Bibliotheca Sacra 100 (Jan. 1943) 53-66. 53
Copyright © 1996 by
"OLD HUNDREDTH"-PSALM C
BY CHARLES LEE FEINBERG, TH.D.
The Psalms have with warrant endeared themselves to
the hearts of countless millions, whether of the Jewish
Synagogue or the Christian Church. Indeed, even the pro-
fessor of no established religion delights to meditate and
study this portion of the Bible. The Psalms sweep over the
entire range of the trials and joys of human experience.
They are "The Garden of the Scriptures" and "The Soul's
Anatomy." A boundless source of comfort, uplift, hope, and
consolation have they been through all the centuries. Since
such is the case, many will be surprised when we maintain
that the Psalms, though one of the most familiar portions of
the Word of God, are yet among those books perhaps least
understood. How is this to be accounted for? The reasons
are these: (1) there has been woeful failure to realize that
the Psalms constitute and were in reality the divinely in-
spired prayer and praise book
of God's ancient people,
Overlooking this fact, or unaware of it, all too many have
applied to the Church that which was never intended for her,
and have found themselves bound by the problem of fitting
many elements of the Psalter into the scheme of the Church.
Confusion worse confounded has been the inevitable outcome
of such a procedure. (2) There has been an insupportable
failure to discern the vital prophetic character of the book.
The prophetic nature of the Psalms is readily to be seen from
(a) a comparison of the combined testimony of the Old Testa-
ment Scriptures. Many themes and movements, if not all of
them, treated by the prophets are reckoned with in the
Psalms. (b) The testimony of the Lord Jesus Christ (Matt.
21:42f.; 22:41-46) and His apostles confirm beyond a doubt
the prophetic content of this revelation. See also Acts 2:25-28,
34-36 and numerous other passages. If these so important
and leading interpretative principles are thrown to the winds,
irreparable loss must result.
Outstanding in the entire range of the Psalms is the
much-beloved and cherished "Old Hundredth." It is among
54 Bibliotheca Sacra
the five psalms (Pss. 15, 43, 125, and 127, being the others)
that have but five verses; only five others (Pss. 117, 123, 131,
133, and 134) are shorter than it. Our psalm has less than
half a hundred words. You may be fully assured that, once
having studied the comprehensiveness of the portion, the in-
escapable conclusion will be: only divine inspiration can
account for so much in so little. It has never been surpassed tale
elsewhere, indeed, never equalled. Delitzsch tells us that
"When Basil . . . says that at break of day the Church, as
with one heart and one mouth, offers to the Lord in prayer
the sacrifice of the 'Psalm of thanksgiving' ... he means this
Psalm."1 The position of the Psalm is peculiarly adapted to
set forth the importance attached to it. All students of the
Psalms have seen a series from Psalm 93 to 100 (some, in-
deed, include Psalms 91 and 92, but these do not conform
either in content or outlook to the series before us). The
theme is the coming of Jehovah and His glorious and right-
eous reign over the earth. Note the refrain: "Jehovah
reigneth," occurring in 93:1; 97:1; and 99:1. Dr. James M.
Gray understood this portion after this manner, for he saw
Psalm 93 as setting forth the entrance of the King upon
His reign; Psalm 94--the appeal for His judgment on the
wicked; Psalm 95--the exhortation to
and the admonition against unbelief; Psalms 96 to 99--the
substance of which is to be found in 1 Chronicles 16. Our
Psalm is the concluding one in the series and is the doxology.
Delitzsch has beautifully styled the whole series : "one great
prophetic oratorio," and added: "Among the Psalms of
triumph and thanksgiving this stands preeminent, as rising
to the highest point of joy and grandeur."2 Hengstenberg
has seen design in the placement of the group of Psalms now
under consideration. Says he, "The Psalm forms not merely
a conclusion to Psalm 99: it is assuredly with design that
it is put at the end of the whole series; the ecumenic char-
acter of which becomes very obvious in it at the close."3 The
1 Biblical Commentary on the Psalms, Vol. III, p. 70.
2 Perowne, J. J. S., The Book of Psalms, Vol. II, p. 203, quoting from Delitzsch.
3 Commentary on the Psalms, Vol. III, p. 199.
"Old Hundredth"--Psalm C 55
spiritual. and discerning writer, F. W. Grant, notes in his
excellent volume on the Psalms: "The hundredth psalm
closes this series with the full anthem of praise. Naught
else remains. Perfection is found and rest; and both are in
God."4 We need have no fear, then, that we are dealing with
some obscure and secondary portion of Scripture; Psalm 100
takes its place among the foremost poetic and prophetic ut-
terances of the whole revelation of God.
