Different writers with different perspectives and different situations

            C.        Different audiences and different interpreters

            D.        Different languages and different cultures


Hint: Largely, different writers write from different perspectives, and different personalities. They write from different situations. They’re addressing different problems, and we’ll try to understand the different problems of different writers.


28. Paul in Galatians 4 says that Jesus came __________

            A.        To destroy the works of Satan

            B.        To Bethlehem fulfilling prophecy

            C.        By the will of God

            D.        At the right time
Hint: This is an incredible verse out of Galatians, Paul’s Galatians chapter 4, verse 4.  It says this: “But when the right time came, God sent his Son, born of a woman, subject to the law, to redeem those who were under the law.” “But when the right time came.”


29. When was Jesus born?

            A.        0 AD

            B.        3 BC

            C.        2 AD

            D.        5 BC


Hint: Christ is going to be born about probably 5 BC.


30.  The New Testament was originally written in what language?

            A.        Latin

            B.        Greek

            C.        Hebrew

            D.        Aramaic


Hint: When you get to the New Testament, the New Testament is written in Greek. Greek is very different than Hebrew


31.  The Old Testament was largely written in what language?

            A.        Latin

            B.        Greek

            C.        Hebrew

            D.        Aramaic


 Hint: The Old Testament prophets and Moses spoke Hebrew, and so it’s in Hebrew. They went to Babylon and picked up Aramaic.


32.  When did the Jews switch to speaking Aramaic?

            A.        When they were taken to Babylon

            B.        When they were scattered by the Assyrians

            C.        When they were conquered by the Persians

            D.        When Seleucus took over Palestine


Hint: The Old Testament prophets and Moses spoke Hebrew, and so it’s in Hebrew. They went to Babylon and picked up Aramaic.


33.  When did the Jews switch from the Semitic languages [Hebrew/Aramaic] to a western language [Greek]?

            A.        During the reign of the Persians

            B.        During the Babylonian captivity
            C.        During the time when Rome took over Israel

            D.        During the rule of Alexander and his followers


Hint: Greek culture is basically built off Alexander the Great, as we’re going to see


34. When was the New Testament written down?

            A.        5 B.C. – 100 A.D.

            B.        50 A.D. to 95 A.D.

            C.        32 A.D. to 70 A.D.

            D.        70 A. D. to 125 A.D.


Hint: And actually much of the New Testament getting written down about 50 A.D. to 90 or 95 A.D.


35. Where did Paul usually begin his ministry when he entered a new town?

            A.        In the church

            B.        In the city gate

            C.        In the synagogue

            D.        In the city temple


Hint: . So Paul will begin his ministry in the synagogue.


36.  Who were a couple Pharisaic leaders in the time of Christ?

            A.        Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus

            B.        Caiaphas and Annas

            C.        Pilate and Herod

            D.        Agabus and Ananias


Hint: , you’ve got a guy like Joseph of Arimathea or Nicodemus coming to Jesus at night who’s a leader of the Pharisees.


37. In the Fertile Crescent which river is to the east?

            A.        The Nile

            B.        The Jordan

            C.        The Euphrates

            D.        The Tigris


Hint:  This valley will be this wide, what they call the fertile crescent here. Basically you have the Euphrates River and the Tigris River. I always remember these, to try to get them so I don’t confuse them, E.T. Do you remember E.T. in the movies? E.T., so it’s Euphrates, Tigris.


38. What group of people came down from the Caucasians and not Arabs?

            A.        The Iraqis

            B.        The Iranians

            C.        The Saudis

            D.        The Egyptians


Hint:  it’s very important to realize the Iranians are not Arabs, they’re not Semitic. They’re actually Caucasians, a lot of them coming down from Russia. So basically, this is going to be the Persians. The Persians, are the background for the country of Iran today.


39.  The Iranians are descended from what ancient Empire?

            A.        Hellenism

            B.        The Babylonians

            C.        The Persians

            D.        The Assyrians


Hint: it’s very important to realize the Iranians are not Arabs, they’re not Semitic. They’re actually Caucasians, a lot of them coming down from Russia. So basically, this is going to be the Persians. The Persians, are the background for the country of Iran today.


40. The Persian Empire extended to what river on the East?

            A.        Euphrates

            B.        Indus

            C.        Nile

            D.        Granicus


Hint:  So the Persian Empire is largely here. Now because of our involvement in the Middle East, some of this stuff you’ll know. So let me walk over and start here, farthest to the east. Here’s the Indus River, the Indus River in India will be


41. Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther were during what international empire?

