Bibliotheca Sacra 138 (1980) 22-34.
Copyright © 1980 by
Studies in the Book of Genesis
The Table of Nations in
Genesis 10--Its Content
Allen P. Ross
The previous article in this series dealt with the structure of
the Table of Nations in Genesis 10.1 The deliberate design in its
construction, symmetry, and unity were examined in an effort to
understand its purpose as a tOdl;OT. But in addition to the evi-
deuce from its structure, there is a wealth of information about
the nations of the world that is important for the complete under-
standing of this chapter within the message of Genesis.
The Analysis of the Passage
The heading of the chapter (Gen. 10:1) declares that this is
the record of the particulars of what became of Shem, Ham, and
Japheth after the Flood. The verse serves not only as a heading for
the Table, but also as a literary connection back to Genesis 9:18
and 28. It is to be read with the oracle of Noah in mind!
THE SONS OF JAPHETH (10:2-5)
In the listing of Noah's sons, Japheth usually comes last. But
here he is first because the tribes descended from Japheth were
spread across the remote lands of the north and therefore were
less involved in
The connection of Japheth and ]Iapeto<j of the Greek tradi-
tion is striking.2 In both Greek and Hebrew traditions, then,
]Iapeto<j was the ancestor of the Greeks. Genesis, however, shows
him to be fully human.3 He is simply the ancestor of many north-
The Table of Nations in Genesis 10 - Its Content 23
ern tribes who were non-Semitic in physiognomy, language, and
The sons of Japheth are seven. Gomer, mentioned also in
Ezekiel 38:6, represents the Cimmerians, thought to be of the
same stock as the Scythians.5 Magog is also mentioned in Ezekiel
and 39:6) as the
hordes southeast of the Black Sea.6 Madia (ydamA) is the normal
Hebrew word for the Medes (Isa. 13:17) or Media (2 Kings 17:6),
east of Assyria and southwest of the
the Median Empire was not formed until the seventh century,
this does not mean that such a people were not known earlier as a
group in the
them in a way that implies they were older inhabitants.
Javan is the general word for the Hellenic race, used
throughout the Old Testament for the Ionians who dwelt in
Tubal and Meshech are always found together in the Bible;
they represent northern military states (Ezek. 27:13; 32:26;
38:2; 39:1; and Isa. 66:19). Tubal is equivalent to Tibareni in
Tiras has been identified in classical writings as the Thra-
cians living in the area of the river Tiras 9 It is now popular to
identify them as the Pelasgian pirates of the Aegean coasts men-
tioned in Merneptah's list of seafaring peoples.10
From these seven, seven more were derived. From Gomer
came Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. Ashkenaz appears to
represent a northern branch of Indo-Germanic tribes related to
the Scythians.11 Riphath may bear a remote resemblance to the
name of the river Rhebas near the Bosphorous, or the Riphaean
mountains to the west. Josephus suggested these were the
Paphlagonians.12 Togarmah seems to represent the extreme
north in Ezekiel 27:14 and 38:6.13
From Javan came four "sons"--two geographical names
and two tribal names--all of which are kin to the Greeks.
Elishah is to be identified with the place Alashiyah on the island
of Cyprus.14 Tarshish is the name of a distant coast reached only
by sea (Isa. 66:19; Jer. 10:9; Ezek. 27:12). It has been identified
with several places on the southern coasts of
founded by Phoenician shippers.15 Kittim is preserved in the
24 Bibliotheca Sacra - January-March 1981
name of Kition (or Kettion), also on the
plural noun refers to the people who inhabited that island, as well
as other islands east of
Dodanim, the last of the four from Javan, is difficult to
identify because of a textual problem. The word, spelled "Roda-
nim" in 1 Chronicles 1:7, would represent the inhabitants of
"Dodanim." Moreover, Ezekiel lists a Dedan among northern
merchants (27:15). Neiman suggests they are the Dodanoi, the
These descendants of Japheth may be broadly summarized
as Cimmerians, Scythians, Medes, Hellenes, and Thracians.
From the fourteen names given, the text adds that from
these the isles of the nations were divided in lands, by tongues,
after families, in nations. They dwell in remote lands and
It should be noted in passing that these names occur fre-
quently in prophetic writings. In Genesis the great military
hordes and western merchants are rather remote. They do not
come into play, so far as the destiny of
concerned, until much later. Genesis knows something about
them, but they are far beyond the movements of the patriarchs.
They too will eventually subjugate the inhabitants of the land.
