Grace Theological Journal 8.1 (1987) 101-114
Copyright © 1987 by Grace Theological Seminary. Cited with permission.
A THEOLOGY OF ERRORS?
REX A. KOIVISTO
The points of seeming divergence between Stephen's words in
Acts 7 and the OT record have engendered attacks on inerrancy by
some and attempts at reconciliation by others. A current approach to
reconciliation involves the attempt to distinguish between inerrancy
of content and inerrancy of record in Acts 7. This views the diver-
gences in Stephen's speech as admissible errors since inspiration is
only posited of the author of Acts and not of Stephen as a character
in the narrative. The present article seeks to show that three of these
divergences are merely insertions into the narrative, not errors, and
furthermore, that these divergences are calculated theological inser-
tions. The result is a renewed need to seek their reconciliation with
the OT record.
* * *
STEPHEN'S speech in Acts 7:2-53 has remained an enigma for much
of modern scholarship. In its current form it is clearly the longest
speech in the book of Acts, yet it diverges from the other speeches in
the book in that it is non-apostolic and apparently non-kerygmatic.1
Furthermore, the content of the speech is held by some to be little
more than a dry recitation of the history of the Hebrews, having little
to do with the judicial framework into which the author of Acts has
An even more difficult quandary is left for those who look for
historical consistency with the OT in the speech, for it diverges from
the OT historical record in at least five places.3 Several approaches
toward a reconciliation of these conflicts have been attempted, but
1 Bruce classifies this speech as apologetic. See F. F. Bruce, The Speeches in the
Acts of the Apostles (London: Tyndale, 1942) 5.
2 See particularly F. J. Foakes Jackson, "Stephen's Speech in Acts," JBL 49 (1930)
283-86; and Benjamin Wisner Bacon, "Stephen's Speech: Its Argument and Doctrinal
Relationship," in Biblical and Semitic Studies (New York: Yale, 1901) 213-29.
3 Cadbury listed ten divergences, but he included those instances where the speech
produces material that is otherwise unknown from the OT as well as those instances
102 GRACE THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL
one that has been gaining vogue in recent years is an attempt to
distinguish between inerrancy of content and inerrancy of record.4
This option leaves the divergences in Stephen's speech as admissible
errors since inspiration, and its corollary, inerrancy, need only be
posited of the author of Acts and not of Stephen as a character in the
Aside from the hermeneutical problems such an approach intro-
duces,5 those who would adopt this distinction as an attempt to retain
inerrancy fail to observe two key factors: (1) the function of the so-
called errors in the theology of the speech; and (2) Luke's adoption of
that theology in Acts. Leaving the Lucan adoption to be treated
elsewhere,6 it is the aim of this study to demonstrate that at least
three of the "errors" in Stephen's speech are not inadvertent mistakes,
but are calculated insertions in the narrative designed to emphasize
certain theological points. The implication, of course, is that if this is
correct, we must take these Stephanic statements seriously and ulti-
mately attempt to reconcile them with the OT record.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF STEPHEN'S THEOLOGY
In order to evaluate the function of these discrepancies in the
theology of Stephen's speech, it is first necessary to place them in the
where the speech actually conflicts with the OT (H. J. Cadbury, The Book of Acts in
History [New York: Harper, 1955] 102-3). Richard B. Rackham, following a similar
inclusive approach, set the total divergences at fifteen (Richard B. Rackham, The Acts
of the Apostles: An Exposition [London: Methuen, 1901] 99-101).
4 This view was suggested as early as 1879 by Albert Barnes in Notes on Acts
(revised edition; New York: Harper, 1879) 138. It was taken up and developed at
length, however, by G. T. Stokes in The Acts of the Apostles (New York: A. C.
Armstrong, 1897) 311ft". For others suggesting this option, see the following: William
Owen Carver, The Acts of the Apostles (Nashville: Broadman, 1916) 69; R. A. Torrey,
Difficulties in the Bible (Chicago: Moody, n.d.) 97; Charles W. Carter and Ralph
Earle, The Acts of the Apostles (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1959) 96. More recent
suggestions of Lucan accuracy with Stephanic error have been given by Everett F.
