NOTES AND NOTICES
CRITICAL NOTE ON EXODUS VI. 3
R. D. Wilson
In criticising a document there are at least three fundamental
principles upon which we should proceed: First, the document
must be supposed to be in harmony with itself and interpreted
accordingly. Secondly, it must be presumed to be in harmony
with its sources of information. Thirdly, it should be in accord-
ance with its supposed time, place, and circumstances.1
I. The Critical Theory is Inconsistent
I. The critics hold that Exodus vi. 3, which the RV renders,
"And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob as
God Almighty (El Shaddai); but by my name Jehovah I was
not known unto them," belongs to P and that P means to say
that El Shaddai and not Jehovah was the name of God known
to the patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Therefore they
assign four passages, Gen. xvii. 1, xxviii. 3, xxxv. 11, and xlviii.
3 to P., since El Shaddai is found in them. It is to be observed,
however, regarding these passages that, in xvii 1, it is said that
Jehovah appeared to Abram, saying, I am El Shaddai; and in
xxxv. 11 that Elohim appeared to Jacob saying, I am El Shaddai.
In xxviii. 3 Isaac says to Jacob, El Shaddai bless thee; and in
xlviii. 3 Jacob says in the presence of Joseph and his two sons,
El Shaddai appeared unto me. In a fifth passage, Gen. xliii. 14,
Jacob uses this appellation in his prayer for his sons who are
critics and the El Shaddai attributed to the Redactor. Is it not
singular that if P thought El Shaddai was a proper name for
God he should have used Elohim about seventy times before Ex.
vi. 3 and El Shaddai only four-times? Is it not extraordinary
that, if the writer of Ex. vi. 3 meant that God "appeared" to the
patriarchs under the name of El Shaddai, only once in P should
it be said that El Shaddai "appeared," just the same number of
times that P says that Jehovah "appeared" and that Elohim"
"appeared"? Jehovah alone (or Jehovah Elohim) is alleged to
have occurred in J, and Elohim alone in E; but El Shaddai is
found but four times in P and Elohim seventy times.
1 Briggs, The Higher Criticism of the Hexateuch, p. 4.
NOTES AND NOTICES 109
If P alone thought that El Shaddai was the only name of God
known in the time of the patriarchs, how about Gen. xliii. 14,
which the critics assign to E or J? We have seen that they
escape the consequences of this assignment simply by asserting
that El Shaddai is an interpolation of the Redactor. But did
the Redactor also think that the patriarchs used El Shaddai
rather than Jehovah? Why, then did he not cut out Jehovah
and put El Shaddai into the text of J? Besides, if P alone
thought that Shaddai was a specifically patriarchal designation,
how about its use in Gen. xlix. 25 and Num. xxiv. 4, 16, which
are assigned to J or JE? All of these questions will be appro-
priately answered if we take Shaddai and El Shaddai as appel-
lations, "the Almighty" or "a mighty God," and not as proper
2. A historical or ostensibly historical document should, if
possible, be interpreted in harmony with its sources and with
earlier histories supposedly known to the author. What then
were the sources of P? According to datings advocated by
the critics they could have been only J, E, D, H, and Judges,
Samuel, Kings, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea, Amos, Obadiah,
Nahum, Zephaniah, and parts of other books. Now the only
one of these sources or earlier works in which El Shaddai
occurs is Ezek. x. 5, "And the sound of the cherubim's wings
was heard unto the outer court as the voice of Almighty
God (El Shaddai) when he speaketh." Shaddai alone occurs in
the Pentateuch only in Gen. xlix. 25 (J) and in Numbers
xxiv. 4, 16 (JE). In Gen. xlix. 24, 25, we read in the Blessing
of Joseph that "the arms of his hands were made strong by the
hands of the Almighty One (rybx) of Jacob (from thence
the Shepherd, the stone of
fathers, who shall help thee, and by the Almighty (Shaddai)
who shall bless thee." The Samaritan Hebrew text and version
of this verse both read El Shaddai instead of Shaddai, a read-
ing supported by the Syriac and apparently by the Septuagint.
