Leviticus Interpretive Questions

Interpretation, Significance, Application

Questions raised on the reading of sections of G. Wenham’s

Leviticus (Grand Rapids:  Eerdmans, 1979).

Developed by Ted Hildebrandt


Ch.  1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,     

11,  12,   13,   14,   15,   16,   17,   18,   19,   20,

21,   22,   23,   24,   25,   26,   27





1.  What is the Hebrew title for the book of Leviticus?  How does that differ

from the Septuagint and Vulgate?  Where did our English title come

from? Which title is best suited for the book? (Wenham, 3)

2.  In what way is the title “Leviticus” misleading? Which chapters are

directed to the priests alone and which are addressed to all Israel?

(Wenham, 3)

 3.  Compare and contrast the festival descriptions in Lev. 23 with Num. 28-

29; and Deuteronomy 16. (Wenham, 3)

4.  How are the rituals of chs. 1-7 presupposed in chs. 8-10? (Wenham, 5)

5.  How does Exod. 19:6 relate to the book of Leviticus? (Wenham, 5)

6.  What narrative structure or framework setting occurs at the beginning of

many chapters of Leviticus? (Wenham, 5)  How is that related

to the Hebrew title of the book?

7.  While Exod. 20:7 gives the commandment that blasphemy is wrong, how

          does Leviticus 24 supplement that? (Wenham, 6)

8.  How does Leviticus relate to the 15 chapters of Exodus? (Wenham, 6)

9.  Which sections of Leviticus are given in a law genre and which give a

          historical narrative? (Wenham, 6)  How are the two connected?

10.  How do critical scholars see the development of the book of Leviticus?

          What sections were the original “P” (priestly) core and what other

          sections do they think were added later? (Wenham, 7)  What section

          is labeled the “Holiness Code.”?  Is it plausible to suggest sources

          behind the text of the current book of Leviticus?  On what bases

          are such sources suggested?  How does one separate the work of

          alleged later redactors from the original alleged sources?

11.  What literary links and repeated phrases bond the book of Leviticus

together as a unit? (Wenham, 7)

12.  How is the oral character of the book of Leviticus developed in the text?

          How is the literary or written aspect found in the text? (Wenham, 8)

13.  What four arguments are used to support the “traditional view” that

          God gave/spoke these laws to Moses in the wilderness of Sinai?

          (Wenham, 8f) 

14.  Is there archaeological evidence to support the early development of

          ritual and sacrifice in other Ancient Near Eastern (ANE) cultures at

or before the time of Moses?  (Wenham, 9)

15.  What aspects of Leviticus are not characteristic of the later post-exilic

          times of Ezra and Nehemiah?  (Wenham, 9)  What were the major

          issues faced in Ezra’s day that are not really highlighted in Leviticus

          (and vice versa)?

16.  What is the relationship between Leviticus and Ezekiel? (Wenham, 9)

          What does that suggest about the date of the book?

17.  When do critical scholars suggest that “P” (priestly document) was

          constructed?  Where do they find evidence of “P” beyond Leviticus

in the Pentateuch? (Wenham, 9)

18.  Does Wellhausen’s analysis that Israel’s original religious life was

simple, free and spontaneous and gradually evolved into more law,

custom and ritualistic ways of being fit with the archaeological

record? (Wenham, 10)  Is such religious evolutionary development

so monolithically linear?  Do religious conceptions always develop

from the simple to the complex in a straightforward manner?

19.  What are the various aspects of ritual which can be traced in their

          historical development (priesthood, sacrifices, sanctuaries, feasts,

etc.)? (Wenham, 10f)

20.  Did the patriarchs have priests?  How did they offer sacrifices?

          When does the notion of a “high priest” enter?  (Wenham, 11)

21.  What kind of things did the priests get from the people they

          served? (Wenham, 11)

22.  In what ways is the cult described in Chronicles more like Leviticus

          than the cult described in the book of Kings?  Why is there

          such a difference? (Wenham, 11)

23.  Did Israel’s religion evolve from a simple, flexible, individualistic

          religion of Judges and Samuel into rigid legalistic rituals of

          the postexilic period under Ezra? (Wenham, 11)

24.  Is Kaufmann right when he says the cult in Israel was:

          “Fixity in times and rites and absence of ‘natural spontaneity’

characterize the festivals of ancient Babylonia, Egypt and all know

early civilizations... These elements are no indication of lateness.” 

How would one support or dispute this claim? (Wenham, 11)

25.  Do societies become more religious or more secular over time?

          How would this impact the dating of Leviticus? (Wenham, 12)

26.  Does the reference in Leviticus to the Urim and Thummim fit better

          a pre-exilic or post-exilic model?  (Wenham, 12)

27.  Does the legal terminology used in Leviticus fit pre- or post-

          exilic legal language? (Wenham, 12)

28.  Do animal tithes fit a pre- or post-exilic setting better? (Wenham, 12)

29.  Where is Leviticus quoted in Deuteronomy and Joshua?  What

          does that suggest about the dating of Leviticus? (Wenham, 12)

30.  Does the mention of a multiplicity of sanctuaries (Lev. 26:31) support a

pre-or post-exilic date?  Does this support a pre-monarchy date?

          (Wenham, 12)

31.  What does Lev. 17:2ff that all animals must be slaughtered in the

          sanctuary imply in terms of when the book was written?

          (Wenham, 12)

32.  When does Ezekiel quote material from Leviticus? (Wenham, 13)

33.  What do the following stand for and what role do they play in

evaluating the original Hebrew text of Leviticus:

          MT, SP, LXX, Peshitta, Targums, Vulgate? (Wenham, 13)

34.  What manuscripts of Leviticus were found at Qumran? 

          What is the importance of these manuscripts? (Wenham, 14)

35.  What manuscript tradition is the best and why? (Wenham, 14)

36.  In Leviticus 1:6 the MT has a singular suggesting the worshipper

          is the one chopping up the animal while the SP and LXX

          have a plural implying the priests did it.  Which reading is

          to be accepted and why? (Wenham, 15)

37.  What geographical locations did the MT, SP and LXX derive

          from?  (Wenham, 15)

38.  What does it mean that the texts of the SP and LXX may derive

          from a text tradition that was modernized in the 5th century

          BC?  (Wenham, 15)  How does that affect things?

39.  What is the significance of the laws of Leviticus being set in

          a setting of narrative? (Wenham, 15)

40.  How can one move from narrative to theological statements?

          (Wenham, 15)  How does one move from historical statements

          to the character of God?  When one pulls out a characteristic

          of God from a historical narrative is that taking it out of

          context? (Wenham, 16)

41.  Does God respond to the movements of history?  If so does

          He change?  Can God change?  Does His own actions change

          Him?  Does God Himself have a history?

42.  How is the idea of the presence of God presented in the book

          of Leviticus?  How does that link it back to the book of

          Exodus? (Wenham, 16)

43.  It is said that Leviticus presents the whole of a person’s life

          lived out in God’s presence.  Is this correct?  How would you

          prove or disprove this?  What areas of life are treated/touched in the

book of Leviticus? (Wenham, 17)

44.  What distinction does Leviticus provide between God’s general

          presence in all of life and His special presence in certain specific

          locations? What is the relationship of God to different types of

          space? (Wenham, 17)

45.  According to Lev. 26, how is God’s presence conceived?  How is

          God’s presence conceived in the New Testament? Immanuel

          (Wenham, 18)

46.  What is the major theme or motto of the book of Leviticus?

          (Wenham, 18)

47.  What does the term “holy” mean in the context of Leviticus?

          (Wenham, 18)

48.  How does holiness relate to the ideas of the clean/unclean,

          sanctified/profaned and common/polluted? (Wenham, 18f)

49.  Where does “common” sit in relation to that which is holy and

          that which is unclean? (Wenham, 19)

50.  What moves that which is common up to the state of holiness?

          (Wenham, 19)

51.  How does one move from being unclean to being clean?

          (Wenham, 19)

52.  How does one move from being clean to being unclean?

          (Wenham, 19)

53.  How is uncleanness transmitted? (Wenham, 20)

54.  How are the concepts of cleanness and purity similar?  How

          does cleanness go beyond the sense of purity? (Wenham, 20)

55.  How is cleanness related to normality?  How does normality

          play itself out in terms of what animals are considered to be

          clean or unclean? (Wenham, 20)

56.  How does uncleanness function?  What kinds of things are

          unclean intrinsically in themselves?  How do certain things become

unclean? What kinds of things cause temporary uncleanness?

How do these relate to the concept of what is “normal”?

(Wenham, 20)

57.  Is permanent uncleanness contagious? (Wenham, 21)

          What does temporary uncleanness require so that the state

          of cleanness may be reentered?

58.  When an unclean person is put out of the camp, what kinds of

          reasons are given to support that hygienic or theological?

          (Wenham, 21)

59.  How is holiness associated with God in the book of Leviticus?

          (Wenham, 22)  How does God manifest His holiness?

          What kinds of things around God are also considered holy?

60.  How is holiness acquired?  How does man sanctify (make holy)

          something? How does God sanctify something/someone?

          (Wenham, 22) 

61.  Wenham says that the “main emphasis of the book is on the human

contribution to sanctification, what man has to do to make something

holy.  Give some examples to support this conclusion.  (Wenham, 23)

62.  How is holiness related to obeying the law and carrying out rituals?

          (Wenham, 23)

63.  How would you support Mary Douglas’ idea that to be holy

          means more than separation to divine service but has the

          ideas of wholeness and completeness?  (Wenham, 23)  How

          must something “holy” conform to what is normal for its


64.  How is perversion associated with the concept of mixing or

          confusion in Leviticus? (Wenham, 24)

65.  What are some examples of when Leviticus condemns things

          that are not what they seem to be, dissembling and confusion?

          (Wenham, 24)

66.  How is the concept of holiness developed elsewhere in Scripture

          (Col. 1:2; 1 Pet. 1:2; 2:9-10; Isa. 6; Exod. 19:5f)? (Wenham, 25)

67.  How is Hebrews 9:22 illustrated in the book of Leviticus?

          (Wenham, 25)

68.  How did sacrifices restore relationships between God and people and

          between people and other people? (Wenham, 25f)  How did

          sacrifices return things to a normal state from a disturbed order?

69.  What role does blood play in the transition from states of uncleanness

          to cleanness or holiness? What role does oil play? (Wenham, 26)

70.  What happens when the unclean comes into contact with the

          holy? (Wenham, 26)

71.  How is holiness and uncleanness associated with spatial

          distance from God and the community? (Wenham, 27)

72.  What does the word kipper mean?  What role does it play in the Day

          of Atonement? How is atonement made in Israel? (Wenham, 28)

73.  How do the three parties (God, priest, worshipper) interact in the

sacrificial system? (Wenham, 28)

74.  How is Christ’s death associated with the notion of sacrifice in the

          New Testament (cf. 1 Jn 2:1-2; Heb. 9:26 et al.)? (Wenham, 28)

75.  How is the covenant of Sinai represented in the book of Leviticus?

          (Wenham, 29)  In which chapter is it explicitly mentioned?  What

          is the significance of that?

76.  How does the covenant idea and form relate to the codification of law

          and ritual? (Wenham, 29)

77.  Wenham identifies six parts to the Ancient Near Eastern covenant.

          What are they and what is the function of each?  Where can each

          of these parts be seen in the canon? Which of these parts are

found in Leviticus? (Wenham, 30) 

78.  What formula does a treaty’s suzerain use that can be found both

          in Leviticus and Exodus according to Wenham? (Wenham, 30)

79.  What does Wenham see as the “basic” stipulation in the book

          of Leviticus?  (Wenham, 30)

80.  What role does the mention of the exodus from Egypt play

          in the book of Leviticus?  How is it referred to and what

          is it used for? (Wenham, 31)

81.  How is Leviticus 26 similar and dissimilar to Deuteronomy 28?

          (Wenham. 31)  What was the purpose of Leviticus 26?

82.  What is divine blessing dependent on? (Wenham, 32)

83.  Where was the new covenant to be written? (Wenham, 32)

84.  How do Christians generally divide the Old Testament law?

          Are these three categories mutually exclusive?  Can you

          always pigeon hole a law into only one of these three?

          Can one always separate between the moral and ceremonial


85.  What broad agreements are found in the law of the Old Testament

          and the core of the New? (Wenham, 33)  Is the basis of the

          ethical code in the Old the same as in the New? Are the laws

          the same? 

86.  Is the covenant a major theme in the New Testament?

          Are whole sections structured on the basis of a covenant

format as is found in the Old Testament? (Wenham, 33)

87.  Wenham says that the law is a response to God’s grace.

          How would you prove and develop that idea? (Wenham, 34)

88.  Are the notions of blessings and curses found in the New

          Testament?  Are they based on obedience to the stipulations

          of the covenant? (Wenham, 34)

89.  Christ’s death in the New Testament is compared to what

          act of redemption in the Old? (Wenham, 34)

90.  What are examples of the civil law found in Leviticus?

          (Wenham, 34)

91.  How does Wenham move the laws of Leviticus towards

          having a role in the church?  (Wenham, 35)  How does one

          move from a particular law to the underlying universal

          principle?  What example does Wenham use to illustrate

          this method of applying the law?