THE SONS OF HAM (10:6-20)
More attention is given to the line of Ham than to that of
Japheth or Shem. Ham's line has four branches: Cush, Mizraim,
respectively. In addition, the descendants of these four are both
places and tribes.
Ham is the ancestor of all these
used to depict countries in close proximity to
antiquity this was an independent kingdom on the southern
served as the backbone of the Egyptian army, helping to expel the
Asiatics (Hyksos).19 So the list begins in the far south with the
African tribes known to the Greeks as Ethiopians.
Mizraim lies to the north of
ninety times in the Old Testament for
The Table of Nations in Genesis 10 - Its Content 25
Put is used six times in the Bible, usually representing a
warlike people used as mercenaries in the Egyptian armies (e.g.,
27:10). Some connect Put with
(pwn.t).20 But the identification of Put with Punt is phonetically
problematic.21 Thus the identification
more support although not by similarity of names.22
The last of the four is
races, a natural result for a country which is the "bridge" of
continents.23 The name
various etymologies including the Hurrian kinahhu, a reddish-
purple shellfish dye.24 References from antiquity show the name
is geographical. Possibly it may have been used of the merchant
class in early commercial activities.26 Exclusive to the Old
Testament is the use of the term for inhabitants of the area in a
general sense. It later came to mean the pre-Israelite population
without distinction of race or social status. These many tribes
are in some way related to
The lines of three of these are now carried further in the
expanding list. First are listed five sons of
show expansion in Arabia.27 Seba is usually identified with
Egypt on the Nile, with the ancient city of
fit several areas according to its usage: Ishmaelite Arab territory
25:18), eastern Arabia on the
coast (Gen. 10:7), or even
east (Gen. 2:11). The fact that Havilah is mentioned under both
Shem and Ham shows mixing of the races: both Shemites and
Hamites lived there.
Sabtah is near the western shore of
to been identified as Shabwat, ancient Hadhramaut28 Raamah
appears to have been in southwest
be identified with Samudake, east toward the
So these five tribal regions in the lower
were populated with descendants from Ham. Of them, Raamah
produced two other tribes:
of the ancient kingdom in southwest
Marib, forty-five miles east of Sena'a of Yemen .29 Dedan is associ-
with modern 'Ula in northern
center from antiquity, bordering on
of the people of
26 Bibliotheca Sacra - January-March 1981
back through the Cushite Raamah; others traced their ancestry
to Joktan in the line of Shem (10:29).
Inserted in the Table is the story of Nimrod (Gen. 10:8-12).
This is the first dlayA ("begot") section and forms a major stylistic
break from the tribal and territory names preceding it. The verse
need not be interpreted to say that Nimrod was the actual son of
identify him, but the most plausible is the reflection of the name
in Ninurta, the god of hunting and war.30
Because his name has been connected with the root dramA ("to
rebel"), and because of the statements made about him, he seems
to represent tyrannical power. Genesis 10:9 describes him as a
mightly hunter,31 a term often used for the hunting of men, and
the founder of the colossal powers of the east, which suggests he
is not just someone known for his derring-do.
Genesis 10:10 lists these cities as the "beginning" of his
first, it is not surprising to see it as the subject of the next
narrative (11:1-9), where it is described as the first gathering
point of the race.
Erech is the Akkadian Uruk, to be identified with ancient
Warka, the city of heroes like Gilgamesh 32 It is one hundred
miles southeast of
Agade of Sargon, north of
sharply in importance about 2000 B.C.
Calneh is nowhere attested in cuneiform. While some have
tried to find a city so named in the great
have followed Albright and translated it "and all of them.”33
The second part of the Nimrod digression lists the cities he
colonized (Gen. 10:11-12). Nimrod went out to Assyria34 and
most famous city of
region). Rehoboth-Ir could be explaining
is the suburb of Rebit Nina.
situated twenty miles south. Resen may be Risnu, between the
other cities. It seems that all these cities were close enough
together to be one great metropolis.