Harrison and Richard N. Longenecker. Harrison says, "That no alteration [of the
problem in 7:14-16] was made by Luke or anyone else to bring the statement into
conformity with Genesis speaks well for the accuracy with which the speech of Stephen
was transmitted and later recorded by Luke" (E. F. Harrison, Acts: The Expanding
Church [Chicago: Moody, 1975] 115). Longenecker similarly writes as follows: "Again,
these [apparent confusions in 7:15, 16] are but further examples of the conflations and
inexactitudes of Jewish popular religion, which, it seems, Luke simply recorded from
his sources in his attempt to be faithful to what Stephen actually said in his portrayal"
(Richard N. Longenecker, The Acts of the Apostles [EBC; Grand Rapids: Zondervan,
5 See, in this regard, Rex A. Koivisto, "Stephen's Speech: A Case Study in
Rhetoric and Biblical Inerrancy," JETS 20 (1977) 353-64.
6 See Rex A. Koivisto, "Stephen's Speech and Inerrancy: An Investigation of the
Divergences from Old Testament History in Acts 7" (unpublished Th.D. diss., Dallas
Theological Seminary, 1982) 7-9; 157-59.
KOIVISTO: STEPHEN'S SPEECH 103
context of that speech-it is in their context that Stephen's "errors"
show their clearest theological import.
Although the unity of the speech around a common theological
theme has been questioned by a number of critics 7 there has been a
strain of scholarship that has viewed the entire pericope of Acts
6: 1-8:3 an integrated unit, the speech itself being a response to the
allegations of Stephen's opponents.8 Those accusations are found
capsulized in the words of the false9 witnesses: "This fellow never
stops speaking against the holy place and against the law. For we
have heard him say that this Jesus of Nazareth will destroy this place
and change the customs Moses handed down to us."10 From these
words it can be concluded that the case against Stephen hinged upon
his proclamation of Jesus of Nazareth, particularly as Jesus related to
two of the most sacred Jewish institutions, Temple and Torah. Stephen
is accused of saying that Jesus would "destroy" the Temple and
"change" the Torah.11 If these charges were sustained, the Sanhedrin
could easily classify this as blasphemy, and Stephen would be per-
ceived as having committed a capital offense.12
7 This is mostly due to a tendency to see no relationship between the charges
against Stephen and the speech. See Jackson, "Stephen's Speech," 283-86; Alfred
Loisy, Les Actes des Apotres (Paris: Emile Nourry, 1920) 318.
8 J. Kilgallen traces the exegesis based on an integration with the accusations back
to Chrysostom, Augustine, Bede, and Rupert of Dentz in Stephen's Speech: A Literary
and Redactional Study of Acts 7, 2-53 (Analecta Biblica 67; Rome: Biblical Institute
Press, 1976) 6; cf. H. Wendt, Die Apostelgeschichte (Kritisch-exegetischer Kommentar,
Part 3; Gottingen: Vanderhoeck and Ruprecht, 1899) 151. More recent exponents of
this integration are E. Jacquier, Lis Actes des Apotres (Etudes Bibliques; Paris:
Lecoffre, 1920) 201; and F. F. Bruce, Commentary on the Book of Acts (NICNT;
Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1954) 141.
9 H. Beyer believes that the witnesses were only false in that they opposed Stephen,
whereas Stephen as a Hellenist did speak against the Temple as they claimed. Beyer
argues that the degradation of the Temple was Stephen's particular way of declaring
the Herrschermacht of Jesus (Die Apostelgeschichte [6th ed.; Gottingen: Vandenhoeck
and Ruprecht, 1951] 46). One wonders, however, whether the degradation of the
Temple was a Stephanic means of asserting the Herrschermacht of Jesus, or whether
Stephen's declaration of the Herrschermacht of Jesus was misunderstood by his hearers
as a degradation of the Temple.