Although prophetic in character and originally written
under the direction of the Spirit for the worship and praise
today. Against the dark background of the world's travail
the Psalm has its timely message. It is a word for the hour
in which we find ourselves. The world lies literally bathed
in a blood bath with nation trampling under foot a weaker
nation; atrocity upon atrocity is moment by moment perpe-
trated upon the scene of the world's history; the earth has a
tremendous headache. At times it appears that the cup of
suffering and woe is so full that more cannot be added, and
yet every fresh dispatch adds to the gruesome and solemn
story. Is God's sovereignty recognized in the earth today?
Do men own allegiance to the Lord God of all the earth? The
very earth itself, reeling to and fro as a drunken man or a
mad man, shrieks back into our ears with deafening cry the
all too obvious answer. Whatever the Psalm meant
of old, and we must believe that it had great value for them,
it will not convey its fullest message to us, unless we are
Prepared to place it in juxtaposition to the conditions of our
day. Then it will be seen to shine with lustrous and radiant
beauty, full of comfort and hope and blessing for us all.
Before we essay an exposition of the Psalm, we translate
it as follows:
A Psalm for thanksgiving.
1 Shout for joy unto Jehovah, all the earth.
2 Serve Jehovah with gladness
Come before him with singing.
4 Numerical Bible, "The Psalms," p. 365.
56 Bibliotheca Sacra
3 Know that Jehovah, he is God
It is he that made us, and we are his;
We are his people, and the sheep of his pasture.
4 Enter into his gates with thanksgiving,
Into his courts with praise
Give thanks unto him, and bless his name.
5 For Jehovah is good; his lovingkindness is for ever,
And his faithfulness to all generations.
The title to the Psalm reveals that it is one of the so-called
orphan Psalms, those without ascription of authorship. Its
superscription, however, is capable of two interpretations. The
word hdvt can and does mean either "thanksgiving" or
"thank-offering." The same noun is found in verse 4 where
also occurs the verb which is so frequent in the Hodu
Psalms. Delitzsch feels that we must take hdvtl liturgically
(so also Conant in Lange's Commentary and many others);
what is meant is not the thanksgiving of the heart, but the
thank-offering, the hdvt Hbz of Psalm 107:22. Our transla-
tion, though seeming to contradict this position, does not do
so in reality. We feel that this is not a case of either
this or that, but a case where both are true. The Psalm
received its name because it was sung when the thank-
offering was presented. Obviously, only a hymn of thanks-
giving would be appropriate at such a time. As such, the
title is unique for this is the only Psalm in the Psalter so
ACCLAMATION, verse 1.
A division of the Psalm, on the basis of the thought
groups and the Hebrew parallelism so clearly a part of
Hebrew poetry, shows that the first verse stands grandly
alone. The word vfyrh is both vivid and full of meaning. It
has been translated by both the Authorized Version and the
American Standard Version as "Make a joyful noise." This
rendering is entirely permissible, but perhaps conveys less
meaning than the one given in the translation above. The
word is used of the welcome accorded a king upon his enter-
"Old Hundredth"--Psalm C 57
ing his capital or upon taking possession of his throne. The
subjects of the King shouting for joy is a signal that
Jehovah indeed reigns as stated in the previous Psalms. Since
the verb may also mean to sound a trumpet, the comment of
Delitzsch is apropos: "The first verse, which is without
parallelism [the essence of Hebrew poetry] and which is so far
monostichic, is like the signal for the sounding of a trumpet."5
The exhortation, mark it well, is addressed to all the earth.
When in the history of human affairs thus far has there been
an occasion when God could warrantedly call upon all the
peoples of the earth to shout for joy? Never. But in the
millennial era to come, for this Psalm is millennial--a fact
more and more clearly seen as the theme progresses, will see all
the earth summoned to cry aloud for joy, because the righteous
and blessed Son of David will enter upon His reign and
assume universal dominion on the throne of His glory. Oh,
earth, earth, earth, hear this word! Thou that travailest,
groaning and moaning, shalt yet rejoice with exceeding joy.
earth. The Desire of all nations has indeed come. Talk you
of premillennial pessimism, as is the custom of our day?