92.  Which laws in Leviticus are written with judges in mind?

          (Wenham, 35)

93.  Wenham states that Leviticus treats property violations more

          leniently than the other Ancient Near Eastern societies while

          offenses against life are treated more severely.  How would

          you substantiate that?  What are some examples from

          Leviticus that could be used in working out the details of

          substantiating this point? (Wenham, 36)

94.  What New Testament book develops the themes of sacrificial

          rituals and their application to the New Testament believer?

          (Wenham, 36)  What are a couple examples from this NT

          book that would illustrate this?

95.  How does the sacrifice of Christ relate to the sacrifices of

          animals?  (Wenham, 37)



Leviticus 1                                                                              Back to Top

96.  What are the three most common types of sacrifice (Lev. 1-3)? 

(Wenham, 47)

97.  What phrase bonds the first three sacrifices together (Lev. 1-3)?

(Wenham, 47)

98.  Within each of the first three sacrifices, what order is followed

          (Lev. 1-3)? (Wenham, 47)

99.  Why were the sacrifices in chapters 1-3 ordered the way they were

according to A. Rainey? (Wenham, 47)

100.  What is the literary structure of Leviticus 1?  What three sections

          follow the heading in 1:2?  How is it organized? (Wenham, 49)

101.  In the burnt offering, what role or what activities does the

          worshipper do and what activities does the priest do? (Wenham, 49)

102.  In Lev. 1:2 it says “God called to Moses.”  How is that different

          than the normal way God addresses humans?  (Wenham, 49)

103.  To what does the “tent of meeting” (Lev. 1:2) link back to?

          (Wenham, 49)

104.  Can one prove/disprove Wenhem’s hypothesis that the sacrifices

are placed first to explain the ceremonies at Aaron’s ordination

(Lev. 1)? (Wenham, 49f)

105.  Does the book of Leviticus come as a “book of laws” or is it God’s

          speech to Moses who then declares it to the people as God’s

mediator?  What difference is there between these two? (Wenham, 50)

 106.  The sacrifices in Num. 28-29 are national public sacrifices.  What

          are the sacrifices of Lev. 1-3?  (Wenham, 50)

107.  What other occasions besides sin were sacrifices offered (Lev. 1)?

          (Wenham, 51)

108.  The animals for sacrifice listed in Lev. 1 were all _______ animals.

          (Wenham, 51).  Why were wild animals not allowed to be offered

          according to Wenham (cf. 2 Sam 24:24)?

109. Where does it mention that only animals without blemishes were to

          be offered (Lev. 1-5)?  What is the significance of that? (Wenham, 51)

          When did the prophets condemn the Israelites for offering imperfect

          animals (Mal. 1)?

110.  The burnt offerings are mentioned first it is suggested because they

          were most frequent.  When were they offered? (Wenham, 52)

111.  Wenham/Rainey suggests that the whole burnt, cereal/grain and

          peace offerings were given first because they were all referred to

          as ________ offerings.  When does the phrase “a soothing aroma

          for the Lord” come up in Lev. 1-3 and what is its significance?

          (Wenham, 52)

112. What types of animals could be used for the whole burnt offering

          (Lev. 1)?  (Wenham, 52)

113.  What was the only part of the animal that was not burnt in the

          whole burnt offering (Lev. 1; cf. 7:8)?  (Wenham, 52)

114.  Where did the worshipper bring his animal for the whole

          burnt offering (Lev. 1)?  (Wenham, 53)

115.  What were some possible reasons for bringing a whole burnt

          offering (Lev. 1; cf. ch. 12, 14, 15)? (Wenham, 53)

116.  What psalms were sung when one offered a whole burnt

          offering (cf. Ps. 40:7; 50:8; 51:18, 21; 66:13, 15)?

          (Wenham, 53)

117.  Who killed the animal for the whole burnt offering and

          where (Lev. 1)? (Wenham, 53)

118.  The animal was slaughtered in such a way that what could

          be removed (Lev. 1)?  (Wenham, 53)

119.  What was the priest’s role in the whole burnt offering

          (Lev. 1)?  What would the priest do with the blood?

(Wenham, 53f)

120.  Who chopped up the animal for the whole burnt offering? 

Who burned the animal on the altar (Lev. 1)?  Did the worshipper

ever get to touch the altar?  (Wenham, 54)

121.  What four things did the worshipper do in the whole burnt

          offering (Lev. 1)?  What two things did the priest do in

the whole burnt offering?  Did the distribution of work

change if it was a bird?  (Wenham, 54)

122.  Can you think through the process of offering a whole burnt

          offering (Lev. 1)?  (Wenham, 54)

123.  How does Israelite worship differ from our church worship

          services in terms of what the worshipper does and the priest

          (Lev. 1)?  (Wenham, 55)  Which is more engaging and involving?

124.  What was the purpose of the whole burnt offering (Lev. 1)? 

          Why does the Bible not clearly tell us?  How can one figure

out its purpose (cf. Lev. 1:4)?  (Wenham, 55)

125.  What gender of the animal was specified for the whole

          burnt offering?  Why? (Wenham, 55)

126.  Could offerings/sacrifices not be accepted (cf. Jer. 14:12;

          Hos. 8:13; Am. 5:22)? (Wenham, 55)

127.  How is God’s smell portrayed in the Old Testament?  In what

          contexts and with what significance (cf. Gen. 8:21 et al.)?

          (Wenham, 56)  How does sacrifice interact with the anger of God?

128.  What does the word atonement mean (Lev. 1)?

          (Wenham, 57)

129.  What difference in atoning value is there between the whole burnt

          offering and the purification/sin and reparation/guilt offerings (Lev. 1;

cf. Lev. 14:20; 16:24)?  (Wenham, 57)

130.  How did the whole burnt offering function in contexts outside of

          Leviticus (cf. 2 Sam 24:25; Job 1:5; 2 Chr. 29:7-8; Gen. 22; Exod.

18:11f; 1 Kgs. 18:38f)?  (Wenham, 57)

131.  What does the offering change?  Do people still retain a sinful nature?

          (Lev. 1)?  (Wenham, 57f)

132.  Could the whole burnt offering be offered for things other than

          the atonement for sin (Lev. 1; cf. Gen. 22; Exod. 18:11f; 1 Kgs.

18:38f)?  (Wenham, 58)

133.  In purification kinds of contexts the whole burnt offering would be

          offered with a purification offering suggesting what other types of

          functions (Lev. 1; cf. Lev. 12:6; 14:13, 19; 15:15, 30)?  (Wenham, 59)

134.  What are the two meanings for atonement (kipper) does Wenham

          observe (Lev. 1)?  (Wenham, 59)  Can the whole burnt offering be

          seen as a ransom payment?  How does that differ from its function as

          an atonement?

135. How does the notion of ransom function in ancient Israelite law

          (cf. Exod. 21:30; Lev. 20:10) and how is that different than our

          modern use of ransom (Lev. 1)?  (Wenham, 60)

136.  Do the ideas of atonement and ransom ever over lap (cf. 2 Sam.

21:3-6; Num. 25:13; Num. 16-17; Exod. 32:30-35)?  (Wenham, 60)

137.  How is kipper (atonement) used in non-sacrificial contexts (Lev. 1; cf.

          Lev. 17:11; Num. 8:10ff)? (Wenham, 61)

138.  What does the worshipper’s laying his hands on the head of the

          animal symbolize and in which contexts does it occur (Lev. 1)?

          (Wenham, 61f)  What often accompanied the laying on of hands?

139.  How are the ideas of identification and substitution manifest in the

          ritual act of the laying on of hands (Lev. 1; cf. Lev. 8:10; 16:21;

24:14)?  (Wenham, 62)

140.  Wenham repeatedly says that the psalms may tell us what was “said”

          during the sacrifices and thus tip us off to their function (cf. Ps. 20:4;

          40:7; 50:8; 51:21; 66:15)?  Does Psalms really support that connection

          between the psalmody of Israel and its cultic/ritual worship?  Find

          some examples besides the ones listed.  (Wenham, 63)

141.  Where is the whole burnt offering associated with vows and

confessions of faith (Lev. 1)? (Wenham, 63)

142.  While the burnt offering is only mentioned twice in the New

Testament (Mk. 12:33; Heb. 10:6ff), Wenham maintains that other

references refer to its basic functions (cf. Mk. 10:45; Eph. 5:2; 1 Pet.

1:18f; Heb. 7:27; Heb. 13:15f; 1 Jn 1:7ff).  What do we learn about its

NT role from these references (Lev. 1)?  (Wenham, 64)

143.  What does the whole burnt offering teach us about Christ’s sacrifice

          for us (Lev. 1)?  (Wenham, 65)

144.  Does sin have to be cared for before true worship (Lev. 1)?

          (Wenham, 66)


Leviticus 2                                                                              Back to Top

145.  How do the “if’s” in Lev. 2 structure that chapter? (Wenham, 67)

146.  What two ways is the cereal or grain offering offered (Lev. 2)?

          (Wenham, 67)

147.  What two other offerings produce a “soothing aroma to the Lord”

          (Lev. 2)?  (Wenham, 67)

148.  What is burned up in the cereal/grain offering and who gets the

          portion not burned (Lev. 2)?  (Wenham, 67)

149.  What ways are described as ways the grain could be cooked (Lev. 2)?

          (Wenham, 68)

150.  What could and could not be added to the grain offering (Lev. 2)?

          (Wenham, 68)

151.  What did the worshipper do in preparing the grain/cereal offering?

          What did the priest do in offering it up (Lev. 2)?  (Wenham, 68)

152.  What was the basic function of the cereal/grain offering (Lev. 2)?

          (Wenham, 69)

153.  What is the meaning of the term “minhah” that is used to describe

          the cereal/grain offering (Lev. 2)?  How is “minhah” used elsewhere

          (cf. Judg 3:15, 17f; 2 Sam. 8:6; 1 Kgs 4:2; 10:25; 2 Kgs. 17:3 et al.)?

          (Wenham, 69)

154.  How does the notion of “tribute” fit the worshipper offering a

          cereal/grain offering to the Lord (Lev. 2)?  (Wenham, 69)

155.  While cereal/grain offerings often accompanied other offerings at what

          times would it particularly come into focus (Lev. 2)?  (Wenham, 69)

156.  How was the grain offering described in Num. 5:15 where it was used

          in a jealousy ritual different from what is described in Lev. 2? Why?

          What is the significance of oil and frankincense? (Wenham, 70)

157.  What did oil represent (Lev. 2; cf. 1 Sam. 10:1, 9ff; 16:13 and Isa.

          61:3; Ps. 45:8)?  (Wenham, 70)

158.  What role did leaven/yeast have in the sacrifices (cf. Ex. 12:15; 13:3,

          7; 23:18; 34:25; Lev. 23:17, 20)?  (Wenham, 71)

159.  What was the role of salt in the sacrifices (Lev. 2:13; cf.  Judg. 9:45; 2

          Kgs. 2:20-22;  Num. 18:19; 2 Chr. 13:5)?  (Wenham, 71)

160.  Why did the priests and Levites not grow their own grain?  How did

          the cereal offering serve the priests and their families (Lev. 2

          cf. 1 Cor. 9:4-7, 13-14)?  (Wenham, 72f)

161.  What type of offering is presented in Lk. 17:11-14 and Acts 21:22-26

          and what is its significance (Lev. 2)?  What was the general

          significance of the cereal/grain offering? (Wenham, 72)



Leviticus 3                                                                              Back to Top

162.  How is chapter 3 structured? (Wenham, 74)  What topically

          distinguishes the three paragraphs?

163.  What formulas are repeated in each paragraph of the peace offering

          (Lev. 3)?  (Wenham, 74)

164.  What role does the formula “This is a permanent rule for your

          descendants...” play in Leviticus (Lev. 3; cf. 7:36; 10:9; 16:29; 17:7;

          23:14, 21, 31, 41; 24:3)?

165.  How do the sacrifices relate to the LORD’s sense of smell (Lev. 3:5,

          16; 1:9; 2:2 etc.)?  How do you understand that?  Does God actually

          smell the fragrance of the sacrifices?

166.  While the peace offering is an optional sacrifice in what three contexts

          were they used (Lev. 3; cf. 7:12ff)? (Wenham, 74)

167.  What was unique about who may eat part of the peace offering

          (Lev. 3)? (Wenham, 75)

168.  What animal was not seen in the peace offering but was offered in

          the burnt offering (Lev. 3)?  Why? (Wenham, 75)

169.  What aspects of ritual were shared between the peace offering and the

          burnt offering (Lev. 3)?  (Wenham, 75)

170.  What parts of the peace offering did the priest receive (Lev. 3)?

          What was burned up?  (Wenham, 76)

171.  Wenham indicates that the “peace” offering is translated in several

          very different manners (Lev. 3).  What are several options suggested

          and how does that shift the meaning of the sacrifice?  Which

          suggestion does Wenham favor and why? (Wenham. 76f)

172.  What are several of the nuances in the word Hebrew word shalom

          which may impact how one understands the (shelamim=peace

          offering)?  (Wenham, 77)

173.  How does chapter 3’s rendition of the peace offering compare to

          how it is described in ch. 7?  (Wenham, 77)

174.  What two types of peace offerings are connected in Ps. 56:13-14

          according to Wenham (78;  Lev. 3)? How does he develop his case?