If we take the latter reading we would find God Almighty to
be parallel with the Almighty One of Jacob who is also called
the God of thy fathers (i.e., of Jacob). This psalm of Jacob re-
fers in verse 18 to Jehovah in the words, "I have waited for
Thee, O Jehovah"; so that if P got his information about El
Shaddai in this psalm he would have known that Jehovah was
used by the Patriarch Jacob at least. Nothing is said in this
psalm about either Jehovah or El Shaddai having appeared.
In Num. xxiv. 4, 16 Balaam uses the phrase: "which saw the
vision of the Almighty (Shaddai)."2 Since this chapter is as-
signed to JE, P must have known, if he got his information
here, that Shaddai was supposed by his sources to have been,
used after the declaration made in Exodus vi. 3; for JE certain-
ly places the episode of Balaam about forty years after the
event recorded in Exodus vi. 3.
These being the only places in the old Testament where Shad-
dai occurs in the portions assigned by the critics to a date be-
fore 550 B.C., it follows that the critics' interpretation of Ex.
vi. 3 makes P to be out of harmony with all its known sources.
3. In documents which in their opinion were written after
550 B.C. we never find El Shaddai; but Shaddai alone occurs
thirty times in Job, and in Ruth, i, 20, 21; Isa. xiii. 14; Joel i. 15;
Ps. lxviii. 15, xci. 1. Not one of these passages refers to the
patriarchs or to God as "appearing" to them or to anyone else.
In twenty-seven of them Shaddai is used as parallel to other
names of God, to wit: nine times to hvlx, thirteen times to
lx, once to Nvylf, and four times to hvhy. There is no in-
timation that Shaddai was a more ancient designation than these
other terms. It follows, therefore, that, as interpreted by the
critics, P in its use of El Shaddai is not congruous with the
usage of these other books which the critics allege to have been
written in post-captivity times. To be sure, if Job was written
in the time of the patriarchs we can see where the author of P
got his idea that they had used Shaddai as a name for God.
Or even if some of the other passages came from the time to
which they have been assigned by tradition we might see how he
got the idea; even though they say nothing of revelation or the
patriarchs. But as the case stands for the critics we find that
the author of P must have invented the whole conception. For
neither Ezekiel, Job, J, E, H, D, Joel, Jonah, Deutero-Isaiah,
Ruth, nor the Psalms, furnish any ground for supposing that the
patriarchs used this appellation for God; and the certainly late
writings such as Daniel, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, Esther,
2 Shaddai is rendered in Greek and Syriac by "God," in Arabic by
"the sufficient one"; and in the Samaritan version by "field," they hav-
ing read sadai for shaddai.
NOTES AND NOTICES 111
Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah, never mention the name at all.
Whether we take the traditional view of the post-captivity litera-
ture, or the radical, there would therefore be no contemporary
evidence to show that the hypothetical writer of P, provided
that he lived in post-captivity times, was in his use of Shadai
in harmony with contemporaneous usage and ideas.
II. Correct Exegesis Supports Unity of Pentateuch
Having shown that the interpretation of Exodus vi. 3 a ad-
vanced by the critics is out of harmony with the rest of P, that
it does not agree with the rest of the Pentateuch, and that it
does not fit into the time at which P is alleged to have been
written it remains to see whether this passage can be so inter-
preted as to be brought into agreement with the traditional
view of the Pentateuch as the work of Moses. This we shall
attempt to show by an examination of the text, grammar, and
vocabulary of the verse, under the following heads: 1) "ap-
peared," 2) ''as'' (b), 3) "God" (El), 4) "Almighty (Shaddai),
5) but" (waw), 6) "name," 7) "known," 8) the form of the
last sentence,--can it be interrogative?
I. The "appearing" of God to men is described in several dif-
ferent ways in the Old Testament.
a. The most usual expression is that found here in Ex. vi. 3,
where the Niphal of the verb "to see" (hxr) is used. With the
Deity as subject this verb occurs forty-three times as follows:
(a). Jehovah, Gen. xii. 7 bis (J), xviii.1 (J),
xxii. 14 0), xxvi. 2, 24 (J), Ex. lii.4 (E), iv. 1, 5 (J), vi. 3
(P) Lev. ix. 4 (P), xvi. 2 (P), Num. xiv.14 (JE), Deut. xxxi.