10 Acts 6: I 3- 14. Unless otherwise noted, the biblical citations are taken from the .
NIV. The earlier accusations (6:11) are not the formal judicial allegations, but broad
generalizations intended to stir up the crowds against Stephen (cf. 6:12).
11 Cf. Longenecker, Acts, 336. The words selected by these false witnesses are
katalu<w (of the Temple) and a]lla<ssw (of the Torah). Cf. our Lord's words in John
2:19 (lu<w) and the report of these words before the Sanhedrin by "false witnesses"
katalu<w, Matt 26:61; Mark 14:48; 15:29).
12 Cf. the tradition later collected in the b. Sanhedrin 49b: "Stoning is severer than
burning, since thus the blasphemer and idol-worshipper are executed. Wherein lies the
enormity of these offences?-Because they constitute an attack upon the fundamental
belief of Judaism."
104 GRACE THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL
Given the not unreasonable assumption that Luke recorded the
accusations because he saw a definite correlation between them and
the content of the discourse, the next step is to observe any overriding
emphases within the speech that correspond to the accusations. In
this sense, the structure of the discourse indicates that it is not a dry
recitation of well-known sacred history, but rather a carefully selected
grouping of certain elements from within that history which were
arranged and adapted to prove a theological point in response to
legal accusations.13 Although there was obviously a great bulk of
material available to him, the speechmaker selected and grouped his
material under five sections:
A. Observations on Abraham (7:2-8)
B. Observations on Joseph (7:9-16)
C. Observations on Moses (7:17-43)
D. Observations on the Temple (7:44-50)
E. Direct application (7:71-53)14
13 The cutting edge of Stephanic studies has recently been involved with this careful
redactive evaluation and is yielding results in terms of understanding the theological
development of the speech. For an excellent treatment of one section of the speech
commonly held to be irrelevant, see E. Richard, "The Polemical Character of the
Joseph Episode in Acts 7," JBL 98 (1979) 255-67.
14 Richard (257) offers a different division of the speech:
I. History of the Patriarchs (2- I 6)
A. Story of Abraham (2-8)
B. Story of Joseph (9-16)
II. History of Moses (17-19)
A. Hebrews in Egypt (17-19)
B. Moses prior to the Sinai event (20-29)
C. Theophany and mission (30-34)
III. Thematic section (35-50)
A. Moses and the fathers (34-41)
B. God and the fathers (42-50)
IV. Invective against audience (51-53)
J. BihIer, Die Stephanusgeschichte im Zusammenhang der Apooltegeschichte
(Munchener Theologische Studien; Munich: Max Hueber Verlag, 1963) vii, finds a
simpler threefold division:
I. Die Geschichte Israels von Abraham bis Moses (2-37)
A. Die Abrahamsgeschichte (2-8a) (8a=transition)
B. Die Josephsgeschichte (9-16) (17-19=transition)
C. Die Mosesgeschichte (20-37)
II. Israel's AbfalI: Gotzendienst und Tempelbau (38-50)
A. Der Gotzendienst (38-43)
B. Der Bau des Tempels (44-50)
III. Der Schuld Israels (51-53)
Kilgallen, Stephen’s Speech, ix-xii, develops it this way:
I. The Abraham Story (2-7)
II. The Joseph Story (9-16) (8=transition)
KOIVISTO: STEPHEN'S SPEECH 105
The initial division of the speech ostensibly treats Abraham the
patriarch, yet a careful evaluation reveals that the section is much
more closely related to the "God of Glory" than to Abraham.15
Abraham is selected and discussed, of course, as the father of the
nation,16 but his deeds are minimized while the divine activities are
maximized. The speech thus gains a theological tenor from the outset.
Since Stephen is accused of aberrant theological views, he produces
an apologia not of himself, but of his theology. Abraham thus serves
as a link between the land (which made the Temple of import) and
the instructive oracle of Yahweh regarding the land.