175.  How is the peace offering related to Gen. 35 and 1 Sam. 1 (cf. Lev. 3)?

          (Wenham, 78)

176.  In what ways does the free-will offering function in other places in

          Scripture (Lev. 3; Ex. 35:29; Ezra 1:4; 8:28; Ps. 54:8 (Eng. 6))?

          (Wenham, 79)

177.  How did the peace offering function in meal contexts (Lev. 3;

          Deut. 12:12, 18; 27:7; 1 Kgs. 8:66)?  (Wenham, 79)

178.  How would the following Psalms possibly function in the peace

          offering context (Ps. 100, 26, 50, 54, 107, 116)?  (Wenham, 80)

179.  What are some possible reasons for the difference in the burnt offering

          burning the whole animal but only part in the peace offering (Lev. 3)?

          (Wenham, 80)

180.  Why was the blood and fat not allowed to be eaten (Lev. 3; cf. 7:22ff;

          7:11)?  With what was fat usually associated in the imagery of the Old

          Testament? (Wenham, 80)

181.   What are the kidneys and entrails or intestines often associated with

          in the Old Testament (Lev. 3; Job 19:27; Ps. 16:7; Jer. 4:14; 12:2)?

          Can one take the imagery from one passage and map it into another? 

          (Wenham, 80)

182.  Wenham objects to God being portrayed as “eating” the sacrifice based

          on Ps. 50:12-13.  Is there anything in Leviticus that would suggest He

          does “eat” the sacrifice? (Wenham, 81)

183.  When did Paul possibly offer a peace offering in the NT (Lev. 3;

          cf. Acts 21:23-26)?  (Wenham, 82)



Leviticus 4                                                                              Back to Top

184.  How are the sacrifices in Lev. 1-3 arranged in a different way than

          the sacrifices of Lev. 4-5? (Wenham, 86f)

185.  How do each of the sections in chs. 4-5 begin (Lev. 4:2; 5:1, 15;

          21(6:2)) and end (4:35; 5:13; 18, 26 (6:7))? How are the

          subordinate paragraphs introduced (Lev. 4:13; 27, 32; 5:7, 11, 17)?

          (Wenham, 87)

186.  How would you support Wenham’s claim that in the Purification (Sin)

          offering what is burned on the altar is not as significant as the rite

          of the sprinkling of the blood (Lev. 4)?  What determined where

          the blood was sprinkled?  (Wenham, 88)

187.  Wenham argues that allow hatta’t in Hebrew is usually translated

          “sin” offering (Lev. 4:3, 14, 23, 23) but that this offering should be

          more carefully designated as the “purification” offering.  How would

          you support this nuance (Lev. 4)?  (Wenham, 88f)

188.  How is purification different from the violation of sin (cf. burnt

          offering) which disrupts the covenant between God and man and the

          relationships between people (Lev. 4)? (Wenham, 89)  Why was

          purification necessary?

189. What did the purification offering have in common with other offerings

          (Lev. 4)?  How was it different?  (Wenham, 90)

190.  What does the purification offering tell us about the structure of

          Israelite society (Lev. 4)? (Wenham, 90)

191.  In what situations is a purification offering specified to be offered in

          Leviticus (Lev. 4; 12:6; 14:19; 15:15)? (Wenham, 92)

192.  Wenham states that the purification offering was for unwitting or

          inadvertent sins and also sins of omission (Lev. 4:2, 13, 22, 27; cf.

          5:2, 3, 4; cf. Num 35).  What is the difference?  (Wenham, 92)

193.  Wenham, quoting Keil, says the sprinkling of the blood was to protect

          the sinner from God’s anger at sin, the fat burned symbolized the

          purification of the human soul from sin and flesh burned outside the

          camp represented the destruction of sin.  How would one support or

          question these interpretations of the purification offering (Lev. 4)? 

          (Wenham, 93)  How can one “surmise” the meanings of ritual

          acts in Leviticus? 

194.  When does the book of Leviticus prescribe the purification/sin

          offering be offered (Lev. 4; 12:8; 14:19; 15:31; 16:19)?

195.  Wenham associates the burnt offering as frequent, most costly and

          the principal atoning sacrifice whereas the purification offering is

          less frequent, less costly and dealt with the pollution and defilement

          of sin (Lev. 4).  How would you support this (cf. Deut 21:1-9)?

          (Wenham, 95)

196.  Can the guilt of one person bring guilt on a whole nation biblically

          (Lev. 4)? (Wenham, 97)

197.  How should one understand the “congregation” in Israel?  Wenham

          suggests something like a parliament while others suggest a judicial

          board like the 70 members of the Jewish Sanhedrin and others that

          it refers to the whole nation.  Which of these is correct (Lev. 4)?

          (Wenham, 98)

198.  Why was the sin of a tribal leader not as serious as the sin of the

          high priest (Lev. 4)?  How is that indicated in the purification/sin

          offering?  (Wenham, 99)

199.   How does the reference to the “tribal leaders” show Leviticus may

          antedate the monarchy of Israel under David and Solomon (Lev. 4)?

          (Wenham, 99)  When does this term “tribal leader” function in

          Israel (Num. 2:3ff; 3:24, 30) and when did it fall out of use?

200.  Where else is the “tribal leader” described in Scripture

          (Lev. 4; cf. Ezk. 44:3; 45:7, 22; Ex. 22:27)? (Wenham, 100)

201.  Why was the purification/sin offering for the priest/leader

          more expensive than that of the ordinary person (Lev. 4)?

          (Wenham, 100)



Leviticus 5                                                                              Back to Top

202.  To what does the phrase “bear his iniquity” refer (Lev. 5)?

          (Wenham, 100)

203.  Both the burnt offering and the purification offering were offered

          for an offence.  What role did each play in the atonement process

          (Lev. 5)? (Wenham, 101)

204.  How would you support or refute Wenham’s statement that the

          purification offering was for cleansing the pollution of sin

          so that God’s presence could continue among His people (Lev.

          5)?  (Wenham, 101)

205. How is Christ’s blood related to the cleansing process (Lev. 5;

          1 Pet. 1:2, 1 Jn. 1:7; Rev. 7:14; Heb. 9:12-13; 10:19-22)? 

(Wenham, 101f)

206.  The animal was burned outside the camp.  How does the New

Testament connect that with Jesus’ death (Lev. 5; Heb. 13:10-16)?

(Wenham, 102)

207.  How does the NT also reinforce the idea of the greater responsibility

          of leaders (Lev. 5; Lk. 12:48; Jam. 3:1)? (Wenham, 103)

208.  How do you understand the nature and impact of unintentional

          sin (Lev. 4-5)?  (Wenham, 103)

209.  How is the notion of confession shared by both testaments

          (Lev. 5:5f; NT)?  (Wenham, 103)

210. Was a bird ever offered as a reparation/guilt offering (Lev. 5:7)?

          (Wenham, 104)  If not, how should Lev. 5:7 be translated?

211.  What is the relationship between the sin/purification offering

          and the guilt/reparation offering (Lev. 4-5)? (Wenham, 104f)

          How did the ritual and circumstances differ under which each

          was offered?

212.  What kind of animals could be offered as a reparation/guilt

          offering (Lev. 5:14ff)?  How is that different from the purification/sin

offering?  (Wenham, 105)

213.  How would you defend or object to Wenham’s statement that in the

          reparation/guilt offering, the value of the animal not the procedure at

          the altar, was the most important thing (Lev. 5)?  (Wenham, 105)

214. For what kinds of offences was the guilt/reparation offering made

          (Lev. 5; 14:10ff; 19:20-22; Num. 5;6-10; 6:9-12; Num. 31:16; Ezk.

20:27; Ezra 10:2, 10; Josh. 7:1; 2 Chr. 26:16, 18)?  (Wenham, 106)

215.  Wenham says the reparation/guilt offering is made for inadvertantly

          violating the Lord’s sacred property.  How is that supported (Lev.

22:14)?  (Wenham, 106)

216.  What does Lev. 5:15, 18, 25 which says, that the ram must be

          convertible into silver shekels, mean? How is Speiser’s suggestion

          that it is either a ram or silver is offered supported? (Wenham, 107)

217.  What is a sanctuary shekel (Lev. 5:15)? (Wenham, 107)

218.  How do you respond to Wenham’s statement that the reparation/guilt

          offering “served to pacify oversensitive Israelite consciences”?

          (Wenham, 108)

219.  How does the 20% restitution compare with other passages where

          offences are repaid (cf. Ex. 22:6ff)? (Wenham, 109)

220.  What two main offences was the reparation/guilt offering made for

          (Lev. 5)?  (Wenham, 109)

221.  How does the reparation/guilt offering function for the Nazarites

          (Lev. 5; Num. 6:9-12)? (Wenham, 110)  How does it relate to

          the leper (Lev. 14:12)?

222.  How does the suffering servant of Isa. 53:5-10 (vs. 10 is a reference

to the reparation/guilt offering) relate to the

          reparation/guilt offering of Lev. 5? (Wenham, 110)

223.  How do the concepts of substitutionary atonement and reparation

          relate in the sacrificial system (Lev. 5)?  (Wenham, 111)

224.  How would you support or critique Wenham’s summary that:

burnt offering brings reconciliation, the purification/sin offering

brings purification from the stain of sin, and the reparation/guilt

brings satisfaction through the paying for sin?  (Wenham, 111)

225.  In how many different ways does sin affect us and our relationship

          with God and others as evidenced in the sacrificial system (Lev. 5)?

          (Wenham, 111)

226.  How does the New Testament apply the sacrifices to Jesus through

          Isa. 53 (cf. John 12:38; Rom. 10:16; Mt. 8:17; 1 Pet. 2:22ff; Lk

          22:37)?  (Wenham, 111)

227.  Why must God be compensated for sin as a debt in the reparation/

          guilt offering (Lev. 5)?  (Wenham, 112)

228.  Are we expected to make amends for sin before receiving forgiveness

          as the reparation/guilt offering implies (Lev. 5; cf. Mat. 6:12; 5:23f

Lk. 19:8f)? (Wenham, 112)



Leviticus 6                                                                              Back to Top


229.  What is the structure (9 paragraphs) of Leviticus 6-7? Why is there a

          repetition of the same sacrifices? What opening formulas are used in

several of these paragraph divisions? (Wenham, 116)

230.  Wenham says the theme of ch. 6-7 is the eating of sacrificial meat. 

          How could that be supported or countered? (Wenham, 116)

231.  Wenham suggests, following Hoffmann, that Lev. 6-7 follows from

          and is connected to the story in Exod. 29:  How do the two passages

          link?  Is it a salient point that Lev. 1 (chs. 1-5) are revealed in the

          tabernacle (1:1) while 6-7 were revealed at Mt. Sinai (7:37-38)?

          (Wenham, 117)  What questions does such a suggestion not answer?

232.  How would you support the claim that Lev. 1-5 has the worshipper in

          focus while Lev. 6-7 is priestly in orientation? (Wenham, 117f)  How

          is that difference in the intended audience reflected in the content that

          is developed in each section (Lev. 1-5 in contrast to 6-7)?

233.  Wenham suggests that Lev. 1-5 is arranged as Lev. 1-3 food offering

producing “a soothing aroma for the Lord” and Lev. 4-5 a

purification/reparation offerings securing forgiveness for sin.  How

would you support and modify this? (Wenham, 118)

234.  What is repeated 5 times in Lev. 6:2-13? (Wenham, 119)

235.  What offerings were customarily offered every morning and evening

          (Lev. 6; Num 28:3-8)?  (Wenham, 119)

236.  What did the perpetual fire symbolize (Lev. 6) and which is most

likely?  What suggestions do interpreters like Calvin (fire from

heaven), Keil (uninterrupted worship), Gispen (continual

consecration) and Wenham himself make (constant need for

atonement)? (Wenham, 119)

237.  How would Wenham’s view of the perpetual fire symbolizing the

          constant need for atonement fit with Heb. 7:25? (Wenham, 120)

238.  The cereal, purification/sin and reparation/guilt offerings were called

          “most holy” (Lev. 6:10, 18[17, 25]; 7:6).  What did that mean?

          (Wenham, 120)

239. Where were the most holy sacrifices to be eaten (Lev. 6)?  (Wenham,


240.  What happened to the person touching the most holy sacrifices (Lev.

          6:11 [18])?  (Wenham, 121)

241.  How was someone “deconsecrated” or made common again (Lev. 6:

          20ff [27ff]  e.g. a Nazirite after completing a vow of consecration

          (Num. 6:13-20)? (Wenham, 121)

242.  What unique instruction was given to the priest concerning the offering

          of his own cereal offering (Lev. 6; cf. purification/sin offering? 

(Wenham, 121)

243.  While the sacrifices were offered daily (Lev. 6:13 [20]), what did that

          say about Christ’s sacrifice (Heb. 7:27)?  (Wenham, 122)

244.  What two types of purification/sin offering were the priests not to eat

          (Lev. 6)?  (Wenham, 122)



Leviticus 7                                                                             Back to Top

245.  Wenham says the reparation/guilt offering ritual is more fully

described in ch. 7 than it had been in ch. 5.  How so? (Wenham, 122)

246.  Is Lev. 7:10 saying other priests cannot eat cooked cereal offerings

          or that lay folk should not share in it as Hoffmann suggests? 