15 (JE), I Kings iii. 5, ix. 2, I Chron. i. 7, iii. I, vii. 12, Jer.
iii.13, Zech. ix. 14
(b). The glory of Jehovah, Ex. xvi. 10 (P), Lev. ix. 6, 23
(P), Num. xiv. 10 , xvi.19 (P), xvii. 7, xx. 6 (P)
Isa. lx. 2, Ps xc. 16
(c). The angel of Jehovah, Ex. iii. 2 (J), Jud. iii. 21 bis,
vi.12, xiii. 3, 21.
(d). Jehovah of Hosts, Mal. iii. 2.
(e) Jehovah, God of Israel, 1 Kings xi. 2.
(f) Elohim, Gen. xxxv. 9 (P).
(g) The man (i.e., the angel of Jehovah), Jud. xiii. 10.
(h) El, Gen. xxxv. 1
(i). El Shaddai, Gen. xlviii. 3 (P).
b. Other expressions are the following:
(I) In the following cases it is said that man "saw" the Deity,
the Kal of the verb hxr being used:
(a). Jehovah, I Kings xxii. 19, 2 Chron. xviii. 18.
(b). The glory of Jehovah, Ex. xvi. 7 (P), Isa. xxxv. 2.
(c). The angel of Jehovah, Num. xxii. 31 (E), I Chron. xxi.
(d). The majesty of Jehovah, Isa. xxvi. 10.
(e). hyhy, Isa. xxxviii. 11.
(f). The King, Jehovah of Hosts, Isa. vi. 5.
(g). Lord (Adonai), Isa. vi. 1, Am. ix. 1.
(h). The Holy One of Israel, Isa. xvii. 7.
(i). Elohim, Gen. xxxii. 30 (J), xxxiii. 10 (J), Jud. xiii. 32,
I Sam. xxviii. 13.
(2) The Hiphil of hxr, with the Deity as subject, occurs in
the Old Testament twenty-two times: Gen. 1, Ex. 2, Deut. 3,
Judg. 1, 2 Kgs. 1, Pss. 4, Jer. 3, Ezek. 1, Nahum 1, Hab. 1,
Zech. 2. In the Pentateuch it is found in J in Ex. ix. 16, in E
in Gen. xlviii. 11; in P in Ex. xxv. 9, Num. viii. 4; in D in
Deut. iii. 24, iv. 36, and v. 21,
(3) The verb hzH "to see" is used in Ex. xxiv. 11 (J) with
Elohim as object, in Job xix. 26 with Eloah as object, and in
Num. xxiv. 4, 16 (JE) with Shaddai as object.
(4) Of the words for "vision" mar'eh is used in Gen. xv. 1
(E), in connection with Jehovah and mahazeh in Num. xxiv. 4,
16, with Shaddai.
(5) The verb "to reveal" (hlgn) is found in the Pentateuch
only in Genesis xxxv. 7 (E). Isaiah employs it in xl. 5, liii. 1, lvi.
1. It is found also in I Samuel in ii. 27, iii. 7, 21.
It is clear from the above evidence that the Deity is said in all
the documents J, E, D, H, and P to have "appeared" and that
the Niphal of hxr, "to see," the most common expression
used to describe it, is found in all of them.
2. The preposition b which occurs in Ex. vi. 3 before
Shaddai is the so-called Beth essentiae and is to be
ordinarily by ''as,'' or ''as being," or "in the character of." It
found in Gen. xxi. 12 (P), in Ex. xviii. 4, xxxii. 22, (both
and in Deut. xxvi. 5, xxviii. 62, xxxiii. 26, and in Lev. xvii. 11
(H). It occurs also in Jud. xi. 35, Pss. xxxv. 2, xxxvii. 20,
NOTES AND NOTICES 113
xxxix. 7, liv. 6, Iv. 19, lxviii. 5, 33, cxviii. 7, cxlvi. 5, Prov. iii. 26,
Ecc. vii. 14, Job xxiii. 13, Isa. xxvi. 4, xl. 10, xlviii. 10, Ho.
In Ex. vi. 3 we should translate ''as being El Shaddai," and
''as being Shemi Jahweh" or "in the character of a mighty God"
and "in the character of my name Jehovah," the force of the
proposition being regarded as carried over to the second phrase.