            A.        The Persians

            B.        Hellenism

            C.        The Babylonians

            D.        The Assyrians


Hint: Xerxes, who’s going to be married to Esther, by the way, and Artaxerxes, that’s about Ezra-Nehemiah’s time. So the Persian Empire is largely here. Now because of our


42. Nineveh is the capital of what great empire?

            A.        The Persians

            B.        Hellenism

            C.        The Babylonians

            D.        The Assyrians


Hint: And largely right here up in Assyria will be a place called Nineveh. We’re familiar with Nineveh from Jonah and the whale, and that kind of thing


43. Nineveh is located on the north of what river?

            A.        The Euphrates

            B.        Tigris

            C.        Indus

            D.        Nile


Hint:  See map – Assyrian empire around Tigris River in the north


44. What city is located between the Tigris and Euphrates south of Nineveh in what is called Iraq today?

            A.        Damascus

            B.        Ebla

            C.        Babylon

            D.        Nuzu


Hint:  See map – Babylon is located south of Baghdad between the Tigris and Euphrates


45. Damascus is the capital of what country?

            A.        Turkey

            B.        Assyria

            C.        Iraq

            D.        Syria


Hint: Damascus is the capitol of Syria just north and east of Israel


46. Asia Minor in New Testament times is called ________ today?

            A.        Turkey

            B.        Syria

            C.        Iran

            D.        Pakistan


Hint:  See map – Asia Minor is Turkey


47. What ancient nation was considered the breadbasket because they supplied the world with wheat and barley?

            A.        Asia Minor

            B.        Syria

            C.        Babylon

            D.        Egypt


Hint:  Egypt is also the “breadbasket” of the ancient world. So Egypt provided wheat, barley -- considered the “breadbasket” of the ancient world. It’s the “gift of the Nile”


48.  In what country were the ancient papyri found because it was so dry?

            A.        Syria

            B.        Israel

            C.        Egypt

            D.        Babylon


Hint:  Some of the stuff that they did, from very early times, are going to be the Elephantini papyrus, have made it all the way down. So there we go there.


49.  Which city in Greece is on the Peloponnese?

            A.        Athens

            B.        Sparta

            C.        Troas

            D.        Philippi


Hint:  Here’s Athens. Athens -- the Parthenon, Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, all that kind of stuff. – see map.


50.  What Greek city was the city of the Parthenon, Socrates and Plato?

            A.        Athens

            B.        Sparta

            C.        Troas

            D.        Philippi


Hint:  See map


51. Alexandria was built in what country?

            A.        Asia Minor

            B.        Greece

            C.        Egypt

            D.        Syria


Hint: Then there’s going to be a city right here that will be real important later on, and it will be called Alexandria. And the Egyptians, the Ptolemies, will build this Alexandria, naming after Alexander.  That’s where one of the greatest libraries of the ancient world will be. It’s the Library of Congress of the ancient world     


52.  What would Alexandria be most famous for in the ancient world?
            A.        A large shipping port

            B.        A great military base

            C.        A golden throne

            D.        A huge library


Hint: And the Egyptians, the Ptolemies, will build this Alexandria, naming after Alexander.  That’s where one of the greatest libraries of the ancient world will be. It’s the Library of Congress of the ancient world


53.  Macedon is located directly north of what country?

            A.        Greece

            B.        Asia Minor

            C.        Syria

            D.        Egypt


Hint:  See map – north of Greece


54. What was Antioch in Syria famous for in the New Testament?

            A.        The first Christian martyr

            B.        The place believers were first called Christians

            C.        The place where persecution first broke out against the church

            D.        The port from which Paul sailed to Rome

Hint:  Antioch and Syria will be the place Christians are first called Christians


55.  All of the following cities are located in the western part of Turkey or Asia Minor EXCEPT?

            A.        Thyatira

            B.        Sardis

            C.        Sparta

            D.        Philadelphia

            E.         Laodicea


Hint: Western part of Turkey. And you’ll have cities like Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Smyrna, Philadelphia and Laodicea.


56. What city will be named after Alexander’s father?
            A.        Ephesus

            B.        Berea

            C.        Antioch

            D.        Philippi


Hint: This is where Philippi will be. Philippi named after Philip of Macedon, Alexander’s father. Macedonia,


57. In what city will Paul spend 3 years on his third missionary journey?

            A.        Ephesus

            B.        Berea

            C.        Antioch

            D.        Philippi


Hint:    Paul’s going to spend three years at Ephesus later in his third missionary journey. 