(Wenham, 123)

247.  What was the only offering lay people were allowed to eat (Lev.

7:11f)? (Wenham, 123)

248.  How does the description of the peace offering in ch. 7 compare

          and contrast with that of chapter 3? (Wenham, 123)

249.  What three types of peace offering are distinguished in Lev. 7:11-17?

          (Wenham, 123)

250.  How did the confession peace offering differ itself (Lev. 7)?  What

does this imply about Aaron’s not eating the sin offering but burning

it all up in Lev. 10:19?  (Wenham, 124)

251.  What other substance was to be only eaten on the first day it was

          received (Ex. 16:19ff.)?  Did this show the worshipper’s faith that

          God would provide for his needs on a daily basis? (Wenham, 124)

252.  Lev. 7:20f talks about an unclean person being “cut off from his

people”.  To what types of sin does this phrase apply (Lev. 7:21, 25,

27; 17:4, 9; 18:29; 19:8; 20:17f; 22:3)?  (Wenham, 125)

253.  While fat was not to be eaten for what other purposes could it be used

          if the animal died by itself (Lev. 7:23ff; cf. 11:39f; 17:15; Deut.

14:21)?  (Wenham, 125)

254.  What two parts did the priest receive from the peace offering (Lev.

          7:30ff; cf. Deut. 18)?  (Wenham, 126)

255.  What archaeological find at Lachish may suggest the giving the right

          foreleg to the priests may have been a pre-Mosaic custom (Lev. 7)?

          (Wenham, 126)

256.  While the breast was called a “dedication (waving),” the right leg the

priest received was called a “contribution (heaving)”.  What is the

difference (Lev. 7)?  What options have people suggested (Vincent,

Driver, Milgrom) (Wenham, 126)

257.  Wenham says that the New Testament application of these chapters

          (Lev. 6-7) show the need to carefully observe the conventions of

          worship that vary from society to society so as to show appropriate

          reverence?  What would be some of those forms today that vary

          from denomination to denomination? (Wenham, 127)

258.  Is Wenham justified in using Lev. 6-7 and the care taken to specify

worship form and order to critique the “slapdash” leading of services

and spontaneity today based on 2 Cor. 3:6 and Jesus comments about

worshipping in spirit and truth? (Wenham, 128)  How would the

performing arts caution against spontaneity?



Leviticus 8                                                                              Back to Top

259. How does history break into the law code at Lev. 8:1-10:20?

          (Wenham, 129)  What does that suggest about the relationship

between law and history in Israel?

260.  What was the function of the tabernacle and priesthood (cf.

          Exod. 29:43ff)? (Wenham, 130)

261.  How often and in what contexts does the phrase “as the Lord

          commanded Moses” occur in Lev. 8-10? (Wenham, 130) What

          is the significance of that?

262.  How are Lev. 8 and Exod. 29 connected? Chart out connections.

(Wenham, 131)

263.  What role did Aaron play in the dedication of the tabernacle

          (Ex. 40)?  Why not?  How does that play into Lev. 8-10? 

(Wenham, 131)

264.  Wenham makes the analogy between Aaron and Peter.  At what

          points is this a fitting analogy (Lev. 8-10)?  (Wenham, 132)

265.   What was relationship between Aaron and Moses in relation

          to God in Leviticus 1-10?  What role does Moses play in

Aaron’s ordination (cf. Lev. 8:38f)? (Wenham, 132)

266.  Wenham says the levitical law favors a three-fold structural

          division or framework.  How is that seen in the structure

          of Lev. 8-10? (Wenham, 132)

267.  How do Lev. 8, 9, and 10 hang together as a triptych (Lev. 8-10)?

          (Wenham, 133)  What common structures may be seen between

          these three units (note the repetitions)? 

268.  Who acts as a priest in Lev. 8?  (Wenham, 134)  How is that

          priestly role manifested?

269.  What shift in person takes place between chapter 8 and 9?

          (Wenham, 134)

270.  What is missing in the beginning of Lev. 10 that indicates that

          something is wrong when compared to the develop of chs. 8-9?

          What is missing? (Wenham, 134)

271.  How could one contrast Lev. 9:24 and 10:2?  How is the

          same imagery used with two very different results? (Wenham, 134)

272.  In chapter 8, how does the phrase “as the Lord commanded”

          take one back to Exod. 29? (Wenham, 137)

273.  How are command and obedience modeled in Lev. 8?

          (Wenham, 137)

274.  What was the ordination of the high priest like (Exod. 29)?

          (Wenham, 137)

275.  The “congregation” witnessed Aaron’s ordination.  What other

          events did the “congregation” witness (cf. Num. 1:8; 8:9; 20:8;

          Exod. 35:1)?  (Wenham, 138)

276.  What function does Aaron’s or anyone’s wearing a prescribed

          uniform play (Lev. 8)?  For what reasons are uniforms worn

today?  (Wenham, 138)

277.  Where are Aaron’s garments described in detail (cf. Exod.)?

          How are they described? (Wenham, 139)

278.  How would one describe the priestly garments in modern

          terms (shirt, sash, ephod, breast plate) (Lev. 8)? 

          (Wenham, 139)

279.  What was the Urim and Thummim (Lev. 8:8; cf. Exod. 28:15ff;

1 Sam. 14:41; 28:6; Ezra 2:63; Neh. 7:69)?  When was it used?

          What options are suggested in major biblical dictionaries

and encyclopedias?  (Wenham, 139)

280.  What was written on the gold plate of the priests turban

          (Lev. 8; Ex. 28:36f)? (Wenham, 140)

281.  How was the notion of the whole of Israel becoming priests

          (Exod. 19:6) similar to the church (1 Pet. 2:5; Rev. 1:6)?  How does

          the imagery of clothes make its way into the New Testament

          (Lev. 8; cf. I Thess. 5:8; Col. 3:12)?  (Wenham, 140)

282.  When Moses anoints Aaron in Lev. 8, what commands is

          he fulfilling (cf. Exod. 40:9-11)?  Who also was anointed

          in Israel?  What is often associated with being anointed

          (cf. 1 Sam. 10:1ff; 16:13; Isa. 61:1)? (Wenham, 141)

283.  How does Lev. 8:15 support Wenham’s argument that the

          object on which the blood is smeared is purified?

          (Wenham, 141)

284.  In Lev. 8:18-21 Moses offers the burnt offering in which case

          he is acting in what major role?  What role are the priests

          being anointed found in this ritual? (Wenham, 142)

285.  In the ordination of the priests in Lev. 8:22-30, what modifications

          to the peace offering are made (hint: blood)? (Wenham, 142)

286.  Who also had blood smeared on his right ear, thumb and toe

          as the priests did in Lev. 8 (cf. Lev. 14:14)?  (Wenham, 143)

287.  In the purification offering when the priests were anointed there

          seems to be no mention of vows.  Wenham asks if it was

          confessional.  What was the nature of Aaron’s confession? 

          Are these the only options?  What alternatives do you see in

          the purpose of the purification offering here (Lev. 8:29ff)?

          (Wenham, 143)

288.  Why were just the right ear, right thumb and right big toe

          smeared with blood (Lev. 8)?  (Wenham, 143)

289.  How would you compare Exod. 29:3ff and Lev. 8:31-36?

          (Wenham, 143)

290.  What does the warning given in Lev. 8:35f anticipate in the

          narrative? (Wenham, 144)

291.  While defilement happens in a moment, cleansing often is a

          slower process.  The priests ordination process took 7 days.

          What other cleansing processes took 7 days (cf. Lev. 14:8f; 15:13f;

28f)?  (Wenham, 143)

292.  How is Christ’s priesthood manifest something different about

          his priesthood in contrast to the priests of the Old Testament

          as seen in their ordination ceremony in Lev. 8 (cf. Heb. 7:27)?

          (Wenham, 145)



Leviticus 9                                                                             Back to Top


293.  After Aaron is ordained, how does his dependence on Moses change

          (Lev. 9)?  (Wenham, 147)

294.  How would you compare and contrast Lev. 8 and 9? 

          (Wenham, 147)

295.  What repeated phrase in Lev. 9 shows Moses as prophet was

          still in authority over Aaron the priest (cf. Lev. 9:1, 2, 5, 6, 7)?

          (Wenham, 147)

296.  What irony is seen in Aaron’s first offering of a bull (Lev. 9)?

          For what sin was he offering it? (Wenham, 148)

297.  In Lev. 9 it twice says the sacrifices were to be done so that

          “the glory of the Lord may appear to you”.  When had that

          glory been seen outside of this account (cf. Ex. 24:16f;

Num. 14:10f)? (Wenham, 148)

298.  In Lev. 9:8-21 where is the blood placed and where was it

          normally to be placed for a high priest (Lev. 4:3ff)?

          (Wenham, 149)

299.  On the first day of his induction, Aaron offers every kind of

          sacrifice except ________ (Lev. 9)? (Wenham, 149)

300. God sent his heavenly fire to show approval of these initial offerings in

          Lev. 9.  When did God similarly send fire (cf. 2 Chr. 7:1ff; 1 Kgs.

18; Judg. 13:15ff)? (Wenham, 150)

301.  In Lev. 9:24 it says they “shouted”.  How and in what contexts is that

          word used elsewhere in Scripture? (Wenham, 150)  What is the

relationship of shouting and silence in God’s presence?

302.  What was the goal of all the rituals of Lev. 9? (Wenham, 151)

303.  How is the presence of God here similar and different to how His

presence is manifest in the New Testament (Lev. 9)? (Wenham, 151)

304.  What role does fear play in worship and the manifestation of the

          presence of God (Lev. 9; cf. Heb. 2:43; Heb. 12:28f)? (Wenham, 151)



Leviticus 10                                                                                      Back to Top


305.  What other times in Scripture do triumph and tragedy go hand in hand

          (Lev. 10; cf. Mat. 4; Acts 3-5)?  (Wenham, 153)

306.  How is the modern notion of forgiveness shown to be lacking in Lev.

10 and Acts 5? (Wenham, 153)

307.  How is the “command-fulfillment” cycle broken early in Lev. 10 and

re-established later in the chapter?  (Wenham, 154)

308.  Who were Aaron’s four sons (Lev. 10) and in what capacities had they

been seen before in the biblical text (Ex. 24:1ff)? (Wenham, 154)

309.  How was the fire offered by Nadab/Abihu “strange” (Lev. 10; cf.

Exod. 30:9)? (Wenham, 155) Where were the coals to have been

gotten for the censers?  What was the incense to be on such censers?

How is the word “strange” used elsewhere in Scripture (Exod. 30:33;

Lev. 22:12; Num. 17:5 [16:40 Eng])?

310.  How is the phrase “fire came from the Lord” used in two different

ways in Lev. 9 and 10? (Wenham, 155)

311.  How is the phrase “as commanded” developed in chs. 8-10?

          (Wenham, 155)

312.  How is Aaron’s response contrasted in chs. 9 and 10?  (Wenham, 155)

313.  How is the statement “the closer one is to God, the more one must pay

          attention to holiness,” seen in Scripture (Lev. 10)? (Wenham, 156)

314.  What are some other situations where God slew someone who was

          close to Him (Lev. 10; cf. 1 Kgs. 13; 1 Sam 6:19; 2 Kgs. 5:20ff)?

          (Wenham, 156)

315.  Because the priests were not to go near dead bodies, how are the deaths

          of Nadab and Abihu cared for (Lev. 10)? (Wenham, 157)

316.  How are the normal rites of mourning in Israel described in Lev. 10?

          (Wenham, 157)  Who was and was not allowed to mourn in Lev. 10?

317.  How do you explain the random mention of the forbidding of alcohol

in Lev. 10? (Wenham, 158)

318.   What is the biblical view of wine (pros and cons)(Lev. 10)?

(Wenham, 159)

319.  How is the role of the priests as teachers in Israel brought out in Lev.

          10? (Wenham, 159)

320.  At what point did Aaron violate what was commanded after the death

          of Nadab and Abihu (Lev. 10)? (Wenham, 160)

321.  How do James 3:1; Luk. 12:48 and 1 Pet. 4:17 relate to Lev. 10?

          (Wenham, 160)



Leviticus 11                                                                                      Back to Top


322.  How are chapters 11-15 organized? (Wenham, 161)

323.  How is the relationship between Lev. 1-7 and 8-9 similar to the

relationship between Lev. 11-15 and 16? (Wenham, 161)

324.  How does the New Testament make clear that the cleanness laws were

          not meant to be eternal prescriptions (Mk. 7:14ff; Acts 10 & 15; 1

Cor. 10:23ff)?  Why were they abrogated in the New

Testament? (Wenham, 162)

325.  How certain are we about the identification of the animals

described in Lev. 11?  (Wenham, 164)

326.  What structural marker identifies the 6 sections of Lev. 11?

(Wenham, 164)

327.  What are the six general rules Wenham sees in describing the

animals that are kosher (Lev. 11)? (Wenham, 165f)

328.  How are the levels of pollution distinguished in the cleansing

process (Lev. 11)?