3. El occurs about two hundred and twenty times in the Old
Testament, in Gen. 9, Ex. 4, Num. 11, Deut. 10, Josh. 3 (or 35
times in the Hexateuch, J 2, E 5, D 10, P 53), I Sam. 1, 2 Sam.
2, Isa. 25, Jer. 2, Ezek 7, Dan. 4, Hos. 3, Jonah 1, Micah 2,
Nahum 1, Zech. 2, Mal. 2, Pss. 71, Job 55, Prov. 1. It frequently
takes after it an attributive adjective, or a noun in construction.
Thus E represents El as jealous, D as great and terrible and
merciful, JE as jealous, merciful, gracious and living; and J
speaks of a seeing God (El Ro'i) an eternal God (El 'Olam),
Deut. xxxii, of a God of a stranger (or a strange God), a
of trustworthiness, and a God who begat us, I Sam. ii. 3
a God of knowledge. Gen. xiv. four times calls El the Most
High ('Elyon), and Deut. xxxii. 8 names him simply 'Elyon.
From this evidence it seems clear, that El was in use in all
periods of Hebrew literature and also that the limiting adjec-
tives and genitives did not denote names of different gods, but
were generally at least nothing but appellations of attributes or
4. As to the word Shaddai, there is uncertainty as to its root,
form, and meaning. If it were from a root hdw it would be
of the same form as sadai which is sometimes read in the
Hebrew text instead of sade "field." In Babylonian the root
means "to be high," and derivatives mean "mountain."
and "the summit of a mountain" and perhaps "majesty." In
case, we might take shaddai as a synonym of 'elyon "Most
High" as used in Gen. xiv.
A second derivation is from the root shadad "to be strong"
The ending ai is found also in yrH (Isa. xix. 9) and in ybvg
(Am. vii. I, Neh. iii. 17) and perhaps in ylyk (Isa. xxxii. 5;
3 It is not found in H
4 In fact, the Samaritan version reads Shaddai as sadai in Num.
xxiv. 4, 16.
Olshausen, Lehrbuch p. 216). This ending is found also in
and Ethiopic (Wright, Arabic Grammar,
mann, Aethiopische Grammatik, p. 204). If from this root the
word shaddai would mean "might, strength." The Greek trans-
lator of Job apparently had this derivation before him when he
rendered shaddai by pantokr<twr, "Almighty"5--a translation
which has been generally followed in the English version. In
the Syriac an equivalent word hassino "strong" is found in Job
vi. 4, viii. 3, 5, xi. 7, xiii. 3, xv. 25, xxvii. 2,13, xxix. 5, xxxvii. 23.
A third derivation is from the relative pronoun (w) and the
word "sufficiency" (yd ). The Greek i[kanoj found in Job xxi. 15,
xxxi. 2, xxxix. 32, Ruth i. 20, 21, Ezek. i. 24, comes from this
interpretation. It also accounts for the usual rendering of shad-
dai in the Samaritan version and in the Arabic version of
Saadya. The Arabic always renders it Alkafi, "the sufficient,”
and the Samaritan always safuka, except in Num. xxiv. 4, 16,
where it had read sadai (field).
Our ignorance of the real meaning of the word is further
illustrated by the fact that the Greek translators of the Penta-
teuch invariably render both Shaddai and El Shaddai by qeo<j,
that the translation of Job renders it eight times by ku<rioj, that
the Syriac version renders it twenty-two times by Aloho
(God), and in the Pentateuch usually transliterates it.
In conclusion, the evidence clearly shows that the Hebrews
who translated the Old Testament, or part of it, into Samaritan,
Syriac, Greek, and Arabic, knew nothing of a god called Shaddai
or of Shaddai as a name for God. Only in the Greek of Ezek.
i. 24 and in the Syriac of Gen. xvii. 1, xxxv. 11, and Ex. vi. 3
is there any indication that either El Shaddai or Shaddai was
ever considered to be a proper name like Jehovah.
5. The particle Wau usually means "and." The meaning
"but" is comparatively seldom the correct one.