With this in mind, the location of the revelatory acts of God rises
to prominence. Yahweh gave his revelation to Abraham in Ur and
Haran, well outside the limits of the sacred land upon which the
Temple came to be constructed (vv 2-4). When Abraham finally
arrived in the land of promise, Stephen emphasizes that "(God) gave
him no inheritance in it, not even a foot of ground" (v 5). Though
God promised Abraham the possession of the land, it would be his
only after his descendants were enslaved for four hundred years
outside the land, "in a country not their own" (v 6). Then, after that
lengthy delay, "they will come out of that country and worship me in
this place" (v 7).17
III. The Moses Story (17-43)
IV. The Temple (44-50)
V. Conclusion (51-53)
It should be observed from this sampling that certain elements are commonly held;
i.e., the concluding invective against the audience (51-53), the Abraham Story (2-8)
and the Joseph Story (9-16). The bulk of variation comes in the division of the larger
section of 17-50. Precisely where the Moses section ends and the Temple section begins
is difficult to determine due to the use of a Mosaic element (the Tabernacle) as a pivot
from which to launch into the discussion of the Temple. It is probably most logical to
find a natural break at 44 due to the internal consistency of the unit from a literary
standpoint (e.g., the constant use of the rhetorical ou$toj; in vv 35, 36, 37, and 38, and
the connection of the final ou$toj; with the complete thought of 38-43.
15 Note particularly the subject/verb relationship in this section: the divine term
o[ qeo<j; is followed by eight verbs of which it is the subject (Ernst Carl Rauch, "Ueber
den Martyrer Stephanus und den Inhalt, Zweck, und Gang seiner Rede; Apostel-
geschichte 6 und 7," TSK 30  363; and K. Panke, "Der Stephanismus der
Apostelgeschichte," TSK 85  4).
16 Adolf Schlatter notes the significance of beginning with Abraham from a thematic
perspective in Die Apostelgeschichte (Stuttgart: Calwer, 1962) 84.
17 It is common to see in this slight redaction of Gen 15: 14 an inclusion of the term
to<poj; as an oblique reference to the Temple, which would not serve as a focal point for
worship until at least 430 years of Israel's history had elapsed (J. BihIer, Stephanus-
geschichte, 43; and E. Jacquier, Actes, 2089).
106 GRACE THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL
The theological point of this section is clear: the God of Israel is
not tied to the land (upon which the Temple rests).18 The land must
not be given the overriding significance that the Jewish contem-
poraries of Stephen were giving to it. It certainly has importance as
the gift of God to the descendants of Abraham in the fulfillment of
promise (vv 6-7), but to require that the God of the promise be
limited in his revelation and/ or worship to one place is to reduce that
God to a localized deity unworthy of proper respect.
That this consideration should be important to Luke in his
theology and structure of Acts is clear. To this point the Church itself
had been localized in Jerusalem, impeding progress on the fulfillment
of the Great Commission (Acts 1:8). It is only after Stephen's speech
and martyrdom that the Word of God is finally extended beyond
Judea.19 In view of this connection, it is difficult to deny that the
theology of Stephen was central to the theology of Luke as he
Stephen's careful selection continues in the Joseph section with
the omission of the Isaac and Jacob stories found in his sources and
with the condensation of the eleven chapters of the Genesis account
of Joseph into roughly eight verses. The key phrase to be considered
thematically is found in verses 9-10a: "Because the patriarchs were
jealous of Joseph they sold him as a slave into Egypt. But God was
with him and rescued him from all his troubles." The earlier motif of
God as transcending location is thus reiterated in the Joseph story20
It is even possible that a slight polemical jab is here thrust at Stephen's
auditors who, like the brothers of Joseph, were still in the land but
were without God, disobedient, and suffering.21
18 Bruce captures this flavor well (Acts, 145): "It was in Mesopotamia, far from the
promised land, that God first revealed Himself to Abraham Those who are
obedient to the heavenly vision, Stephen seems to suggest, will always live loose to any
one spot on earth, will always be ready to get out and go wherever God may guide."
Cf. also Longenecker, Acts, 339; and Rauch, "Stephanus," 363-64.
19 In this connection see the fine summary by J. Julius Scott, "Stephen's Defense
and the World Mission of the People of God," JETS 21 (1978) 131'-41.