Say on; but the living God has stored up for us in His
blessed Son everlasting consolations in that the hope of this
world for a righteous and benevolent rule resides not in frail
and faithless man but in the omnipotent Lord of glory. What
glory will greet our adoring eyes when earth acclaims its
rightful King. Such is the clap of thunder with which the
EXHORTATION, verses 2 and 4.
After the initial keynote of acclamation there follow sev-
eral staccato chords of exhortation. All the earth is enjoined
to serve Jehovah with gladness. Ecumenicity and joy char-
acterize the Psalm throughout. To the rebellious nations
defying the Lord and His Anointed the Second Psalm had
counselled: "Serve Jehovah with fear, And rejoice with
trembling" (v. 11). Now, the open revolt against the author-
5 OP. cit., p. 71
58 Bibliotheca Sacra
ity of God and the Lord Jesus Christ has been quelled, and
men may serve the Lord with gladness. The thought of joy
is expressed in the first verb of the Psalm ("Shout for joy"),
and in the words: "with gladness," "with singing," "with
thanksgiving," "Give thanks unto him," and "bless [or praise]
his name." Since God is Lord He is to be served ; since He is
gracious the service is to be gladsome and joyful. Approach-
ing God in service and worship is indeed a solemn and awe-
inspiring act, but it need not be therefore a melancholy one.
In coming into His presence singing is to be upon the lips
issuing from grace in the heart. Venema says: "To serve
the Lord in joy implies, that submission is rendered to him
as King and Lord willingly and joyfully in all things.)6 Sing-
ing is a delightful means of drawing near to God. We can
all appreciate the thought that prompted
"Let those refuse to sing
Who never knew our God;
But children of the heavenly king
Must speak his praise abroad."
Christianity came into the world on the wings of song, and
has implanted lasting song in redeemed hearts. Through the
finished work of the Lord Jesus Christ upon
malady has been changed into melody. Unbelief has no
music. We challenge them to produce their anthems, their
hymns; they have no anthems, no hymns, no oratorios, and
no symphonies. When Robert Ingersoll, the noted agnostic,
died, the printed notice of his funeral said: "There will be
no singing." How could there be? Ours is a happier and
more blessed portion, expressed by Maclaren : "There is no
music without passsages in minor keys; but joy has its rights
and place too, and they know but little of the highest kind
of worship who do not sometimes feel their hearts swell with
gladness more poignant and exuberant than earth can min-
That this worship appointed for all the nations of the
6 Hengstenberg, op. cit., footnote, p. 200.
7 The Book of Psalms, Vol. III, p. 79.
"Old Hundredth"--Psalm C 59
earth is intended for the yet future age of righteousness
which follows the period. of the Great Tribulation, is even
more emphatically brought out by the exhortation of verse 4.
(See also for this position, Gaebelein, A. C., The Book of
Psalms, pp. 369-370.) All the earth is invited to enter into
God's gates with thanksgiving, and into His courts with
praise, thanking Him and blessing His name. What gates
and courts are these? They are those of the millennial temple
set forth by the prophet Ezekiel in chapters 40-48 of his
prophecy. The fourfold call to the nations to engage in the
praise of God finds the temple gates standing ajar; no longer
is there a Court of the Gentiles. Perowne has pointed out
that what appears in Isaiah 2:2, 3 (we may also add Isa. 60;
Zech. 2:9, 10; 8:20-22; 14:16) as prediction, is here given in
the form of an invitation. But those who do not see the dis-
tinctive features of
from the destination of the Body of Christ, the Church) make
these charges merely symbolic. Says Delitzsch: "The pil-
grimage of all people to the holy mountain (vid. Deut. 33:19,
the primary passage) is the Old Testament way of express-
ing the hope of the conversion of all peoples to the God of
revelation and the close union of all with the people of
this God."8 This position is stated even more clearly and
emphatically by Alexander: "That the reference to the
is clear from the analogy of Isa. 66:23, where all mankind
are required to come up every sabbath, a command which, if
literally understood, is perfectly impracticable."9 Those who
reject a literal interpretation of prophecy will, of course, find
it necessary to refuse a literal millennial temple, whether it
be stated in Psalm 100, Isaiah 66, Ezekiel 40, or Zechariah
8 and 14. To be sure, the whole of this Psalm is to be taken
literally, they would tell us, but the two words "gates" and
"courts" must needs be shrouded in symbolism and metaphor.