6. Shemi has been taken by most interpreters and trans-
lators as meaning "my name." The Syriac, however, renders
"the name of," taking the final i as the old nominal ending, as
ynb (Gen. xlix. 11), ylykH (Gen. xlix. 12), yrsx (Gen. xlix
11), ytbng (Gen. xxxi. 39), yncw (Deut. xxxiii. 16), ytyrb
5 Fifteen times in all. to wit: v. 17. viii. 5, xi. 7. xv. 25, xxii.17, 25, xxiii
16, xxvii. 2, 11, 13, xxxii. 8, xxxiii. 4, xxxiv. 10, xxxv. 13, xxxvii. 22.
NOTES AND NOTICES 115
Lev. xxvi. 42),6 or else having read but one Yodh where the
Hebrew text now gives two.7
As to the syntactical relation of the phrase "my name Jeho-
vah" the ancient and modern versions vary. Some take it as the
preposed object "my name Jehovah did I not make known" (so
the Septuagint, Latin Vulgate, Syriac, and the Targum of
Onkelos) and seem to have read the Niphal as a Hiphil. The
Samaritan Targum gives a literal rendering. The AV puts "by”
before "my name" and inserts "the name of" before El Shaddai.
The RV puts ''as'' before El Shaddai and "by" before "my
name." The RV margin suggests ''as to" before "my name" and omits
"the name of" before "El Shaddai." The Targum of Jonathan renders
literally except that it explains "and my name Jehovah" as meaning "but
as the face (or presence) of my Shekina." By this simple interpretation
the Targum of Jonathan, without any change of text, brings the verse
into agreement with the preceding history of the Pentateuch.
As to the meaning of "name" it can scarcely be held that any
post-captivity writer really thought that the mere sound of the
name itself had never been heard before the time of Moses. But
the writer of P did think so, it is preposterous to suppose
that the Redactor who put J and P together should have ac-
ccepted P's opinion and then allowed the Jehovah of J to remain
6 See other examples in Ex. xv. 6, Isa. i. 21, xxii. 16, Ho. x. 11, Ob. 3,
Jer. x. 17, xxii. 23, xxxiii. 20, bis, 25, xlix.16, bis, li.13, Zech. xi.17, Lam. i. l,
iv. 21, Ezek. xxvii. 3, Mi. vii. l4, Pss. ci. 5, cx. 4, cxiii. 5-9, cxiv. 8, cxvi.
1. See Gesenius-Kautzsch, Hebrew Grammar, §90 l, m, Olshausen, Lehr-
buch, and Ewald Ausfuhrluches Lehrbuch.
7 That is the original text may have read hy Mw where we now have
hvhy ymw Jehovah was possibly written hy here, as in Isa. xxvi.4, Ps.
lxviii.5, Ex. xv.2 and other places, and the Yodh was read twice. This
monographic writing where the letter is to be doubled in reading is to be
found on the inscriptions as well as in the Scriptures of the Old Testa-
ment. It is familiar to all Semitic scholars in the so-called intensive
stems where the second radical is written once and read twice. E.g
ktl may be read kittel. So in the Panammu inscription (1.19) bkyk
is to be read Bar-rekab; in Clay's Aramaic Indorsements. Xyuwnb is to be
read read Bana-neshaya. So, also, in the Spicilegium Syriacum (p. 21),
lbkk is to be read Kokab-Bel, and in Jud. vi.25 ;lxbry is Yerub-Baal.
Massoretic notes also give an example in Lam. iv.16, suggesting that u
should be read twice. The ancient versions, especially the Septuagint,
afford many cases of this doubling of the letters of the Hebrew text,
e.g., Hos. vi. 3, 2 Chron. xii. 2, Neh. x. 7.
in Genesis as the ordinary name of God. The Redactor at least,
and the people who accepted his composite work as the work of
Moses, must have interpreted this verse in a sense agreeing with
what had gone before. Now such sentences as "my name is in
him" (Ex. xxiii. 21), "to put his name there" (Deut. xii. 5),
"for his name's sake" (Ps. lxxi .9), "according to thy name so
is thy praise" (Ps. xlviii. 11), show that the name meant the
power, visible presence, honor, or repute, of the person named.
The Targum of Jonathan explains "my name Jehovah" as "the
face (or presence) of my Shekinah."