329.  What are the four general ways interpreters have striven to

explain why certain animals were considered unclean and

others clean? What is the support and problems with each

approach? (Wenham, 167)

330.  What biblical evidence can be sited to support the cultic view

          of why certain animals were considered unclean

          (Cf.  Ex. 19:5f; Lev. 11:44f; Isa. 65:4)? (Wenham, 167) 

331.  What reasons are used to manifest the weakness of the hygienic

          view (Lev. 11)?  (Wenham, 168)

332.  What contribution has Mary Douglas made to the discussion of

          uncleanness laws (Lev. 11)?  (Wenham, 169)  How does

uncleanness relate to the concepts of wholeness and normality?

333.  What do you think of Wenham’s division of animals and

humans into clean, unclean and sacrificial categories (Lev. 11)?

Does he make his case that “animals symbolize the human

world”? (Wenham, 170)

334.  How does the New Testament view the animals symbolizing

humans and divine choices connection (Lev. 11)?

(Wenham, 171)

335.  Where else are both Moses and Aaron addressed by God (Lev.

11; cf. 13:1; 14:33; 15:1) and do they have any features in

common? (Wenham, 171)

336.  The splitting the hoof and chewing the cud includes

domesticated animals and what other types (Lev. 11; Deut.

14:5)? (Wenham, 171)

337.  Camels, coney and the hare are said to chew the cud. Is this

true? (Lev. 11)  What is really meant here? (Wenham, 172)

What is Wenham’s suggestion and does it satisfy you?

338.  What two ways could a camel make a person unclean (Lev. 11)?

          (Wenham, 172)

339.  Is Douglas’ suggestion that God “ate” sacrificial sheep, goats

          and bulls hence his people also had to restrict their diets a

          solid argument (Lev. 11)?  (Wenham, 172)

340.  Does the restriction of food really reinforce the idea of divine

          election (Lev. 11)?  (Wenham, 173)

341.  Do unclean animals that have only half the requirements really

          “symbolize those who attempted to blur the edges of the

          covenant community and detract from its holiness” (Lev. 11)?

          (Wenham, 173)

342.  What explanations have been given for why only fish with

scales were eaten (Lev. 11)?  (Wenham, 173)

343.  In fish and land animals are the means of locomotion and mode

          of eating two types of tests used to distinguish clean and

unclean (Lev. 11)?  (Wenham, 174)

344.  Why is a bat classified as a bird (Lev. 11)?  Is that right?

          (Wenham, 174)

345.  What suggestions are given as to why birds of prey are considered

          unclean (Lev. 11)?  (Wenham, 174f)

346.  What is the difference between unclean and detestable

(Lev. 11)? (Wenham, 174f)

347.  How does one distinguish what bugs are clean and unclean

(Lev. 11)? How does Douglas’ explain this and go beyond

what other approaches were able to handle? (Wenham, 175f)

348.  How does the death of an animal change its ability to transmit

          uncleanness (Lev. 11)?  (Wenham, 176)

349.  What is the only kind of dead animal that does not pollute

(Lev. 11)? (Wenham, 176)

350.  What are the different lengths of being polluted (Lev. 11; 15:13;

          12:5; 13:45f)? (Wenham, 176)

351.  How are things that have touched a dead animal to be cleansed   

          (Lev. 11)? (Wenham, 176)

352.  Why does death make things unclean according to a

Douglas/Wenham explanation (Lev. 11)? (Wenham, 177)

353.  Animals with “paws” are described as unclean. What is the

Hebrew word for the term “paw” and how else could it be

translated (Lev. 11)  (Wenham, 177)

354.  How would you biblically support each of the cells in

Wenham’s chart on the bottom of p. 177 concerning

Life/Normality to Death/Total Disorder (Lev. 11)?

355.  Why is swarming contrary to biblical thoughts of holiness

          (Lev. 11)?  (Wenham, 178)  Is order and disorder the

          core of Levitical thought here or is it a modern construct?

356.  How were pottery and ovens purified (Lev. 11)? (Wenham, 179)

357.  What differences were there between an earthen vessel and a

          wooden one in terms of how they were cleansed (Lev. 11)?

          (Wenham, 179)

358.  How does water “enable” impurity with grains (Lev. 11)?

          (Wenham, 180)  What is the best explanation of this?

360.  Is Wenham right in trying to relate the divine command “be holy

          as I am holy” to the uncleanness eating laws (Lev. 11)?

          (Wenham, 180)

361.  In what contexts does the “be holy, for I am holy” statement

          arise (Lev. 11:44f; 19:2; 20:7, 26)?  (Wenham, 180)

362.  How does the summary found in Lev. 11:46f parallel the

summaries found elsewhere in Leviticus (cf. chs. 13, 14, 15)?

(Wenham, 181)

363.  How do the kosher laws of distinguishing clean and unclean

foods interface with the New Testament (Lev. 11; cf. Mat.

15:17ff; 23:25ff; Mk. 7:19; Acts 10:11ff; ch. 15; 1 Cor. 10:26

and Gal. 2:11ff; Rom. 14:15)? (Wenham, 182f)

364.  How strong is it in the Old Testament to see Israel’s food laws

          as “reminders of Israel’s redemption” (Lev. 11)?

(Wenham, 184)

365.  What is a potential problem with seeing Israel’s “rules of

avoidance holiness was given a physical expression in every

encounter with the animal kingdom and at every meal.” (Lev.

11) (Wenham, 184)

366.  Are there any draw backs to Douglas’/Wenham’s connection of

          biblical wholeness and holiness (Lev. 11)? (Wenham, 184)

367.  How do chapters 12, 13, 15 and 25 fit the pattern of 1) period of

          uncleanness, 2) sacrifice, 3) summary, and 4) provision for the

          poor (Lev. 11)? (Wenham, 186)



Leviticus 12                                                                                      Back to Top


368.  What bonds chapters 12-15 together? (Wenham, 186)

369.  How does the woman being unclean after childbirth illustrate the

          principle of the separation of the clean and unclean (Lev. 12)?

          When is her uncleanness contagious? (Wenham, 186)

370.  Why is the period of uncleanness for a boy (40 days) so much

          shorter than that for having a girl (80 days)(Lev. 12)?

          Why was she unclean in the first place for having a child?

Did the Israelites despise childbirth? (Wenham, 187f)

371.  How was having children viewed elsewhere in Scripture

          (Gen. 15ff; 1 Sam. 1; Lev. 20:20; Deut. 28:18; Lev. 26:9; Ps.

          127:3-5)? (Wenham, 187)

372.  What exactly is unclean in childbirth?  Is it the child? Is it

          the discharge of blood (Lev. 12:4, 5, 7)?  Is Douglas right

when she ties it back into the idea of a discharging body lacking

wholeness? (Wenham, 188)

373.  Is it possible that the boy/girl birth difference in uncleanness

          may tie back into social norms at the time as seen in the

          price of woman redemption being half of that of a man
          (Lev. 27:2ff)? (Wenham, 188)

374.  When is this birth ritual mentioned in the New Testament?

          (Lev. 12; cf. Luk. 2:22f)?  (Wenham, 189) What does that

          tell us about Jesus and his family?



Leviticus 13                                                                                      Back to Top


375.  How are chapters 13-14 structured? (Wenham, 192)

376.  How did the incorrect translation “leprosy” come to be associated

          with these chapters (Lev. 13f)? (Wenham, 192)

377.  What are the four symptoms that are seen in the skin diseases

          described in Lev. 13f? (Wenham, 192)

378.  What structural repeated phrase breaks chs. 13-14 into three

          units (Lev. 13:1; 14:1, 33)? (Wenham, 193)

379.  Numerous skin diseases are described in Lev. 13.  What common

format is used to describe each of them? (Wenham, 193)

380.  What two Hebrew words does Wenham use to structure the

          symptom description and diagnosis of skin diseases in Lev. 13?

          (Wenham, 193f)

381.  What is true leprosy (Hansen’s disease) like and can it be cured

          today (Lev. 13)?  In what cultures is it found? (Wenham, 194f)

382.  What three reasons does Wenham cite in order to show that

          tsara’at was not leprosy in Lev. 13? (Wenham, 195)

383.  With what type of disease symptom does Wenham identify

          the Hebrew term tsara’at and Greek translation lepra (Lev. 13)?

          (Wenham, 195)

384.  What three types of diseases does Browne identify and

          what are their modern names (Lev. 13)? (Wenham, 196)

385.  What is psoriasis, favus and leucoderma like as described

in modern terms? (Wenham, 196f)

386.  What other sections of Leviticus are addressed both to Moses

          and Aaron (Lev. 13:1; cf. 11:1; 14:33; 15:1)?  Why would

          Lev. 13 appropriately include Aaron? (Wenham, 197)

387.  What are the first sets of tests for the serious skin disease

          (Lev. 13:2-8)?  (Wenham, 197)

388.  What technique was used to distinguish between acute and

          chronic skins diseases (Lev. 13:2-8)? (Wenham, 198)

389.  In the second set of skin disease tests (Lev. 13:9-17), what

          is the sure sign that there is a major problem? (Wenham, 198)

390.  To what modern disease does Hulse see the symptoms described

          in Lev. 13:9-17 evidence of? (Wenham, 198)

391.  What are three options for the skin disease described in Lev.

          13:18-28? (Wenham, 198)

392.  The yellowing of the hair rather than white is most typical

          of what disease (Lev. 13:29-37)? (Wenham, 199)

393.  What is the modern name of the skin disease described in

          Lev. 13:38-39? (Wenham, 199)  Why is it not counted

          as defiling?

394.  Is baldness a skin disease (cf. Lev. 13:40-44)?  Why would

          Hulse suggest that it is psoriasis? (Wenham, 200)

395.  What four things must one who is unclean from skin disease do to

          prevent others from being defiled (Lev. 13)? (Wenham, 200)

396.  What does the tearing of one’s clothes symbolize in the OT (Lev. 13;

Gen. 37:34; 2 Sam 1:11; Num. 14:6; 2 Kgs. 22:11, 19; Ezra 9:5; 2

Kgs. 11:14; 19:1)? (Wenham, 200)

397.  The person with the skin disease was banished to live “outside the

camp.”  What other things took place at that location (Lev. 13)?

(Wenham, 200)  What three levels of sacred space can be seen in

the movement from the tabernacle to the camp of Israel to outside

the camp?

398.  What are some examples of people who actually were made to go

outside the camp in the OT because of their skin disease (Lev. 13; cf.

Num. 12:9ff; 2 Kgs. 7:3ff)? (Wenham, 201)

399.  What is the connection between skin disease and mold in clothes and

          hoursehold articles (Lev. 13)? (Wenham, 201)

400.  To what does the phrase “warp or woof” refer (Lev. 13:48ff)?

          (Wenham, 202)

401.  What do commentators suggest as ways of explaining how mold could

          defile the warp and woof but not the garment and how could it grow

          in the warp but not the woof (Lev. 13)?  (Wenham, 202)

402.  Why all the focus on symptoms (Lev. 13)?  How does that relate to the

          concept of wholeness? (Wenham, 203)

403.  What three criterion were used that led to the verdict of uncleanness

          for skin disease (Lev. 13)? (Wenham, 203)

404.  What is God’s relationship with uncleanness (Lev. 13; cf. Isa. 6:3ff)?

          (Wenham, 203)



Leviticus 14                                                                                     Back to Top


405.  What two sections are found in Lev. 14? (Wenham, 206f)

406.   Do rituals of cleansing have anything to do with cures (Lev. 14)?

          (Wenham, 207)

407.  How did Israel’s rituals of cleansing for skin disease differ from the

          practices of magical rites and exorcism practiced by those around

          them (Lev. 14)? (Wenham, 207)

408.  When a person was cleansed of a skin disease, what was the ritual of

          the two birds like (Lev. 14)? (Wenham, 208)  Are there parallels

between the two bird ritual and the two goats on the day of Atonement

(Lev. 16)? Chart out the similarities and differences.

409.  What are “rites of aggregation” and how do they function in a society

          (Lev. 14)? (Wenham, 208)

410.  What does Wenham say represents Israel in rituals (Lev. 14)?

          (Wenham, 208)

411.  The person with the skin disease was readmitted to the community on

the 8th day.  What other ritual was performed on the 8th day and are

there any parallels (Lev. 14)? (Wenham, 209)

412.  While the burnt, cereal and purification offerings are easily understood

          to be part of the cleansing ritual, what role does the reparation

offering play (Lev. 14)?  What grounds does Milgrom’s suggetsion

have? (Wenham, 210)

413.  Where is the blood smeared on one cleansed from the reparation

offering (Lev. 14)?  What does that symbolize? (Wenham, 210f)

414.  Wenham says that in diagnosing infected houses color and depth

mattered.  How would you support this from the text (Lev. 14)?