All may receive such who will, but we prefer to stand upon
the literal sense, confirmed and substantiated every whit by
8 Op. cit., p. 72.
9 The Psalms, p. 405.
60 Bibliotheca Sacra
comparison of Scripture with Scripture. Even the great
scholar, Calvin, aligns himself with the spiritualizing inter-
pretation. Did we not properly warn the reader in our intro-
ductory word concerning the
Church? Then hear Calvin: "And since he invites the whole
of the inhabitants of the earth indiscriminately to praise
Jehovah, he seems, in the spirit of prophecy, to refer to the
period when the Church would be gathered out of different
nations."10 Paul tells us in Ephesians 3 that the Church as
a mystery was "hid in God" and not "hid in the Old Testa-
ment." Therefore, only a revelation from God (and not the
illumination of the already existing Old Testament) could
suffice to make it known.
In that day will the blessing of Abraham become the por-
tion of all the families of the earth. The Abrahamic Cove-
nant, oft reiterated and confirmed, will then be fulfilled. This
universal feature of the Psalm (howbeit, without the mil-
lennial aspect just contended for by us) is expressed by
Augustine: "Et tamen hanc vocem audivit universa terra.
Jam jubilat Domino universa terra, et quae adhuc non jubilat
FOUNDATION, verses 3 and 5.
Having exhorted the nations to render God unstinted
praise and service, the Psalm now presents the reasons or the
foundation for such action upon the part of the earth. How
ample is the ground for the earth's praise of the living God.
First and foremost, the nations with their many gods and
lords are to acknowledge the one true and living God. God
can never be praised aright or worshipped if He be not owned
as the only God. Such recognition of the true nature of God
will be in strong contrast to the arrogance of the man of sin
in the previous period claiming divine prerogatives and hon-
ors. See 2 Thessalonians 2 and Revelation 13, as well as
Daniel 11. The verb vfd speaks of learning by experience,
10 Commentary on the Book of Psalms, Vol. IV, p. 83.
11 For the entire quotation see Perowne, op. cit., p. 204.
"Old Hundredth"--Psalm C 61
and this Theodoret (according to Delitzsch and Perowne)
interpreted as di ] au]tw?n ma<qete tw?n pragma<twn. Spurgeon
quotes Matthew Henry as having aptly said: "blind sacrifices
will never please a seeing God." The worship of God is to
be intelligent. "Know that Jehovah, he is God" reminds us
of the wording of Psalm 46:11 (Hebrew). The setting is the
time immediately after the putting down of the insurrection
portrayed in Psalm 2. Then, as Dr. Lewis Sperry Chafer
has so cogently said many times, the Lord Jesus Christ will
lay hold of that archenemy, Satan, binding him, as He says
"Be still [for a thousand years], and know that I am God."
Not only will Satan be brought to this place by compulsion,
but the nations altogether through God's mercy will know
Him to be God alone. They must know whom they worship,
and to this knowledge they will come by experience, not
rote memory. We are to know Him in His works (as seen
in the remainder of verse 3) and in His Person (set forth in
verse 5). These are the two foci around which all acceptable
worship of God must adjust itself: the Person and work of
God and the Lord Jesus Christ, together with the blessed
Holy Spirit, the ineffably glorious Trinity. There are outlined
for us immediately the three grounds for our worship of
God, or the three rights that belong to Him:
1. The right of creation. "It is he that made us, and we
are his" (Psalm 95:6; Isaiah 60:21). God deserves all praise
for His creative work. The Authorized Version translates
the text vnHnx xlv, "and not we ourselves," while the Ameri-
can Standard renders it as we have translated it above. The
difference is much greater in English than in the original,
where the marginal reading changes the text by one letter,
from xlv to vlv, from "and not we (ourselves)" to "and to
him we (belong)." Each reading has its supporters among
students of the Psalm. Hengstenberg and Alexander (whose
work is practically a condensation of that of the first) prefer
the reading of the text: "and not we ourselves." The former
states simply that the marginal reading is unsuitable. The
latter feels his choice is based upon the greater antiquity of
the text, its greater significance, and its appropriateness to
62 Bibliotheca Sacra
the passage. The LXX supports the text in preference to a
changed reading, giving us kai> ou]x h[mei?j. In this the Syriac
and Vulgate concur.12 The evidence for the marginal read,
ing is this: it is found in 19 MSS. of De Rossi and 9 of Ken-
nicott; it agrees with the parallel passage (Psalm 95:7) ; it
is adopted by able modern scholars (so Perowne's argu-
meats) ; Jerome, the Chaldee, and Bishop Lowth favor the
margin (so Calvin, although he translates according to the
text). Delitzsch points out 15 Old Testament passages where
the Masoretic scholars read vl instead of xl, this verse being
one of them. We feel that Delitzsch takes the common sense
view: both variants are in harmony with the context and
Scripture as a whole, but the preference should go to the
Qeri. Symmachus (the same view is taken by the great Jew.