58. Mount Olympus is closest to what city?

            A.        Thessalonica

            B.        Sparta

            C.        Ephesus

            D.        Antioch


Hint: see map-- Here’s Mt. Olympus too, some of you are probably familiar with Mt. Olympus.


59.  What city is on an isthmus in Greece between Athens and Sparta?

            A.        Ephesus

            B.        Philippi

            C.        Berea

            D.        Corinth


Hint:   So the Spartans and the Athenians are going to fight one other here and here, going back and forth, and so Corinth is kind of right in the middle


60. Nineveh is the capital of __________ and will fall in 612 BC.

            A.        Babylon

            B.        Persia

            C.        Assyria

            D.        Egypt


Hint: Nineveh (the Assyrians) is going to fall in 612 BC. Jonah goes to Nineveh in Assyria and Jonah prophesies to the Assyrians and he says basically, “Nineveh, repent.” 


61.  When was the temple destroyed and Judah hauled off to Babylon?

            A.        722 BC

            B.        612 BC

            C.        586 BC

            D.        515 BC


Hint: They had rejected the covenant so God hauls them out of the land; that’s 586, they go out for 70 years


62.  How long would Judah go to Babylon for?

            A.        70 years

            B.        100 years

            C.        150 years

            D.        164 years


Hint: They had rejected the covenant so God hauls them out of the land; that’s 586, they go out for 70 years


63.  Who would defeat Babylon after the Jews had been exiled there in 586 BC?

            A.        Alexander

            B.        Antiochus

            C.        Darius

            D.        Cyrus


Hint: This Cyrus--he’s actually Cyrus II, but he’s called Cyrus the Great--he comes in in 539 and Babylon falls to the Persians


64. Cyrus takes over the Persian empire in 539 BC defeating Babylon and the Persians will rule until _______

            A.        400 BC

            B.        333 BC

            C.        165 BC

            D.        63 BC


Hint: Empire and I want to discuss this Persian period, which would be from 539 when Cyrus takes Babylon down to 333 B.C.  Now I always tell people 333 B.C. is one of the dates I want you to learn.  333 B.C. is half of 666, right. 

65.  Who is called the Messiah in Isaiah?

            A.        Alexander

            B.        Cyrus

            C.        Nehemiah

            D.        Darius


Hint: .  Messiah means “anointed.”  So here, Cyrus the Great is called in Isaiah 45:1, he’s called the Messiah, the anointed one; this is Cyrus

66.  Whose decree frees Israel to return to the land of Palestine?

            A.        Alexander

            B.        Nehemiah

            C.        Cyrus

            D.        Darius


Hint: Cyrus gives a decree, and this decree that Cyrus gave is cited in Ezra, chapter 1 verses 2 through 4.  … So Cyrus takes over Babylon and he frees the Jews to go back and to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem



67. Cyrus’ benevolence can be seen in ____________

            A.        He gave the Jews food and water

            B.        He set the Jews free to return to Israel

            C.        He allowed for people to prosper and not pay heavy taxes

            D.        He was kind to the prophets of Israel like Daniel


Hint: .  Now Cyrus comes in and he’s benevolent, and he says, basically “go back.”  He allows the peoples that were deported by the Assyrians and by the Babylonians to go back to your homeland.


68. Who had a gold throne that attracted Cyrus’ attention?

            A.        Artemis of Ephesus

            B.        Heroclydes of Athens

            C.        Rameses of Egypt

            D.        Croesus of Lydia


Hint: Rumor has it, that Croesus sits on a gold throne. 


69. How did Cyrus take Babylon?

            A.        Diverted the water going under the walls of Babylon

            B.        Broke down the wall on the south side at its weakest point

            C.        Went in through the Ishtar gate

            D.        The people on the inside opened the city gates for him


Hint: .  He was smart, he went under the walls, through diverting this canal and sent his men under and they captured Babylon.  The people in Babylon actually viewed Cyrus as a deliverer. 