(Wenham, 211)

415.  Is the law of infected houses appropriate when Israel is

wondering in the wilderness (Lev. 14)?  How does this contrast with

laws found in (Lev. 14:3, 8; 13:46)? (Wenham, 211)

416.  How is the destruction of stone houses a “reinterpretation” or

“reapplication” of old laws to new circumstances as Wenham states

(Lev. 14)? (Wenham, 212)

417.  Lev. 14:54-57 is a summary.  Where also are such summaries seen in

          Leviticus (11:46f; 12:7; 13:59; 14:32; 15:32f)?  Do you see any

patterns? (Wenham, 212)

418.  Wenham relates the word holiness to wholeness (cf. German).  Is this

          etymological approach a valid way of defining words?  (Lev. 14) 

While Wenham doesn’t use such an approach is his conclusion correct

and how would you support it? (Wenham, 212)

419.  Where in Scripture are skin diseases linked to sin (Num. 12:9f; 2 Kgs.

5:26f; 2 Kgs. 15:5; 2 Chr. 26:19f)? Is it always the case? (Wenham,


420.  Wenham sees the skin diseased person’s banishment as a reenactment

          of the fall.  Would you agree or disagree with that connection (Lev.

14)? (Wenham, 213)

421.  How did Jesus treat “lepers” (cf. Mat. 8:2f; 11:5; Mk. 14:3; Lk.

17:11ff)?  What did that declare about Christ’s ministry?  Did Jesus

abrogate the skin disease law or command those he healed to follow

them? (Wenham, 213)

422.  How did Jesus’ ministry bring reconciliation not only to internal sin

but to external physical realities? (Wenham, 214)




Leviticus 15                                                                                      Back to Top


423.  How are the four main sections introduced in Lev. 15? (Wenham, 216)

424.  Wenham breaks the discharges into long-term/transient resulting in

          what type of literary pattern between the male discharges and female

          discharges (Lev. 15)? (Wenham, 217)  What is the literary function

          of a chiasm?

425.  How is the word “flesh” used in Lev. 15?  (Wenham, 217)

426.  Wenham argues that the discharges in Lev. 15 are from sexual organs

          not other bodily discharges.  Is his argument against hemorrhoids

          cogent? (Wenham, 217)

427.  What in the text indicates that the discharges were infectious in terms

          of their uncleanness (Lev. 15)? (Wenham, 218)

428.  How are objects (beds, chairs, and saddles) impacted by bodily

          discharges (Lev. 15)? (Wenham, 218)

429.  What role does washing the hands play in the transmission of

discharge uncleanness (Lev. 15)? (Wenham, 219)

 430.  How is the emission of semen treated in other places in the Scripture

(cf. Lev. 15; Ex. 19:15; Lev. 22:4ff; Deut. 23:9ff; 1 Sam. 21:4ff; 2 Sam. 11:11; Gen. 38:9f)?  (Wenham, 219)

431.  While long term discharges are talked about first in terms of males,

          what is talked about first in regards to women (Lev. 15)? (Wenham,

          219f)?  What is a possible reason?

432.  What other ancient peoples viewed menstruation as a cause of cultic

          uncleanness (Lev. 15)? (Wenham, 220)

433.  Where else in scripture does one find the prohibition against having

          intercourse during menstruation (Lev. 15; cf. 18:19; Ezek. 18:6;

22:10; 20:18)? (Wenham, 220)

434. What was required for re-admittance after menstrual impurity (Lev.

15)?  What is that similar to? (Lev. 15)? (Wenham, 220)

435.  How does long and short term discharges differ in how they are treated

          (Lev. 15)? (Wenham, 221)

436.  What role does the repeated statements “he will bear his iniquity”

(17:16; 19:8; 22:9) or “he will be cut off” (20:18...) play in the

narrative (Lev. 15)? (Wenham, 221)

437.  What four reasons are given to explain the rationale behind these

discharge laws (Lev. 15)?  How does Mary Douglas’ approach

holiness/normality fit in regard to the unity, integrity and

purity of the human body? (Wenham, 223)

438.  Because sexual intercourse rendered both parties unclean, how would

these laws interface with the fertility cult in Near Eastern religion

(Lev. 15)?  (Wenham, 223)

439.  On what grounds does Wenham suggest that menstruation was much

          rarer in the ancient Near East (Lev. 15)? Is his analysis plausible?

(Wenham, 224)

440.  How did Jesus interface with the laws of uncleanness of a woman with

          an issue of blood (Mk. 5:34ff)? (Wenham, 224)  How did Jesus’

touching them reflect on these laws?  Do you agree that this

symbolized the kingdom of God was open to all believers as

Wenham has suggested?

441.  How did the Pharisees respond to Jesus and hand washing (Mat.

15/Mk. 7)?  (Wenham, 225)

442.  How does Jesus teaching in Mat. 15:11 fit with these commands?

          (Wenham, 225)

443.  Do you agree/disagree with Wenham’s suggestion the discharge laws

          of Lev. 15 and uncleanness may have been to stigmatize irregular

          sexual behiavor and to encourage restraint among the unmarried?

          (Wenham, 225)



Leviticus 16                                                                                      Back to Top


444.  To what chapter does Lev. 16 link back (cf. 10:1ff)? How is that link

made? (Wenham, 227)

445.  Wenham states that both Lev. 11-15 and 16 both find their point of

          departure in Lev. 10.  Do you agree or disagree and why?

(Wenham, 227)

446.  What role does the phrase “make atonement for himself” play in

          the narrative of Lev. 16? (Wenham, 228)

447.  What five-fold structure is manifest in Lev. 16? (Wenham, 228)

448.  How does 16:2 manifest Moses’ special place with God even higher

          than Aaron the anointed high priest?  (Wenham, 229)

449.  Of what does the Day of Atonement warn Aaron (Lev. 16:2)?

          (Wenham, 229)

450.  How does the priest’s garments on the Day of Atonement (Lev. 16:4)

          differ from the full priestly vestments discussed in Exod. 28?

          (Wenham, 230)  Wenham states on the Day of Atonement the

          high priest looked more like a slave.  Do you agree/disagree?

          Why would that be true on the Day of Atonement?

451.  What four steps are given in the Day of Atonement ceremony (Lev. 16:

          6-10)?  (Wenham, 230f)

452.  How do the blood sprinkling rites of the Day of Atonement parallel

          the rites for the anointing of a priest (Lev. 16:11-14; cf. Lev. 4:3, 6,

11-12)?  (Wenham, 231)  What differences are observed where the

blood was sprinkled?

453.  What was the function of the incense-smoke as the high priest went

          into the holy of holies (Lev. 16:12f)? (Wenham, 231)  What is the

          relationship to incense and God’s wrath (Ps. 141:2; Num. 17:11ff

          [Eng. 16:46ff])?

454.  What process is used for the goat “to the Lord” on the Day of

Atonement (Lev. 16:15-19)? (Wenham, 232)

455.  How does Lev. 16:16-20 explain the purpose of the blood rituals on the

          Day of Atonement (cf. Ps. 15; 24:3ff; Isa. 6:3ff)? (Wenham, 233)

456.  What ritual is used on the goat “for Azazel” (Lev. 16:20-22)?

          Who or what is Azazel (Lev. 16:8, 10, 26)? What are three

possibilities for what Azazel refers to? (Wenham, 234f)

457.  What was the common practice of all the participants in the Day of

          Atonement after the ritual was completed (Lev. 16)? (Wenham, 235)

458.  While most of the Day of Atonement instructions are directed to the

          priest, what was the nation to do on this sacred day (Lev. 16:29ff)?

          (Wenham, 235)

459.  What does the phrase “afflict yourselves” mean in reference to the

people’s participation in the Day of Atonement (Lev. 16:31; 23:27,

32; Num. 29:7; Isa. 58:3, 5; Ps. 35:13)? (Wenham, 236)  Why was

that important to do on this special day?

460.  What does the Day of Atonement teach in regard to humans

approaching God (Lev. 16)? (Wenham, 236)

461.  Which parts of the Day of Atonement could be seen and not seen by

          the people (Lev. 16)? (Wenham, 237) How would that impact them?

462.  How does the New Testament reflect on the Day of Atonement

          (Lev. 16; cf. Heb. 9; 10:19ff; Mat. 27:51)? (Wenham, 237)  With what

          day in Christianity may the Day of Atonement be compared?

463.  How does Christ’s once for all sacrifice (Heb. 10:1-18) compare to the

          repetition of sacrifices and Day of Atonement in the First Testament

          (Lev. 16)? (Wenham, 238)

464.  Where outside the New Testament is Christ referred to as the

scapegoat (ca. A.D. 200)?  (Wenham, 238)



Leviticus 17                                                                                      Back to Top


465.  How is the introductory formula of Lev. 17:1-2 similar to the other

introductory formulas in Leviticus (1:1; 4:1; 6:1; 7:28; 11:1; 15:1;

16:1-2; 19:1-2)?  (Wenham, 240)

466.  Why does Wenham view Lev. 17 as a hinge chapter between Lev.

          1-16 and 18-27? (Wenham, 241)

467.  Lev. 17:3-7 states that no domesticated animal should be slaughtered

          outside the tabernacle:  If someone wanted to eat meat, what kind of

          offering would they have to offer? (Wenham, 241)

468.  What did the penalty phrase “to be cut off” mean in response to a

person’s disobedience (Lev. 17)? (Wenham, 241)  Is this meted out by

a court in Israel or is it God’s to render justice (Cf. Exod. 30:38;

Lev. 7:20f; Num. 15:30f)?

469.  What was the motive for the harsh “cutting off” of the one slaughtering

          animals in the wilderness but not by the tabernacle (Lev. 17)?

          How may the “goat-demon” idea be  connected to Lev. 16 and the

          Day of Atonement? (Wenham, 243)

470.  What are some other reasons besides what is given in Lev. 17:5-7 for

          the offering of sacrifices only at the tabernacle? (Wenham, 243)

471.  What was the role of the resident alien in Israel during the wilderness

          wandering (Exod. 22:20f): Lev. 19:10; Deut. 26:11; Exod. 20:10; Lev.

16:29; 20:2; 24:16, 22)? (Wenham, 244)

472.  When is the earliest mention of not eating blood (Lev. 17:10f; cf. Gen.

9:4; Lev. 7:26f; Deut 12:16, 23; 15:23)? (Wenham, 244)

473.  What are two reasons for the prohibition on eating blood (Lev.

17:10f)? (Wenham, 244f)

474.  Did hunted animals have the same rules as domesticated

(Lev. 17:13ff)?  Which rule did still apply (cf. Deut. 12:15f)?

(Wenham, 245)

475.  How does Lev. 17 interface with the New Testament (1 Cor. 10:20ff)? 

How did Israel struggle with offering sacrifices to demons (cf. Num.

25:1ff; Deut. 32:17)? (Wenham, 246f)

476.  How does the draining of blood make its way into the New Testament

          (cf. Acts 15:29)?  What about food offered to idols (1 Cor. 8; 10:25ff;

Rom 14:2f, 14f)?  How did Jesus transform this prohibition on eating

blood (cf. Jn. 6:54; I Cor. 11)? (Wenham, 247)



Leviticus 18                                                                                      Back to Top


477.  How does Leviticus 18 resemble the covenant-treaty format?

(Wenham, 249)

478.  Wenham observes that Lev. 18 has a strong polemical flavor.  How is

          that supported in Lev. 17:3, 24, 26, 27, 29, 30? (Wenham, 250)

479.  In what contexts and with what impact does the phrase “I am the

LORD your God” come up in Leviticus (cf. Lev. 18:2, 4 etc.)?  Where

and in what contexts does it occur in Exodus and Numbers (cf. Exod.

6:6f etc)? (Wenham, 250f who examines three contexts)

480.  What is a covenant preamble and how does Lev. 18:1-2 fit that pattern

          (Wenham, 250f)

481.  How were the laws on incest manifest in other cultures (Egyptian,

          Canaanite, laws of Hammurabi and Hittites) and even in the patriarchs

          of Genesis (Lev. 18)?  (Wenham, 251)

482. How do Abraham and Jacob violate the laws of Lev. 18?

(Wenham, 251f)

483.  Wenham notes that homosexuality (Lev. 18:22) is found in what

          two cultures from the ancient world? (Wenham, 252)

484.  Among what other cultures was bestiality found (Lev. 18)?

          How did they reference these acts?  (Wenham, 252)

485.  How do we know the ancient worshippers of Molech offered up their

          children in sacrifice (Lev. 18)? (Wenham, 252)

486.  What is the difference between hoq (rule) and mishpat (law) as

developed by Wenham (Lev. 18:3)? (Wenham, 252f)

487.  When the law says that a person will enjoy life through the keeping of

          the law, what is one of the best places to find a description of that

          blessed life (Lev. 18:5; cf. Lev. 26:3ff; Deut 28:1ff)? (Wenham, 253)

488.  In the laws on forbidden unions was there a preference of marriage

          within a tribe (Lev. 18; Num. 36; Judg. 21) and among cousins (Gen.

24)?  (Wenham, 253)

489.  In the laws of forbidden unions, what union is not proscribed and why?

          How was the father-daughter relationship viewed in the code of

          Hammurabi (LH 154) and the Hittite laws (HL 195)? (Wenham, 254)

490.  What kinds of family unions were expressly forbidden (Lev. 18)?

          (Wenham, 254)  How does the levirate marriage relate to these laws

          of elicit union?