ish scholar, Rashi) renders the text (which he prefers):
au]to>j e]poi<hsen h[ma?j ou]k o@ntaj, that is, "he made us when we
were not." This is contrary to Hebrew grammar. Conant,
explains that the translation, "not ourselves," is supposedly
in contrast to Pharaoh's boast in Ezekiel 29:3. Perhaps the
truer meaning of that passage is, not that Pharaoh boasts of
making himself, but that he made the
The truth is clear enough: God made man, therefore he did
not make himself, and since God made man, he belongs to
God. But who are the "we" and the "us" of this verse?
Every other pronoun or pronominal suffix in the Psalm
refers to Jehovah. The "we" refers to
here the fulfillment of Psalm 67:
blessing for the world. Though he fails to see the dispen-
sational aspect of these things, Maclaren has beautifully
stated the truth of the verse thus : "The psalm is . . . a
song which starts from national blessings, and discerns in
them a message of hope and joy for all men.
meant to be a sacred hearth on which a fire was kindled,
that was to warm all the house."14
2. The right of redemption. If
12 Calvin, op. cit., in loco.
13 Op. cit., p. 515.
14 OP. cit., p. 80.
"Old Hundredth"--Psalm C 63
the other nations of that day as well, for all must have cause
before they can praise aright) is God's by creation, she is His
all the more so because of His redemptive work for her.
This is the truth of the words: "We are his people, and the
sheep of his pasture." In the Old Testament these expres-
sions speak of
age we are studying it will be true of the nations also. See
2:14; Isaiah 14:1.
long experience: "The goodness God has extended to us, He
will not withhold from you all." And the nations, viewing
God's dealings of old with His people, will be all the more
encouraged to render Him all praise and adoration. What
blessed truths are these: man's Creator is also his Owner.
We are God's by two creations, two births. His is the right
of the Kinsman-Redeemer, the Ransomer. All nations will
yet own these irrefutable facts.
3. The right of preservation. To say
sheep of His pasture implies a wealth of meaning. There is
no good English equivalent for the verb hfr, from which
come the words for "pasture" and "shepherd." Included in
the word are all the blessed experiences of divine care, guid-
ance, and provision. He sees that every need is provided.
God is mighty to save and equally mighty to preserve. For
this reason we prefer to speak of the preservation of the
saints, rather than the perseverance of the saints.
The Psalmist has outlined sufficient foundation for the
world to praise God for all His benefits. But there is a yet
higher reason to adore God it is because of His blessed Per-
son, because of who He is. He is infinitely good in Himself,
apart from any or all good that He can bestow. He is full
of lovingkindness, not severe, forbidding, but warmhearted
and compassionate. He is everlastingly faithful: every word
of His promises, He will fulfill. If His lovingkindness and
faithfulness are forever, everlasting, then men will never be
at a loss for a cause to praise and thank God. All is founded
and grounded on inherent goodness, everlasting lovingkind-
ness, and unchanging faithfulness. We should be con-
strained to cry in the fourfold refrain of the 107th Psalm:
64 Bibliotheca Sacra
"Oh that men would praise Jehovah for his lovingkindness
And for his wonderful works to the children of men!" (vss.
8, 15, 21, 31). And above all for Himself.