Nimrod's exploits extended over two geographical areas,
of the Hamitic line.35
The Table of Nations in Genesis 10 - Its Content 27
After this dlayA section, another follows: Mizraim developed
into tribes. From the Egyptians sprang the Ludim, a group of
African tribes west of the Delta;36 the Anamim, in the vicinity of
(Nah. 3:9 and Dan. 11:43); the Naphtuhim, the people of the
(Lower Egypt); the Pathrusim, the people of
the Casluhim, the people who dwelt east of the Delta between
The clause "from whence come the Philistines" is problem-
atic because of its position in the text. Scripture connects the
origin of the Philistines with Caphtor (Amos 9:7; Deut. 2:23;
Jer. 47:4), but the Caphtorim, the Cretans, come after this
clause. While some have suggested rearranging the clauses, it
may not be necessary. The clause in the Table suggests migration
and not lineage. Amos has the Philistines from Caphtor in the
same sense that
origination.41 The difficulty may be solved by looking at their
origin and their migration from the Aegean bases through Caph-
tor into the Delta and finally into
But part of the problem is the general assumption that this
name is anachronistic since all sources so far attest that the
Philistines in the strict sense date from around 1200 B.C. But the
Philistines of Genesis are quite different from those of later
periods. Grintz concluded that they were different enough to
posit successive migrations of different tribes .42 He concluded
there were three migrations: the first was the migration of
Pelasgo-Philistine tribes from Casluhim (Genesis and Exodus),
the second was the movement of the Philistines from Caphtor to
Philistines in the period of Rameses III. Therefore the tribes from
Mizraim are seven, and out of one come the Philistines. If this be
so, then the powerful Egyptian influence carried far north into
The final Hamite line to be traced is that of the sons of
in the land promised to
the territorial boundaries specifically given.
Once again a dlayA section is inserted to introduce the cities and
tribes. The first-begotten is
city.44 This suggests that the founder gave his name to the city.
Heth, the Hittites in the Old Testament, is problematic here
28 Bibliotheca Sacra - January-March 1981
and so the term is justified if it describes Hittites who swept
south in vast ethnic movements.45
A series of tribes are mentioned beginning with the Jebu-
sites. The Jebusites dwelt in Jebus (
the early stock of Canaanite tribes. The Amorites pose another
problem. The term can refer to a mixed population in the land in
general. It does not fit the description of the western Semites
whose center was in Mari.46 These are smaller ethnic groups that
inhabited the mountains around
Very little is known about the Girgashites and the Hivites.
They are mentioned only in the cliche lists for Canaanites in
"Hittite" are used pejoratively and ideologically, but as North
says, "we cannot see that all organic link of origin with those
foreign populaces is excluded."48
The rest of the list includes the Arkites, those living in Leba-
non north of
most northerly of Phoenician cities north of the river El Kebir; the
those living in the town of
‘Arqa; and the Hamathites, the inhabitants of Hamath on the
northern boundary of the land.
It is clear that the writer wished to emphasize the names of
the Canaanites who dwelt in the land promised to
he mentions the familiar boundary notices in all directions, from
the cities of the plain to Gerar to the northern extremities. Such
an emphasis coming after the account of the curse
written for a people who were to dispossess these Canaanites
would have great impact.
THE SONS OF SHEM (10:21-31)
A new heading lists the relationship of Shem to Japheth (the
brother) and Eber (the descendant)--the former speaking of an
alliance based on Genesis 9 and the latter speaking of the connec-
tion in the line to the Hebrews.
The first name in the list is
penetrated the highlands east of
later not the dominant racial or linguistic group.49 Asshur,
Shem's second son, is the name for the region and people of
Hebrews. Arpachshad's meaning and location have caused con-
siderable speculation, but he can only be generally listed as resid-
The Table of Nations in Genesis 10 - Its Content 29
ing northeast of Nineveh.50 Lud is probably the Ludbu of the
Assyrians, situated on the
mean tribes of antiquity living in the steppes of
are not well known. They seem to be located in the north between
The passage then refers to the developing line from Arpach-
shad, using the dlayA form through Shelah to Eber. One of Eber's
sons is Peleg, in whose days the earth was divided (probably
referring to the division of nations at
mentions Peleg, it traces his line no further. Rather, it lists the
many tribes from Joktan, using the dlayA formula again.
The first tribe was Almodad, referring to a South Arabian
people. The second is Sheleph, another tribe of the southern
Arabian peninsula.54 Hazarmaveth, the third, is identified with
the exporter of myrrh known as Hadramaut in Southern
in the same vicinity. Uzal is the designation of San'a, the old
refer to an oasis. Obal seems to be 'Abil, a term used for several
formation, with the ma being emphatic ("my father, verily, he
the fact that Joktanites lived there as well.56 Ophir and Havilah,
also listed under Ham, were southern Arabian territories rich in
gold. Jobab is assumed to be identical to Yuhaybib in South
These thirteen descendants of Joktan represent settled Ara-
bian tribes in the peninsula.
with the Joktanites of the
to the east.