70. Who was the chief god in Babylon that Cyrus showed respect to?

            A.        Ra

            B.        Chemosh

            C.        Marduk

            D.        Baal-zephon


Hint: He actually left Babylon, Babylon served the god, Marduk, but so Nabonidus says, “I’m not so much into the god of the sun,” so he went off and he was a mystic


71.  What did the Delphi Oracle tell Croesus in terms of his battle with Cyrus of Persia?

            A.        He would win

            B.        A great empire will be destroyed

            C.        An old king would sit on his golden throne

            D.        A warrior would defeat the enemy


Hint: Croesus knows Cyrus is coming after him.  He sends over to the Delphi Oracle; over in Greece and says basically, ‘Delphi Oracle, tell me what’s in my future here? I’m going to have to fight Cyrus, am I going to win or am I going to lose?’ And the Delphi Oracle brilliantly says, “A great empire will be destroyed.”


72. Croesus’ cavalry of horses lost to Cyrus and his _________

            A.        Elephants

            B.        Foot soldiers

            C.        Chariots

            D.        Camels


Hint:  .  So when Croesus’ horses came out against Cyrus’ camels, the horses freaked.


73.  Who was the king of Babylon Cyrus defeated?

            A.        The mystic king Nabonidus

            B.        The great king Nebuchadnezzar

            C.        The powerful king Belshazzar

            D.        The wise king Zimri Lim


Hint: Now, we’ve talked about Babylon and Nabonidus, Nabonidus was the mystic king of Babylon; he defeats Nabonidus there. 


74.  What was unique about Cyrus’ death and burial? 

            A.        He was 50 and had a special horse that transported his body for burial

            B.        He was 60 and killed by a stray arrow

            C.        He was 70 and his troops carried his body 1000 miles to bury it

            D.        He was 45 and his troops built a monumental tomb for him


Hint:  His men pick up his body, and transport his body a thousand miles; they carry the body of Cyrus a thousand miles so it can be properly buried, I believe it was in Susa down in Persia.  They take his body back a thousand miles. Does that show the respect that this king who was a warrior-leader,


75.  Which Persian ruler took Egypt?

            A.        Darius

            B.        Artaxerxes

            C.        Cambyses

            D.        Cyrus


Hint: .  But Cambyses is going to go down here into Egypt.  This is where the delta area is,


76. What set Cambyses off against Amasis of Egypt?

            A.        He lied to him and then tried to kill Cambyses

            B.        He did not give him the taxes he owed Cambyses

            C.        He gave the daughter of a priest to Cambyses rather than his own daughter

            D.        He had the Apsis bull charge Cambyses


Hint: So he comes down here to Egypt and he’s supposed to get Amasis’ daughter but it turns out this king Amasis doesn’t give Cambyses his daughter, he takes the daughter of the priest and gives the daughter of the priest to Cambyses.  So Cambyses marries this woman that’s not even related to the king; so Cambyses feels totally violated by Amasis because of this switch.


77.  What did Cambyses do that disrespected the leader of Egypt Amasis?

            A.        He hacked and burned the dead body of Amasis
            B.        He threw his shoe at Amasis

            C.        He spit at Amasis during a banquet

            D.        He refused to accept the daughter of Amasis as a wife


Hint:  Cambyses then takes his sword and he starts whacking the dead body of Amasis; well, you don’t do that in Egypt, that’s really bad because they respect the body afterwards


78. What does Cambyses do to the Apsis bull of Egypt?

            A.        He rides it

            B.        He eats it

            C.        He stabs it

            D.        He chases it off


Hint:  And he kills the Apsis bull, he takes a sword and he stabs the Apsis bull.  Again totally violating the Egyptian culture,


79. What happens when Cambyses takes his troops over to Siwa?

            A.        They are defeated by the Ethiopians

            B.        They get buried in a sand storm

            C.        A new Pharaoh in Egypt drives him out of Egypt

            D.        They turn on Cambyses and kill him


Hint: called Siwa, out in the desert and actually loses his men in a dust storm in the desert.  The dust storms over there just basically a huge dust storm that covers his men and he lost then a huge part of his army


80. If Cyrus was the founder of the Persian Empire Darius was its __________
            A.        Destroyer

            B.        Builder

            C.        Sustainer

            D.        Organizer


Hint:  Darius is the organizer of the Persian Empire


81. What did Darius do that allowed people in modern times to learn to read a famous ancient language of Akkadian (Babylonian)?
            A.        He had written the Behistun Inscription

            B.        He wrote the Code of Darius

            C.        He had written the Rosetta Stone

            D.        He had written the Darius Epic

Hint:  And the third language he uses, I believe, is Akkadian; so basically there comes a guy, an Englishman.  He finds these inscriptions that have been there for thousands of years, up on, I think the guy did this in the 1800’s or the late 1800’s and so what this guy,… So Darius records this Behistun Inscription on the side of a mountain, which is absolutely incredible