What value has the Psalm for us believers today? Once
having ascertained the proper interpretation, it is legitimate
to apply every spiritual blessing to the child of God of this
age. He will find through contemplation of the grace of God
in the Lord Jesus Christ ample foundation for shouting to
God for joy, for serving Him with gladness, for coming before
Him with singing, for knowing that Jehovah alone is God, for
realizing His work of creation, redemption, and preservation,
for coming to God directly (without need of earthly temple
or sanctuary) through the Mediator, Christ Jesus, with
thanksgiving and praise, for thanking Him, and for blessing
His name because of His blessed character. He needs not to,
await the millennial hour to perform any of this reasonable,
spiritual service. Does the dispensational view, then, rob
the believer of blessings he may have had? Never. It places
truth in proper position and the result is greater ultimate
blessing for all.
Though the Psalm is short, it is exceedingly full. There
are seven thoughts relating to praise: (1) "Shout for joy";
(2) "with gladness"; (3) "with singing"; (4) "with thanks-
giving"; (5) "with praise"; (6) "Give thanks"; (7) "bless
his name." There are seven distinct exhortations: (1) "Shout
for joy"; (2) "Serve Jehovah"; (3) "Come before him", (4)
"Know that Jehovah"; (5) "Enter into his gates" ; (6) "Give
thanks unto him"; (7) "bless his name." There is a seven-
fold picture of God as (1) Lord of all the earth; (2) King
of the nations; (3) Creator of all men; (4) Shepherd of His
flock ; (5) Guardian of His Own; (6) Object of all true
praise; (7) God of infinite goodness, eternal lovingkindness,
and lasting faithfulness. Hengstenberg has so masterfully
summarized the Psalm that we quote him at length : "There
can be no doubt that Ps. xci.-c. belong to the same time and
same author, that they form a connected series, that they are
on the territory of the Psalm poetry, what the second part of
"Old Hundredth"--Psalm C 65
Isaiah is on the territory of prophecy, and that we have
before us in them a decalogue of Psalms intimately connected
together. The reference to the relation in which
to the might of the world, is common to all these Psalms.
The objective view of suffering also is a common feature:
the Psalmist stands everywhere above it, no crying from the
depths, no conflict with despair--the explanation being that
the Psalmist has to do with future suffering, and is preparing
for it a shield of consolation. These Psalms also are in com-
mon characterised by a confident expectation of a glorious
revelation of the Lord, which the author, following up the
prophetical writings, sees with the eye of faith as already
present. It is common to them all to quote with marked intel-
ligence from older passages, especially from the Davidic
Psalms, and from the second part of Isaiah, in connection
with an originality of thought and expression which it is im-
possible to mistake. It is a common feature also that these
quotations are in all cases taken from writings of a date prior
to the captivity, in accordance with a series of other marks
of a pre-Chaldaic era which are scattered everywhere through-
out these Psalms.--It is common to them all that the tone
never rises above a certain height, and never sinks beneath
it, just as in the second part of Isaiah, in common with which
our Psalm bears the character of mild sublimity. There are
common to them all a great many parallel passages, the use
of anadiplosis, the predilection for the mention of musical
instruments, proceeding from the joyful character of the
Psalm. It is impossible also not to notice design in the ar-
rangement. Two introductory Psalms of a general character
stand at the head: Ps. xci., an expression of joyful confi-
dence in the help of God in all troubles and dangers; Ps. xcii.,
the greatness of God, which brings on the destruction of the
wicked, and the salvation of the just; Ps. xciii. is then opened
with the watchword, "the Lord reigneth," which hencefor-
ward is uttered on all sides, and applied for comfort and ex-
hortation. The whole ends in the exhortation addressed to
the whole earth to serve the Lord and to praise him and to
give him glory for the abundant salvation which he imparts,--
66 Bibliotheca Sacra
the full-toned chorus of all nations and tongues who know
that the Lord is God."15
We conclude with the truly beautiful Scotch version of the
All people that on earth do dwell,
Sing to the Lord with cheerful voice,
Him serve with fear, His praise forth tell;
Come ye before Him and rejoice.
"The Lord, ye know, is God indeed;
Without our aid He did us make;
We are His flock, He doth us feed,
And for His sheep He doth us take.
"O enter then His gates with praise,
Approach with joy His courts unto:
Praise, laud, and bless His name always,
For it is seemly so to do.
"For why? The Lord our God is good,
His mercy is for ever sure;
His truth at all times firmly stood,
And shall from age to age endure."
"Let us sing the Old Hundredth."
15 Op. cit., pp. 202, 203.
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