20 Richard ("Acts 7," 260) states the following in this regard: The Joseph section
"emphasizes once more that the events of salvation history for the most part occur
outside of Judaea." This commonality with the Abraham section had been noted
earlier by B. Heather: "But there underlies this section [7:2;-16], I think a suggestion
that God was truly God, and the Hebrews were truly His people, long before Moses or
his Law; with the immediate implication that the Mosaic legislation had no more than
a relative value" ("Early Christian Homiletics: St. Stephen's Defence [Acts 7:2-53],"
Australasian Catholic Record 5  238).
21Richard, "Acts 7," 260-61.
KOIVISTO: STEPHEN'S SPEECH 107
It is in this section that a second theological motif arises, one
that is to reappear in the final invective (vv 51-53). That motif is the
exaltation of the rejected one as deliverer of the rejectors.22 It is this
particular motif that serves as Stephen's means of both putting his
interrogators on the defensive as well as proclaiming Christ from the
Scriptures: Joseph, like Christ, was rejected by his brothers. This
section, then, develops an offensive element in Stephen's "defense" as
well, an element that will continue in the succeeding sections.
As in the Joseph unit, Stephen has again selectively styled the
Moses material with a theological point in mind. Both the "God
outside the land" motif as well as the "rejected deliverer" motif find
their places here.
The former begins in the introductory sentences, where Stephen
emphasizes the Egyptian location of the people (vv 17, 18, 22). The
implication is that since the place from which Israel was delivered was
Egypt, then obviously the God who delivered them cannot be restricted
by national boundaries. This is emphasized even further by the follow-
ing notations: It was in Midian that the divine oracle to Moses took
place (v 29); and the divine workings were seen when God "did
wonders and miraculous signs in Egypt, at the Red Sea, and for forty
years in the desert" (v 36).23
The point is that if the land and the Temple are required for the
presence of God among his people, then the fundamental historical/
theological roots of Israel as a nation must be excluded. Stephen's
initial motif is thus strengthened by his selection of details from
Moses' life. Yet it is the second motif, introduced in the Joseph
section, that finds an even stronger emphasis.
The "rejected deliverer" motif finds its furtherance here in the
recounting of the story about Moses and the oppressive Egyptian
22 Although this typological motif finds its detractors, there is a trend toward
reasserting its legitimate existence in Stephen's speech. Earlier writers favoring this
approach include Paton J. Gloag, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Acts
of the Apostles (2 vols.; Minneapolis: Klock and Klock, 1979 reprint of 1870 ed.),
I. 237; and R. B. Rackham, Acts, 103. More recently this has been promoted by
C. S. C. Williams, A Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles (London: Adam and
Charles Black, 1964) 105-6; and F. F. Bruce, Acts, 148. The most thorough treatment
of this Joseph "typology" is found in Kilgallen (Stephen's Speech, 49-60), who sees the
determining factor here in the distinctly Christian terms used in this section.
23 Maurice Carrez sees an even greater emphasis on this theme in the Moses section
("Presence et Fonctionnement de L 'Ancien Testament dans L' Annonce de L 'Evangile,"
RSR 63  333). See also Celestin Charlier, "Le Manifeste D'Etienne (Actes 7),"
BVC 3 (1953) 87; and Longenecker, Acts, 344.
108 GRACE THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL
(vv 23-29). The sacred lawgiver, Stephen recounts, "thought that his
own people would realize that God was using him to rescue them, but
they did not" (v 25). Similar to the Joseph episode, a polemical jab is
thrust at the unresponsive people who were to have received the
deliverance. They, in fact, refused deliverance by refusing the deliverer.