The final verse of the chapter forms the colophon-type end-
ing of the Table. All families came from the sons of Noah, but
these families listed here have significant developments (dlayA) as
The Meaning of the Passage
Most commentators observe that the Table demonstrates the
unity of the human race. Coming from the sons of Noah, the
survivors of the Flood were fruitful and multiplied.
30 Bibliotheca Sacra - January-March 1981
But the passage is far more complex than that. The Table is a
select list of names, and that selection must serve a purpose. The
names are names of individuals, cities, tribes, and nations
arranged according to the genealogical connections of the ances-
tors or founders. The pattern of the Table is segmented rather
than linear; it is designed to show blood ties, treaties, alliances
and other connections between existing peoples.
That the promised land is central to the Table can be seen
from the arrangement of the descendants. The Japhethites are
spread from east to west across the northern frontier; the Ham-
ites surround the land from south to west; and the Shemites are
traced from the eastern to the southern borders of the land.
Moreover, the preoccupation with the Canaanites in the land of
promise shows the concern of the writer to fit the Table to the
message of the book: the fulfillment of God's promise to bless
bless her, and curse those who are antagonistic to her.
The Table then deliberately selected these tribes and traced
their development. This was done by expanding (in the dlayA ["be-
got"] sections) important elements found in the basic genealogy
(the yneB; ["sons of"] structure). From the heading (tOdlOT, "particu-
lars") it is clear that the passage was designed to do just this. The
purpose of this tOdl;OT in Genesis is to trace what became of
Noah's descendants, but the particular items included in this
genealogy were selected because of their
The tOdl;OT of the yneB; Noah moves in four directions (in each of
the dlayA sections). Through these four sections the genealogy
focuses on the dominant kingdoms of Assyria and
powerful Egyptian tribes, the Canaanite tribes in their lands, and
the Arabian tribes of the line of Shem. These are peoples with
whom the new nation of
the oracle of Noah in Genesis 9.
According to Genesis, the new nation of
blessed as God's people in the
other peoples. The oracle of Noah in Genesis 9 anticipated the
blessing for Shem, along with Japheth, and the cursing of Ca-
naan, a son of Ham. This Table in Genesis 10 gives direction to
that oracle. It presents the lines of Shem and Japheth as pure
tribal groups around the promised land; it also presents the old
block of Hamites, especially the mixed races in the
naan, as the predominant powers on the earth. The dlayA sections
The Table of Nations in Genesis 10--Its Content 31
identify these tribes for
blessing or cursing.
1 Allen P. Ross, "The Table of Nations in Genesis 10-Its Structure," Bibliotheca
Sacra 137 (October-December 1980):340-53.
Apollodorus The Library 1. 2-3, Loeb Classical Library
University Press, 1921), p. 12; Hesiod Works and Days, lines 50, 54, and
Theogany, lines 507-12, 543,
Loeb Classical Library (
versity Press, 1914), pp. 6, 116, 118.
3 David Neiman, "The Two Genealogies of Japheth," Alter Orient and Altes
Testament 22 (1973):124.
4 E. Dhorme, "Les Peuples issus de Japhet d'apres le chapitre X de la Genese,"
Considerations," 925th Ordinary General Meeting of the Victoria Institute,
December 6, 1954, p. 17.
5 They are listed in Assyrian as Gimirraya, and in Greek as Kimmerioi (Odys-
sey 11. 14 and Herodotus 1. 15, 103; 4. 1-142). Speiser identifies them with
as in the Welsh (E. A. Speiser, Genesis,
The Anchor Bible [
Doubleday & Co., 1964], p. 63).
6 Josephus Antiquities of the Jews 1. 122-29. Skinner identified them with
barbarians called Ga-ga (John Skinner, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary
on Genesis [
to Gyges of
7 They are called Yamanai in Sargon's texts, Ym'n in the fourteenth century Ras
Shamra tablets, and Ye-uan-(n)a in Egyptian referring to the Sea Peoples.
For a discussion of the identification of Javan with the twelve settlements iii
western Asia Minor, see Cassuto, From Noah to Abraham (
Press, 1953), p. 190.
8 Wiseman says they are the same as the Hittite Tipal and Tibar district which
Naram Sin traversed around 2200 B.C. (Wiseman, "Genesis 10: Some Archaeolog-
ical Considerations," p. 18). Herodotus located the region in the north on the shore
ties of the Jews 1. 122-29).