82.  What were the satrapies that Darius set up?

            A.        They were statues of the king

            B.        They were regional provinces

            C.        They were special boats he had built for trading

            D.        They were a network of temples he built


Hint: What Darius does is he organizes it into provinces.  He calls them satrapies, satrapies. And basically has each person rule over these provinces


83. What did Darius build that helped in the communications network of the Persian empire?

            A.        A pony express series of riders taking letters quickly throughout the kingdom

            B.        A series of smoke signals which could communicate

            C.        A road system throughout the empire

            D.        A fleet of ships


Hint:  You need roads for communication.  So what happens is once you have this road network built all over your empire you can control the empire better.  You can send your troops out on the roads and things.  So this street system that he built, and then he would send couriers that would run messages over these roads


84.  What did Darius attempt to build that was thousands of years before its time?

            A.        The Suez Canal

            B.        A space shuttle

            C.        A spice road from China to Tyre on the Mediterranean Sea

            D.        A shipping lane from Egypt to Rome


Hint:  Darius also tried to build the Suez Canal.  He went down to Egypt and saw that they need this transportation of boats; if you don’t have the Suez Canal you have to go all the way around Africa


85.  Under which Persian king was the second temple finished?

            A.        Artaxerxes

            B.        Darius

            C.        Xerxes

            D.        Cyrus


Hint: So under Darius, the second Temple in Jerusalem is finished about 515 B.C.


86.  Who later remodeled and totally reworked the second temple completed under Darius?

            A.        Antiochus

            B.        Ptolemy

            C.        Pompey

            D.        Herod


Hint: the crease in the wall is where Herod expanded the platform on the Temple Mount and built, after 46 years--Herod was an incredible builder, built this second Temple.


87. Which Persian king melts down the Bel-Marduk statute in Babylon?

            A.        Cyrus

            B.        Darius

            C.        Xerxes

            D.        Artaxerxes


Hint:  Babylon rebels; so his first thing is that Babylon rebels here.  What does Xerxes do?  He takes the Bel Marduk statue of their god and melts it down. 


88. Which Persian king was Esther’s husband?

            A.        Xerxes

            B.        Cyrus

            C.        Darius

            D.        Artaxerxes


Hint: Xerxes was Esther’s husband. 


89. Which Persian king fought against the 300 Greeks at the Battle of Thermopylae which has been turned into a modern movie?

            A.        Darius

            B.        Cyrus

            C.        Artaxerxes

            D.        Xerxes


Hint: At the battle of Thermopylae, we get 300 Spartans holding off thousands and thousands of Persians; they were in this very narrow pass, and these 300 Spartans held off and stood up to Xerxes’ thousands.


90.  Who was the Persian king during the time of Ezra and Nehemiah?

            A.        Darius

            B.        Cyrus

            C.        Artaxerxes

            D.        Xerxes


Hint:  Now Artaxerxes is during the time of Ezra and Nehemiah.  Nehemiah is the cup bearer of Artaxerxes

91. The Peloponnesian Wars were fostered by the Persians were between what two city states?

            A.        Susa and Babylon

            B.        Memphis and Thebes

            C.        Ephesus and Troas

            D.        Athens and Sparta


Hint:  What are the Peloponnesian Wars?  Do you remember when I showed you a picture of Greece, and Athens was north in Achaia and Sparta was south on the Peloponnesus.

92.  What Greek book and author records the heroic tales of Greek mercenaries making their way back home through the Persian Empire?

            A.        Anabasis by Xenophon

            B.        Jews Wars by Josephus

            C.        The Histories by Herodotus

            D.        The Punic Wars by Cicero


Hint: Here’s a wonderful book called the Anabasis by Xenophon.  The Anabasis was written by Xenophon; he was a Greek historian and he basically tells the story of 10 thousand, 11 thousand of these Greek mercenaries who hire themselves out.  Actually the Greeks were mercenaries; they hired themselves out to the Persians to fight in one of the battles. 

93.  Which Persian king does Alexander the Great defeat?
            A.        Xerxes II

            B.        Cyrus IV

            C.        Cambyses

            D.        Darius III


Hint:  Darius III is the end of the Persian Empire.  Largely, this Darius III guy will end up banging heads with Alexander the Great.