7. That "knowing" the name of Jehovah means more than
merely knowing the word itself, is apparent from Is. xix. 21,
we read: And Jehovah shall be known to
The form used here in Ex. vi. 3 may mean: I was known, I
was made known, or I allowed myself to be known.
8. Questions in Hebrew and other Semitic languages may be
asked either with or without an interrogative particle. The fol-
lowing evidence goes to show that the last clause of Ex. vi. 3
might be read "was I not made known to them?" This interpre-
tation would remove at one blow the whole foundation of the
critical position, so far as it is based on this verse.
In Arabic "a question is sometimes indicated by the tone of
the voice" (Wright, Arabic Grammar, II, 165); Potest quidem
interrogatio solo tono notari (Ewald, Grammatica Critica Lin-
guae Arabicae, §703).
In Syriac there is no special syntactical or formal method of
indicating direct questions. Such interrogative sentences can
only be distinguished from sentences of affirmation by the em-
phasis. Thus xhlx vh br, may mean "God is great," or "Is God
great?" (Noldeke, Syriac Grammar, §331). "Il n'existe de par-
ticule Syriaque pour l'interrogation; le phrase interrogative ne
se distingue donc que par la sense general" (Duval, Grammaire
Syriaque, §382). "Generally, he interrogative is denoted by the
inflection or connection without any particle" (Wilson, Ele-
ments of Syriac Grmamar, §132. 2. ).
In Ethiopic, the question be denoted by the arrangement
of the words or by the tone; though ordinarily a particle of
interrogation is used (Dillmann, Aethiopische Grammatik,
NOTES AND NOTICES 117
In Hebrew "frequently the natural emphasis upon the words
(especially when the most emphatic word is placed at the begin-
ning of the sentence) is of itself sufficient to indicate an inter-
rogative sentence" (Gesenius-Kautzsch, Hebrew Grammar,
§ I 50). "Ist der Satz im ganzen fragend, so stellt sich das Wort
welches die Kraft der Frage vorzuglich trifft in seiner Reihe
voran; und die 'kraftliche Voranstellung dieses Wortes kann
allerdings in Verbindung mit dem fragenden Tone ohne jedes
Fragwortchen genugen" (Ewald, Ausfuhrliches Lehrbuch,
As examples of this type of interrogative sentence, the
lowing may be cited: Gen. xviii. 12, After I am waxed old shall
I have pleasure, my lord being old also? Gen. xxvii. 24, Thou
art my son Esau? Ex. viii. 22, Should we sacrifice the abomiba-
tion of the Egyptian's before them, would they not stone us? Ex.
ix. 11, As yet exaltest thou thyself against my people, that thou
wilt not let them go? Ex. xxxiii. 14, Shall my presence go, then
I shall give thee rest? (So Ewald, Gram. §324, and Gesenius,
Gram. §150). Jud. xi. 23, And shouldest thou possess it?
xiv. 16, Behold I have not told it my father nor my mother, and
shall I tell it thee? I Sam. xi. 12, Shall Saul reign over us?
xx. 9, If I knew certainly that evil was determined by my father
to come upon thee, then would not I tell it thee? xxii. 7, Will
the son of Jesse give every one of you fields and vineyards?
xxii. 15, Did I then begin to inquire of God for him? xxiv. 14,
If a man find his enemy, will he let him go well away? xxv. 11,
Shall I then take my bread and my water? xxx. 8, Shall I pursue
after this troop? 2 Sam. xi. 11, Shall I then go into my horse?
xvi. 17, Is this thy kindness to thy friends? xviii. 29, Is the
young man Absalom safe? xix. 23, Shall there any man be put
grow? I Kings, i. 24, Hast thou said Adonijah shall reign after
me? xxi. 7, Dost thou govern the
v. 26, Went not mine heart with thee? Hos. x. 9, Shall not the
the against the unjust overtake them in Gibeah? (Ewald, en-
et al.). Is. xxxvii. 11, And shalt thou be delivered? Jer.
xxv. 29, Like a hammer which breaketh the rock in pieces? xlv.
5, And seekest thou great things for thyself? xlix. 12, And art
thou he that shall go altogether unpunished? Ezek. xi. 3, Is not
the building of houses near? (Ewald). xi. 13. Wilt thou make
full end of the remnant of
I be inquired of by you? xxxii. 2, Art thou like a young lion of
nations? (Ewald). Jon. iv. 11, Should I
Hab. ii. 19, Shall it teach? Zech. viii. 6, Should it also be mar-
velous in my eyes? Mal. ii. 15, And did not he make one?