491.  What reasons are cited for why one should not marry a close relation

          (Lev. 18)?  (Wenham, 254f)

492.  Vertical relationships (parent-child) are understood in modern blood

          and genetic analysis but why from opposite sex parent to relations

          on a horizontal level (wife’s sister) (Lev. 18)?  What does Wenham

          suggest as an explanation (cf. Gen. 2:24)? (Wenham, 255)

493.  How are step-sisters viewed in the laws of prohibited unions (Lev. 18)?

          Is there any difference between a half-sister and a step-sister? 

(Wenham, 256)

494. What is an exception to not marrying your brother’s wife (cf. Lev. 18;

          Deut. 25:5ff)? (Wenham, 257)  What is the custom of the Levirate

          and where is it found in scripture?

495.  Who violated the law in Lev. 18:18 about marrying a woman and her

          sister (Genesis)? (Wenham, 257f)

496.  What is sororate marriage and how does it relate to levirate

          marriage (Lev. 18)?  (Wenham, 258)

497.  Wenham states that intercourse of a married man with an unattached

          woman was not viewed as adultery in the Old Testament (Lev. 18),

          is that right (cf. Ex. 20:14; Lev. 20:10; Deut. 22:22)? (Wenham, 258) 

          Wenham says that the New Testament is stricter (Mat. 19:3-12), is

          that correct? (Wenham, 260)  What does that suggest about gender

          equality that Jesus introduced?

498.  What is Molech worship and what does Scripture have to say about

          it (Lev. 20:2-5; 1 Kgs. 11:7; 2 Kgs. 23:10; Jer. 32:35; Deut. 12:31;

          18:10)?  (Wenham, 258)

499.  What archaeological evidence in Amman Jordan confirms the

          biblical description of Molech worship (Lev. 18)? (Wenham, 259)

500.  What types of objects can be “profaned” (Lev. 19:12; 20:3; 21:12, 23;

          22:15; Isa. 56:2, 6; Lev. 19:12; 21:6; Jer. 34:16; Ezek. 36:20f)

          (Wenham, 259)

501.  How is the term abomination (to’ebah) used in Leviticus (cf. Lev. 18:

          22, 26f, 29f; etc.)? In what three other books does it appear with

          frequency and what are the nuances there? (Wenham, 259)

502.  Wenham states homosexuality is condemned throughout Scripture.

          Is that true or was it only something in the holiness code of Leviticus

          (cf. Gen. 19; Lev. 20:13; Judg. 19:22ff; Rom. 1:27; 1 Cor. 6:9)?

          (Wenham, 259)

503.  How does Scripture look at bestiality (Exod. 22:18f; Lev. 20:15f;

          Deut. 27:21; Lev. 18:23)? (Wenham, 260)

504.  How does the land play a factor in motivating these warnings and

          exhortations in Lev. 18? (Wenham, 260)

505.  Can one dismiss the laws of Lev. 18 as ceremonial while arguing for

          the retention of other laws arguing they are moral?  Is such a

          distinction biblical?  (Wenham, 261)



Leviticus 19                                                                                      Back to Top

506.  What marks the end of the paragraphs in Lev. 19? (Wenham, 263)

507.  How is the Decalog or ten commandments developed in Lev. 19?

          (Wenham, 264)

508.  How is the motto of Leviticus echoed in Lev. 19? (Wenham, 264)

          How is holiness developed in Lev. 19 (cf. order/confusion)? How

          does Lev. 19 manifest that holiness is not a flight from this world

          but an engagement of it? (Wenham, 265)

509.  How does Lev. 19 develop the idea of honoring one’s parents

          (Lev. 19)? The word used for “honor” is the same word that

          is translated elsewhere _______ (Prov. 1:7)?  How does our

          culture attach the honoring of parents?

510.  The word “idol” used only in Lev. 19:4; 26:1 is found frequently

          in what other book and in what contexts (Isa. 2:8, 18, 20; 10:10f)?

          (Wenham, 266)

511.  What is the propose and instructions for the gleaning by the poor

          as instructed in the law (Lev. 23:22; Deut. 24:19ff)? (Wenham, 266)

512.  Is Wenham right when he notes the piling up of “brother”, “fellow

          citizen” and “people” terms in Lev. 19:18 as indicating the climax of

          this chapter?  (Wenham, 267)

513.  How does Leviticus 19 put its approval on honesty? (Wenham, 267)

514.  How are the weak protected by the laws of Lev. 19 (Cf Deut. 24:15)?

          (Wenham, 267)

515.  How is justice in court portrayed both here in Lev. 19 and elsewhere

          (Deut. 16:19f; 19:15ff; 27:25; Exod. 23:1ff; Prov. 16:13)?

          (Wenham, 268)

516.  Loving one’s neighbor is set in what context in Lev. 19?

          (Wenham, 268)

517.  How is reproof and correction to be handled (Lev. 19:17f; CF. Mat

          18:15ff)?  (Wenham, 268)

518.  How do you view the passages on mixed breeding (Lev. 19:19ff)?

          How did that fit into the Israelite concept of holiness? (Wenham, 269)

519.  What do you think of the law in regard to a betrothed slave girl

          (Lev. 19:20ff)? (Wenham, 270) 

520.  Who received the damage money of a violated betrothed slave girl

          (Lev. 19:20ff)?  (Wenham, 270f)

521.  What does the principle of God receiving the firstfruits teach
          (Lev. 19:23-25)? Where is this concept developed in Scripture

          (Exod. 23:19; Lev. 23:10; Deut. 26:1ff; Exod. 34:19f; Deut. 15:19;

          Exod. 13:2; Num. 8:16ff) and to what domains, beyond crops, does it

          apply? (Wenham, 271)

522.    How do you coordinate the law against divination and soothsaying

          with Joseph’s practice with his cup in Gen. 44:5, 15 (cf. Lev. 19:26;

          Isa. 2:6f; Ezek. 21:21ff)? (Wenham, 272)

523.  What does Leviticus (19:27f) say about bodily disfigurement (cf. Deut.

          14:1; Isa. 22:12)? (Wenham, 272)

524.  What is sacred prostitution in the context of the ancient Near East

          (Lev. 19:29f)?  Why was it condemned in Israel? (Wenham, 272)

525.  What is necromancy and why does the Bible condemn it (Lev. 19:31;

          cf. 1 Sam 28:3ff; Deut. 18:11)? (Wenham, 272f)

526.  What does Leviticus teach about respect for the elderly (Lev. 19:32)?

          (Wenham, 273)

527.  How and where does the command to “love one’s neighbor” make

          its way into the New Testament (Mat. 5:43; 19:19; 22:39; Mk. 12:31,

          33; Lk. 10:27; Rom. 13:9; Gal. 5:14; James 2:8)? (Wenham, 274)

528.  How does Lev. 19:18 network out to connect the verses surrounding

          it in Lev. 19? (Wenham, 274)

529.  Wenham seems to dismiss laws that are based on the principle of

          Israel’s separation from the nations for the New Testament church.

          Do you agree or disagree and why (Lev. 19)? (Wenham, 274)

530.  Wenham says the slavery laws are pretty irrelevant to us today?

          Do you agree or disagree and why (Lev. 19)? (Wenham, 274)



Leviticus 20                                                                                     Back to Top


531.  What phrase serves to break up the structure of Lev. 20?

          (Wenham, 276)

532.  How have many of the topics in Lev. 20 already been dealt with

          in Leviticus (cf. 20:2-5//18:21; 20:6, 27//19:31; 20:8//19:3; 20:10-

          21//18:6-20, 22f)?  With so much over lap, what role does Lev. 20

          play in the narrative? (Wenham, 277)

533.  How are the exhortations to holiness similar and different in Lev.

          20:7f; 22f) similar and different to the ones found elsewhere in

          Leviticus (11:44f; 18:2-5; 24-30; 19:36f)? (Wenham, 277)

534.  What is the difference between the apodictic form in Lev. 18-19

          and the casuistic form in Lev. 20? Which one indicates the

          consequences for violating a command? (Wenham, 277)

535.  While Molech worship was condemned before (Lev. 18:21), what

          is added in Lev. 20:2ff? (Wenham, 277)

536.  Who was able to be killed by stoning (Exod. 21:28ff; Lev. 20:27;

          24:16; Num. 15:35f; Deut. 13:10f; 17:5; 21:21)? Wenham suggests

          that such a death penalty shows the community’s rejection of these

          sins.  Does that make sense?  (Wenham, 277)

537.  Who are the “people of the land” (Lev. 20:3)? (Wenham, 278)

538.  What does Lev. 20:4 say about loyalty to God over family and friends?

          (Wenham, 278)

539.  What is the relation of Lev. 20:9ff and Exod. 20 in regard to honoring

          one’s           parents? (Wenham, 278) How does this compare with other

          scriptures on this topic (Exod. 21:17; Prov. 20:20; Mat. 15:4; Mk.

          7:10; Deut. 21:18f)? (Wenham, 279)

540.  Wenham understands Lev. 20:14, 17, 21 “takes” as referring to

          “cohabits” rather that married folks.  Is this warranted?  (Wenham,


541.  How is the word “Hesed” used in Lev. 20:17?  What does the word

          normally mean and why is it used here? (Wenham, 280)

542.  How does one “uncover the nakedness” of ones brother by having

          relations with his wife (cf. 18:6-18)? (Wenham, 280)

543.  Do you agree or disagree with Wenham’s statement that adultery,

          incest and homosexuality are “just as sinful under the New Covenant

          and they were under the old”?  Why? (Wenham, 280f)

544.  How do you reconcile Christ’s not condemning to death the woman

          taken in adultery (Jn. 8:1ff) in light of the Old Testament law

          (Lev. 20)?  (Wenham 281)

545.  When comparing OT law to Ancient Near Eastern law codes,

          what three areas does the biblical law code rank as most

          significant?  How did the Babylonian laws show economics as

          valued more highly than in Israel? (Wenham, 282)

546.  How does “substitutionary” punishment seen in Babylonian laws and

          proscribed against in Israelite law (cf. Lev. 24:16; Ex. 20:5)?

          (Wenham, 282)

547.  What reasons are given for biblical punishments (Deut. 19:19f)?

          (Wenham, 283)

548.  What five principles does Wenham develop on the purpose of

          punishment in Israel?  How are each of these supported? 

          (Wenham, 283f)

549.  Is deterrence a legitimate motivation for punishment (Deut. 19:19f)?

          (Wenham, 283)

550.  Is the degradation of the offender allowed (Deut. 25:3)?  How does

          that contrast with the laws from Assyria?  (Wenham, 283)

551.  How does one explain the laws of mutilation (Deut. 25:11f)?  How

          does this biblical passage compare to the Middle Assyrian laws of

          mutilation? (Wenham, 284)

552.  What are torts and how did they function in Israel (Lev. 20)?  How

          does civil and criminal law differ and how was that distinction

          regarded in Israel? (Wenham, 284)

553.  Did the state mete out punishment regularly in Israel (Lev. 20)?

          Who did? (Wenham, 284)

554.  What were the three basic types of punishment in Israel (Lev. 20)?

          (Wenham, 284f)

555.  For what type of crimes was the death penalty prescribed (Lev. 20:11f;

          20:13; 24:13ff; 20:2ff; Exod. 21:21ff; 22:17; Deut. 22:22; 13:2ff;

17:12; 24:7; ch. 19)? (Wenham, 284f)

556.  For what crime was compensation strictly forbidden (Lev. 20; Num.

15:32ff)? (Wenham, 285)

557.  For what types of crimes was “cutting off” the penalty (Lev. 7:20f, 25,

27; 17:4, 9, 14; 18:29; 19:8; 20:3, 5f, 17f; Num. 15:30f)? (Wenham,

285)  Was it excommunication or the threat of divine punishment?

558.  For what crimes was restitution prescribed (Lev. 5:24; Ex. 22)?

          (Wenham, 286)

559.  Were criminals ever incarcerated in Israel (Lev. 24:12; Num. 15:34)?

          (Wenham, 286)

560.  How did law enforcement in a village culture differ from our modern

          urban law enforcement? (Wenham, 287)

561.  The Levites were to teach the Israelites the law (2 Chr. 17:8f). 

Wenham likens that function to our modern media.  How does this

analogy work and where does it break down? (Wenham, 287)

562.  Whose job was it to promote “justice for the oppressed” in Israel (Ps.

72:4; 2 Sam. 15)? (Wenham, 288)



Leviticus 21                                                                                      Back to Top


563.  Into what six sections does the formula “I am the Lord your

          (their) sanctifier” break chs. 21-22 (21:8; 15, 23; 22:9, 16, 32)?

          (Wenham, 289)

564.  What rituals were priests not allowed to participate in (Lev. 21)?

          For whom was a priest able to defile himself upon death?

(Wenham, 290)

565.  Why were priests not to shave their heads (Lev. 21)?

          (Wenham, 291)

566.  Why was a priest allowed to marry only a widow not a divorcee

          (Lev. 21)? (Wenham, 291)  How were these laws tightened up

          for the high priest?

567.   How were burial rites tightened up for the high priest (Lev. 21:10ff)?

          (Wenham, 291)  What did that manifest about his priorities in regard

          to family and the sanctuary?