9 Thucydides 4. 109; Herodotus 1. 57, 59.
10 The connection with the Etruscans, suggested by Dhorme, is supported by
Wiseman. It would be comparable to the classical Tursanioi.
11 See Francis Brown, S. R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs, A Hebrew and
English Lexicon of the Old Testament (Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1907), p.
79. They identify the word as Ascan(ians) with the az ending of Armenian
patronymics. The texts of Esarhaddon list Asguzai in the
12 A textual problem makes the identification difficult; 1 Chronicles 1:6 has a'1
for the r. Since so little is known of the name, it is impossible to argue the case.
13 Hittite writings of Marsilis II (fourteenth century B. C.) list a district known as
north of the road from
Abraham, p. 192).
14 The name is listed on Amarna and Hittite lists. Excavations show these
people supplied purple to
1200 B.C. (Y. Lynn Holmes, "The Location of Alashiya," Journal of the American
Oriental Society 91 [19711:426-29).
15 The meaning of Tarshish is "foundry," according to David Neiman: the ships
of Tarshish carried iron ore ("
Studies 24 (1965):113-15),
32 Bibliotheca Sacra - January-March 1981
History of Phoenician Colonization" Bulletin of the American Schools of
Oriental Research 83 [19411:14-22). Herodotus had
identified it with
Tartassos (Herodotus 1. 163; 4. 152; see also Strabo 3. 151).
16 It is still a designation of the Greeks in later literature (1 Mace. 1:1; 8:5;
Babylonian Talmud Ta'anith 5b).
17 Neiman, "The Two Genealogies of Japheth," p. 121 (cf. Iliad 2. 750; 16.233-34
Odyssey 14. 327; 19. 296; Apollodorus The Library 1. 9, 16).
Neiman thinks it is related to the Egyptian term for "
of their land in Bohairic is Khemi; but the Hieroglyphic Egyptian begins with K
(Neiman, "The Two Genealogies of Japheth," p. 122).
T. Save-Soderbergh, "The
20 Kenneth A. Kitchen, "Punt and How to Get There," Orientalia, n.s. 4
Wendell Phillips, Qataban and
Brace, & Co., 1955), p. 108.
21 The connection between the two is phonetically problematic, not only be
cause of the "n" in Punt, but also because of the "t" as against the "t" of Punt
which is only a feminine termination (J. Simons, "The 'Table of Nations' [Gen. 10]
Its General Structure and Meaning," Oudtestamentische Studien 10 [ 1954]:179)
The Greek and Latin versions refer to it as
founded by Phoutes (Antiquities of the Jews 1. 132). Jubilees 9:1
takes it as
and Libyan mercenaries are well known from extra-biblical literature (but
Puntians are not) (Simons, "The 'Table of Nations,"' p. 180).
23 John C. L. Gibson, "Observations on Some Important Ethnic Terms in th
Pentateuch," Journal of Near Eastern Studies 20 (1961):217.
B. Maisler, "
Oriental Research 102 (1946):7-12; E. A. Speiser, "The Name Phoinikes,"
Language 12 (1936):121-26.
25 Robert North, "The Hivites," Biblica 54 (1973):51.
standing (not ethnic); and the Tell El Amarna letters (EA 9, 19) mention ki-na-ha-
a-a-u. See Gibson, "Observations on Some Important Ethnic Terms," p. 217. .
28 Ibid., p. 42.
29 Cassuto, among others, believed that it had first been northern on the
peninsula, and then moved south around the eighth century B.C. (Cassuto, From
Noah to Abraham, p. 199).
30 Wiseman, "Genesis 10: Some Archaeological Considerations," p. 17; Bohl
of Assyria ("In Search of Nimrod," Oriental and Biblical Studies [
31 The Septuagint renders dyica rOBGi as "the hunting giant," the Arabic as "the
terrible tyrant," and the Syriac as " the warlike giant." Midrash Rabbah 37:2 says
he snared people (see also Yoma 10a, and Josephus Antiquities of the Jews 1. 113-14).
32 Wiseman suggests that since Erech is written Uruk or Unuk in Sumerian, it
might be the city named after Enoch. Enoch's son was Irad, and he may have
founded Eridu (Wiseman, "Genesis 10: Some Archaeological Considerations," p 20).