It is the one the people rejected, says Stephen, that God used to save
them: "This is the same Moses whom they had rejected with the
word, 'who made you ruler and judge?' He was sent to be their ruler
and deliverer by God himself, through the angel who appeared to him
in the bush" (v 35).24
It was, in fact, the rejection of Moses that led ultimately to a
rejection of God himself in the golden calf incident (vv 40-41) and,
even further, in their idolatry throughout the desert wandering period
(vv 42-43). In the midst of his extensive treatment of Moses, Stephen
gives an anticipatory glance at his final application (vv 51-53) by
quoting a well-known messianic passage, Deut 18:15: "This is that
Moses who told the Israelites, 'God will send you a prophet like me
from your own people.’”25
In Stephen's treatment of the Moses episode, then, we find a
further development of the "God outside the land" motif as well as an
amplification of the "rejected deliverer" motif. The Moses story, like
the Abraham and Joseph stories, is selected and arranged to demon-
strate a theological point for Stephen's auditors. Jesus of Nazareth,
like Joseph and Moses, is the rejected deliverer sent by God. It
would be difficult indeed to find this theological concept to be at
variance with the theology of Luke in his development of thought in
On the Temple
Although the Temple issue has been implicitly addressed from
the outset in the "God outside the land" motif, it receives explicit
development in this final section preceding the concluding remarks
(7:44-50). The precursor of the Temple, the "Tabernacle of Testi-
mony," is treated initially in this section, and in a genuinely positive
light. The Tabernacle has been made in accord with a divine design
and through a divine revelation to Moses (v 44). The Tabernacle
24 In this connection note the polemical use of the following phrases in this section:
"Our fathers refused to obey him"; and "they rejected him" (v 39).
25 J. Jeremias, "Mwu*sh?j," TDNT 4 (1967) 868-69. Cf. Kirsopp Lake and H. J.
Cadbury, The Acts of the Apostles, vol. 4 of The Beginnings of Christianity, eds. F. J.
Foakes Jackson and Kirsopp Lake (reprint of the 1933 ed.; Grand Rapids: Baker,
1965) 38, 78; Rackham, Acts, 104; Gloag, Acts, 1.236-47; Bruce, The Acts of the
Apostles: The Greek Text with Introduction and Notes (second ed.; Grand Rapids:
Eerdmans, 1952) 172; Acts, 152.
KOIVISTO: STEPHEN'S SPEECH 109
again suits Stephen's "God outside the land" concept, being a por-
table structure not bound to one place. The Tabernacle, in fact, is
carried into the land from outside. It continued to be functional in
the land until the time of David. Then, in Stephen's discussion of the
time of David, the Temple is finally introduced. Here, however, the
tone of the discussion shifts dramatically: "But it was Solomon who
built the house for him. However, the Most High does not live in
houses made by men" (vv 47-48). Stephen forcefully emphasizes his
point by a quotation of Isa 66:1-2, in which Yahweh stresses his
omnipresence in contrast to the Temple. It is certainly to be observed
that Stephen is minimizing the place of the Temple by such state-
ments, particularly in contrast to the Tabernacle. God is not located
only in Palestine, as Stephen has been stressing prior to this climactic
assertion. Since this is the case, then the Temple cannot at all be
perceived as the sole focal point for the worship of such a God.26
With this, the "God outside the land" motif reaches its climax.
The direct application section is demarcated by a shift from the
use of a third person narrative form to a second person confronta-
tion. Stephen is no longer summarizing sacred history. He is now
addressing his auditors directly in the light of his oration (vv 51-53).
He accuses them of resisting the Holy Spirit (viz., God). Just as
Joseph's brothers had rejected Joseph, their divinely designated
26 The building of the Temple as a point of idolatry or apostasy and thus as
contrary to the intentions of God is viewed by most recent interpreters as Stephen's
point here. See particularly Marcel Simon, "Saint Stephen and the Jerusalem Temple,"
JEH 2 (1951) 127-42; L. W. Barnard, "Saint Stephen and early Alexandrian Chris-
tianity," NTS 7 (1960-61) 31-45; Bihler, Stephanwgeschichte, 74-75; Bacon, "Stephen's
Speech," 272; Longenecker, Acts, 346. Even Bruce adopts this position in his most
recent work on the subject, emphasizing the unique assertion of Stephen as a Hellenist:
"the idea that the Temple was a mistake from the beginning is unparalleled in the New
Testament." He does try to divest Luke of such an opinion, however: "Stephen's
reply is not the epitome of Luke's own position: Luke, in other parts of his work,
reveals a much more positive attitude to the Temple than Stephen does." F. F. Bruce,
Peter, Stephen, James, and John: Studies in Early Non-Pauline Christianity (Grand
Rapids: Eerdmans, 1979) 53. It must be kept in mind, however, that OT theology
places the impetus for the building of the Temple with Yahweh himself, who gave
explicit instructions for its design, just as he did for the Tabernacle (I Chr 28:12, 19).