Leviticus 22                                                                                      Back to Top


568.  What were nonfunctioning priests with a physical deformity still able

to participate in as priests (Lev. 22)? (Wenham, 294)

569.   How long was a daughter of a priest allowed to eat the priestly food

          (Lev. 22)? (Wenham, 295)

570.  How do the blemishes in unfit sacrificial animals parallel the notion

          of blemished priests (Lev. 21f)? What kind of animals were made

unfit for sacrifice? How does that fit Wenham’s concept of

“wholeness” and its relationship to “holiness” (Wenham, 295)

571.  How do the perfections required of the priests make their way into

          the New Testament in reference to Christ (Heb. 7:26; Heb. 9:14;

1 Pet.           1:19; 2:22)? (Wenham, 296)

572.  How does Christ extend grace to maimed, lame, blind and eunuchs

          (Lk. 14:13, 21; John 5:3; Isa. 56:4ff)? (Wenham, 297)

573.  How are the stricter requirements for the priests reflected in the

          standards for elders (1 Tim. 3:4, 11; Tit. 1:5ff)? (Wenham, 297)

574.  How may the priests commitment to God over family be seen

          in the New Testament with Christ’s comments “leave the dead

          to bury their own dead” (Mat. 8:21f; Lk. 9:59f)? (Wenham, 297)



Leviticus 23                                                                                      Back to Top


575.  Into what two sections does the formula “I am the Lord (your God)”

break Lev. 23 (23:22, 43)?  (Wenham, 300)

576.  What other phrases are repeated in Lev. 23 (vv. 2, 4, 38, 44; also 2, 4,

7, 8, 21, 24, 27, 35, 37)? (Wenham, 300)

577.  How does the description of the feasts in Lev. 23 differ from the

          description in Num. 28-29? Is Wenham right to conclude that Lev. 23

is for lay people rather than priests? (Wenham, 300)

578.  What does the phrase “holy convention” (Lev. 23:2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 21, 24,

27, 35, 36f) mean? (Wenham, 301)

579.  What two things are referred back to in reference to the Sabbath

          observance (Lev. 23:2f)? (Wenham, 301)

580.  What is the connection of the Sabbath with the feasts cycles (Lev. 23)?

          (Wenham, 301)

581.  How does the description of the Passover and Unleavened bread feast

          described in Lev. 23:5ff fit with the elaboration of the feast in

          Exod. 12-13? (Wenham, 302)

582.  Of what three feasts was the word “hag” (pilgrimage) used (cf. Arabic

          haj of pilgrimage to Mecca)? (Wenham, 303)

583.  The first and last days of the feasts no work was to be done connecting

          it with what commandment (Lev. 23:6ff)? (Wenham, 303)
584.  While Lev. 23:8, 13, 18, 25, 27, 36 talks simply of food offerings, how

          is Num. 28-29 more specific? (Wenham, 303)

585.  How does Lev. 23:10ff develop the connection of first fruits to

Passover over Exod. 12-13 (cf. Ex. 23:15; 34:18ff)?

586.  What does “on the day after the Sabbath” (Lev. 23:11, 15f) mean? Is it

the first Sabbath after the feast began or is it the first day of the feast

on whatever day it falls? (Wenham, 304)

587.  What is the feast of weeks called in the New Testament (Lev. 23:15f;

          Acts 2:1)? What was its primary function? (Wenham, 304) 

588.  Wenham sees a link between the feasts/sacrifices providing for the

          material needs of the priests being linked to care for the poor and

          sojourner.  Is such a connection warranted (cf. Deut. 14:27ff; 16:11;

          Lev. 19:5-10; 23:17-21)?  (Wenham, 305)

589.  Wenham groups the feasts of Lev. 23:23-43 as what types of feasts in

          contrast to the feasts of Lev. 23:3-22? (Wenham, 305)

590.  In what month were the fall feasts (Lev. 23:23ff)?  How many

          extra Sabbaths were ordained for that month? (Wenham, 305)

591.  What did the feasts of booths re-dramatize on an annual basis (Lev.

23:3ff)?  (Wenham, 305)

592.  What three Jewish feasts were taken over by the early church

(Lev. 23; cf. Jn. 19:14, 36; 1 Cor. 5:7f; 15:23; Mat. 26:17)? 

(Wenham, 306)



Leviticus 24                                                                                      Back to Top


593.  What literary structural markers are missing in Lev. 24?

How is it connected to what precedes and follows it? (Wenham, 308)

594.  How does the story of the blasphemer (Lev. 24:10ff) show Leviticus

          is a narrative work with laws embedded in that narrative structure?

          (Wenham, 309)

595.  How would you compare/contrast Lev. 24:2-3 to Exod. 27:20f?

          (Wenham, 309)

596.  What did the two stacks of six loaves on the table represent

(Lev. 24:6)? (Wenham, 310)

597.  What was burned instead of the bread as a memorial portion

(Lev. 24:7f)? (Wenham, 310)

598.  How did Ahimelech of Nob vary from the command concerning

          the holy bread (1 Sam. 21:4ff)?  What did he require of David’s

          men? (Wenham, 310)

599.  What does it mean when Wenham says that the case of the blasphemer

          may be an example of how many of the “case laws” in the Pentateuch

          originally (Lev. 24:10ff)? (Wenham, 310)

600.  How did the law against blaspheming or cursing God manifest itself

          in later biblical times (cf. 1 Kgs. 21:10, 13; Mat. 26:65f; Acts 6:11f)?

          (Wenham, 311)

601.  On whom did blaspheme bring guilt beyond the one uttering it (Lev.

          24:10ff)?  How did those people rid themselves of its guilt?

          (Wenham, 301)

602.  Is Wenham right when he says that the OT law sees violation of

          family and religion as much more serious while the laws of

Hammurabi had harsher punishments for property offenses

(Lev. 24:10ff)? (Wenham, 311)

603.  What laws in Israel were applied to the resident aliens (Lev. 16:29;

17:15; 18:26; Num. 9:14; Exod. 12:19)?  (Wenham, 311)

604.  Wenham calls Lev. 24:16-22 a palistrophe.  How do the elements of

          that section line up into an ABCDDCBA format? (Wenham, 312)

605.  What other passages present the lex talionis (eye for eye) principle

          (Lev. 24:20; Ex. 21:23ff; Deut. 19:21)?  (Wenham, 312)

606.  Is Wenham’s observation that “eye for eye” was more a formula and

not really practiced in Israel, legitimate (Lev. 24:20)? What examples

does he cite in order to validate his position (Ex. 21:26; Lev. 24:18;

Num. 35:16ff)? (Wenham, 312)  How did Jesus interact with the lex

talionis law (Mat. 5:27ff)?

607.  How is the bread of the presence referred to in the New Testament

          (Heb. 9:2; Mat. 12:1ff/Lk. 6:1ff)? (Wenham, 312)



Leviticus 25                                                                                      Back to Top


608.  How does the formula “I am the Lord your God” function in

          Lev. 25 (vv. 17, 38, 55)?  Where else have we seen such a usage?

          (Wenham, 316)

609. What was the main function of the law of Jubiliee (Lev. 25)?

          (Wenham, 317)  How does it compare with modern laws of


610.  How do the prophets refer to the avarice and greed of those of their

          day and how does the law of Jubilee fit with their critiques (Lev. 25;

Isa. 5:8; Am. 2:6)?  (Wenham, 317)

611.  Was the year of Jubilee ever practiced (Lev. 25; cf. 2 Chr. 36:21)?

(Wenham, 318)

612.  What argument does Wenham use to refute the idea that the post-

          exilic community invented the Jubilee (Lev. 25)? (Wenham, 318)

613.  How did the Sabbath and the sabbatical year fit together (Lev. 25)?

          (Wenham, 318)

614.  What did the term “yobel” translated Jubilee originally mean

(Lev. 25; cf. LXX translation)? (Wenham, 319)

615.  How does Wenham hand Noth’s objections that the year of jubilee

would require the impossibility of two fallow years (esp. Lev. 25:8)? 

(Wenham, 319)  Is the connection with a “leap” year like concept

a good one?

616.  On what does the harvest in Israel depend (Lev. 25:13ff)?

          (Wenham, 320)

617.  Why was the land not to be sold permanently (Lev. 25:23f)?  What

          theological implications did that have? (Wenham, 320)

618.  How did families work together to keep land in a particular family line

          (Lev. 25:25; cf. Rtuh 4; Jer. 32:7ff)? (Wenham, 320)

619.  What houses were not subject to the law of the jubilee (Lev. 25:29ff)?

          How did the levitical cities provide an exception? (Wenham, 321)

620.  How were interest on loans done in the ancient Near East?  How does

          Israel differ in its treatment of the poor (Lev. 25:36f)? (Wenham, 321)

621.  How do the slavery laws in Israel mitigate the problems with slavery

          (Lev. 25:39ff)?  How was the slavery in Israel different from slavery

          in the colonial Americas?  To whom does the Jubilee release not

apply? (Wenham, 322)

622.  What does one learn in the areas of social justice, social worship,

          personal virtues and messianic typology in relation to the jubilee

          (Lev. 25l cf. Luke 4:18f; Isa. 61:1)?  (Wenham, 323f)



Leviticus 26                                                                                      Back to Top


623.  What function did blessings have in legal documents in the ancient

Near East (Lev. 26)? What blessing collections are seen in other law

codes (cf. Ur-Nammu, Lipit-Ishtar and Hammurabi)? (Wenham, 327)

624.  How are the biblical curses paralleled in the ancient Near Eastern

          law codes (Lev. 26:14ff)?  What differences should be noted?

(Wenham, 327)

625.  How does the formula “I am the Lord (your God)” structure Lev. 26

          (Lev. 26: 1, 2, 13, 44f)?  What role does the conditional “If you will

not listen to me” (Lev. 26:16, 18, 21, 23, 27) play? (Wenham, 327)

626.  How are the blessings organized (Lev. 26:4, 6, 11)? (Wenham, 328)

627.  How is the subject matter similar between the blessings and the

          curses (Lev. 26)?  (Wenham, 328)

628.  When did the harvests in Israel come (grain and grapes)?  How did the

          rain/dew work with this harvest cycle (Lev. 26)?  (Wenham, 329)

629.  What three general gifts are promised in the blessings (Lev. 26:4-5,

          6-10, and 11-13)? 

630.  Why is the curse section so much more developed than the blessings

          section (Lev. 26)? (Wenham, 330)

631.  Why/when would the curses come to fruition (Lev. 26)? 

(Wenham, 330)

632.  How does Wenham demonstrate the pedagogical, discipline or

redemptive function of the curses (cf. Deut. 8:5; Jer. 30:11; 31:18;

Heb. 12:5ff; Amos 4:6, 8, 9ff)? (Wenham, 331)  Are these their only


633.  What is the significance of the repetition of the number seven in

          curse type contexts (Lev. 26:18, 21, 24, 28; Rev. 5-16)? 

(Wenham, 331)

634.  Who faced the wild animals as a curse later on (2 Kgs. 17:25f)?

          (Wenham, 332)

634.  When did God use war as a curse on Israel (Judg. 2:11ff; Lk. 19:42ff)?

          (Wenham, 332)

635.  When did the prophets see the curses fulfilled (Ezk. 34-37)?

          (Wenham, 333)

636.  Do the curses of Lev. 26 have counterparts in Christ’s teaching

          (Mk. 13/ Lk. 19-21; 2 Cor. 5:10)?  (Wenham, 333)  With what does

          the church connect the curses (1 Cor. 3:10ff)?  How did they fit

          with the persecutions suffered by the early church?



Leviticus 27                                                                                      Back to Top


637.  How do people explain why Lev. 27 on vows comes after the

          blessings/curses? (Wenham, 336) Does Wenham solve this adequately

          by suggesting Lev. 26 is God’s vows and Lev. 27 about vows of


638.  When have people throughout history made vows to God (i.e. in

          what circumstances; Lev. 27)?  (Wenham, 337)  What are some

          biblical examples of people who have made vows and in what

          circumstances did they occur (Jonah 2:9f; Gen. 28:20ff)?

638.  How does Eccl. 5:3ff complement this section on vows (Lev. 27)?

          (Wenham, 337)

639.  What does Lev. 27:9f guard against? (Wenham, 338)  What kinds

          of things separate the time of the making of the vow and the time

          of the fulfilling or keeping of the vow?

640.  What marks that a new section begins in Lev. 27:14? (Wenham, 339)

641.  How was the dedication of land complicated (Lev. 27:16ff)?

          (Wenham, 339)

642.  How were firstborn animals regarded in Israel (Lev. 27:26f; cf. Ex.

13:2; 34:19f)? (Wenham, 341)

643.  What passage does Wenham use to show tithes may have been a vow

          (Lev. 27; cf. Gen. 28:20f)?  (Wenham, 341)

644.  Are vows practiced in the New Testament (cf. Acts 18:18; 21:23; Mat.

23:23; Mat. 5:33ff)? (Wenham, 342)

645.  What was the one case when vows could be retracted (Lev. 27)?

          (Wenham, 342)

646.  How does Lev. 27 recapitulate the major themes of the book

          of Leviticus? (Wenham, 342f)

647.  What is the major theme of the book of Leviticus?  Is the message

          still relevant in a post-modern world?


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