Job ii. 9, Dost thou still retain thy integrity? ii. 10, Shall we re-
ceive good? x. 9, And wilt thou bring me into dust again? xiv. 3,
Dost thou open thy eyes? xxxvii. 18, Hast thou with him spread
out the sky? xxxvii. 18, Hast thou perceived the breadth of
the earth? xxxix. 2, canst thou number the months? xli. 1,
Canst thou draw out Nathan? Lam. 1. 12, Is it nothing to you,
all ye that pass by? iii. 38, Out of the mouth of the most high
proceedeth not evil and good? Neh. v. 7, Do ye exact usury
everyone of his brothet ?
In view of the exegetical problems which are involved in the
interpretation of this verse, the Versions, both ancient and
modern are of unusual interest. The following may be cited
I. The Greek Septuagint: And God (o[ qeo<j) spake to Moses
and said to him: I am (the) Lord (ku<rioj) and he appeared
to Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, being their God, and my name
ku<rioj I manifested not to them.
2. The Latin Vulgate: And spake the Lord (Dominus) to
Moses, saying: I am the Lord who appeared to Abraham, Isaac
and Jacob, as (in) omnipotent God, and my name Adonai I did
not show (indicavi) to them.
3. The Targum of Onkelos: And spake Jehovah with Moses
and said to him: I am Jehovah, and I was revealed to Abraham,
to Isaac, and to Jacob as God Almighty (ydw lxb) and my name
Jehovah I did not make known (tyfdvx) to them.
4. The Targum of Pseudo- Jonathan: And Jehovah spake
with Moses and said to him: "I am Jehovah who revealed him
self unto thee in the midst of the bush and said to thee, I am
Jehovah, and I revealed myself to Abraham, to Isaac, and Jacob
as an Almighty God. (ydw lxb) and my name Jehovah, but as
the face of my Shekina (ytnykw ypxb) I was not made known
5. The Peshito: And spake the Lord (Moryo) with Moses
and said to him: I am the Lord and I appeared to Abraham
and to Isaac and to Jacob as the God El Shaddai (xhlx ydw lyxb)
and the name of the Lord I did not show to them.
NOTES AND NOTICES 119
6. The Samaritan Hebrew text agrees with the Hebrew, ex-
cept that it has Jehovah instead of God in verse 2, reads hxrxv
instead of xrxv in verse 3, and adds Wau (and) after Abra-
7. The Samaritan Targum is a literal rendering of the He-
8. The Arabic of Saadya: Then spake God to Moses and said
to him: I am God who named myself to Abraham, Isaac and
Jacob as the Mighty, the Sufficient, and my name is God.
9. The English version: And God spake unto Moses and
said unto him: I am the Lord (RV, Jehovah) and I appeared
unto Abraham and unto Isaac and unto Jacob by the name of
(RV, as) God Almighty; but by (RV, or ''as to") my name
Jehovah was I (RV I was) not known (RV or made known)
10. The Dutch translation: Then spake God unto Moses and
said unto him: I am the Lord and I appeared to Abraham, Isaac
and Jacob as God the Almighty; but by my name Lord I was not
known to them.
11. Luther's German version: And God spake with Moses
and said unto him: I am the Lord and I appeared to Abraham,
Isaac, and Jacob that I would be their Almighty God but my
name Lord was not revealed to them.
On the basis of the investigation of the verse given above the
writer would suggest the following renderings: And God spake
unto Moses and said unto him; I am Jehovah and I appeared
unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob in the character of
the God of Might (or, mighty God) and in the character of my
name Jehovah I did not make myself known unto them. Or, if
the last part of the verse is to be regarded as a question, the
rendering should be: And in the character of my name Jehovah
did I not make myself known unto them? Either of these sug-
gested translations will bring this verse into entire harmony
with the rest of the Pentateuch. Consequently, it is unfair and
illogical to use a forced translation of Exodus vi. 3 in support
of a theory that would destroy the unity of authorship and the
Mosaic origin of the Pentateuch.