J. A. Thompson, "Samaritan Evidence for 'All of them in the
(Gen. 10:10)," Journal of Biblical Literature 90 (1971):99-102.
34 It is possible to translate it "Asshur went out," but it is probably better to take
it the other way since the story is about Nimrod's exploits, and the preceding was
only the beginning.
35 Wiseman points out that archaeology shows that the earliest inhabitant
The Table of Nations in Genesis 10 - Its Content 33
and languages of the region were not Semitic. Before 2600 the civilization is
"Sumerian." Moreover there is a
direct cultural link between Assyria,
Cassuto, From Noah to Abraham, p.
200. Los connects them to Lydian (
Minor) mercenaries (F. J. Los, "The Table of Peoples of the Tenth Chapter of
Genesis," The Mankind Quarterly 7 [ 1967]:148).
Los connects them with On, the inhabitants of
(ibid., p. 148). See also W. F. Albright, "A Colony of Cretan Mercenaries on the
of the Negeb," Journal of the
38 See Brown, Driver, and Briggs, who define it as "southland" and connect it
with the Akkadian Paturisi and the Egyptian P-to-rest (A Hebrew and English
Lexicon, p. 837). See also "Pathros"' in Isaiah 11:11 and Jeremiah 44:1.
Leupold thinks they may have come from
as part of the swarms of nations mixing with Egyptians (H. C. Leupold, Exposition
of Genesis [
40 They are identified with Keftiu ("the region beyond"), referring to the
41 Kenneth A. Kitchen, "The Philistines," in Peoples of Old Testament Times,
ed. Donald J. Wiseman (Oxford: At. the Clarendon Press, 1973), pp. 53-54.
42 J. M. Grintz, "The Immigration of the First Philistines in the Inscriptions"
[Hebrew], Tarbiz 17 (1945):32-42; "Notes on the Immigration of the First Philis-
tines in the Inscriptions" [Hebrew], Tarbiz 19 (1947):64.
43 A. Van Selms, "The Canaanites in the Book of Genesis," Oudtestamentische
Studien 12 (1958):182-213.
44 Wiseman points out that the Table must go back before the thirteenth
century due to the omission of
Considerations," p. 21).
45 See Hans Giiterback, "Toward a Definition of the Term Hittite," Oriens 10
(1975):233-39; Harry A. Hoffner, "Some Contributions of Hittitology to Old
Testament Study," Tyndale Bulletin 20 (1969):37; and Gibson, "Observations on
Some Important Ethnic Terms in the Pentateuch," p. 225. Of course if Genesis 10
is talking about the very beginnings, then there is no need to look for migrations.
But the Hattians or Nesites, the people of Hatti, remain a problem.
46 Alfred Halder, Who Were the Amorites? (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1971), pp. 20, 65-
Giorgio Buccellati, The Amorites of the
Orientals di Napoli, 1966); M. Liverani, "The Amorites," in Peoples of Old Testa-
ment Times, p. 102.
47 North said the Hivites must represent the Horites or Hurrian element ("The
Hivites," p. 44).
48 Ibid., p. 61.
Arno Poebel, "The Name of
brew," American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 48 (1931):20-
37:2 says 26• See also Wiseman, "Genesis 10: Some Archaeological Considerations,
50 Several have tried to connect Arpachshad with the Kasdim, or Chaldeans
(e-g•, Los, The Table of Peoples of the Tenth Chapter of Genesis,” p. 158).
51 B. Maisler, The Genealogy of the Sons of Nahor and the Historical Back-
ground of the Book of Job" [Hebrew],
52 See the author's article, "The Dispersion of the Nations in Genesis 11:1-9, in
the forthcoming April-June 1981 issue of Bibliotheca Sacra.
53 Most take this to be a combination of the article lxa plus ddAOm ("friend”).
54 Silph is a district of Yemen, and Salph a Yemenite tribe (G. R. Driver, "Notes
34 Bibliotheca Sacra - January-March 1981
in Some Recently Recovered Proper Names, Bulletin of the American Schools of
Oriental Research 90 :34).
55 Phillips notes that even today tribesmen of Hadramaut proudly state they are
descendants of Joktan, supposed by them to be Qahtan, great-great-great-
grandson of Shem, son of Noah, and legendary
ancestor of all
(Phillips, Qataban and Sheba, pp. 28-29).
Gus W. Van Beck, "Prolegomenon," in
xiii-xv. He suggests that there were commercial and ethnic affinities across the
sea, the African Saba owing allegiance to the Arabian.
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