To suggest that Stephen viewed the construction of the Temple as an act of apostasy or
idolatry is to suggest that he either misunderstood or misrepresented OT theology at
this point. The older interpreters understood Stephen's words in a less stinging sense,
holding that he spoke against the current view of the Temple and its use rather than its
existence. Cf. Heather, "St. Stephen's Defence," 240: "The Temple, then, like the law,
had a relative, not an absolute value." See also Ephraim C. Sheld, "Stephen's Defense
before the Sanhedrin," BW 13 (January-June 1899) 98.
110 GRACE THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL
deliverer, so they have rejected the Righteous One. Just as Israel
rejected Moses, their divinely designated deliverer, so they have
rejected, betrayed, and murdered the Savior. Thus the "rejected
deliverer" motif is brought to a climax in this final section.
In view of the foregoing, it can be seen that Stephen has met the
accusations by utilizing the Torah selectively to defend his position
on the nature of Israel's God as well as to show his hearers their guilt
in rejecting God's Deliverer, Jesus. Stephen's defense becomes his
means of offense. His accusers become his accused.
THE "ERRORS" AND STEPHEN'S THEOLOGY
Now that the theology of Stephen has been established in
terms of its connection to the speech's thematic development and
flow of thought, it remains to be seen where the problematic pas-
sages lie in relation to this theological development. Of the five
conflicts of a historical nature in the speech, two are contained in the
Abraham section, and three in the Joseph section. The relation of the
three explicit problems to the theology of the speech will now be
The Call of Abraham
The first phrase causing difficulty is that which locates the initial
revelation to Abraham (Gen 12:1-3) "in Mesopotamia, before he
lived in Haran" (7:2). It has been seen that the point of the Abrahamic
story in the Stephen speech is to initiate the concept that Yahweh's
presence is not limited to the land on which the Temple lies. Certainly
this point could have been made without the limiting phrase "before
he lived in Haran." Yet the fact that this foundational revelation took
place in Mesopotamia, "the land of the Chaldeans" (7:4), appears to
have theological significance for Stephen. To him, it is not simply at
Haran, the second stage of the patriarchal sojourn, where the divine
oracle overtook Abraham. Rather, it was in the very seedbed of
idolatry, the farthest point from the land, and at the very dawn of
redemptive history that the divine oracle reached him.28 J. Kilgallen,
although not necessarily assuming a non-conflicting Genesis account,
expresses this same kind of idea:
27 The numeric problem of 70/75 will not be treated under this heading as a
theological alteration, since this issue has a textual problem at its base, nor will the
patristic burial issue be treated in that it involves in its solution a textual-grammatical
matter rather than a theological one. See Koivisto, "Stephen's Speech and Inerrancy,"
28 Cf, Jacquier, Actes, 295
KOIVISTO: STEPHEN'S SPEECH 111
Theologically, we believe that Stephen chose this tradition (Gen. 15,7)
rather than that of II, 31-12, 5 because he wanted to show his listeners
that the call to a new land (to worship God) was at the very root of
Abraham's earliest migration. God's call did not come after a first and
secular movement of Abraham. Abraham's initial movement was in
response to a divine mandate; conversely, any movement that tended
toward the new land was inspired by God, not simply capitalized upon
by God somewhere along the journey (as the Gen 12 tradition might
indicate). The divine plan was primordial.29
The point is well taken. Stephen's reference to a Chaldean call is
not a homiletical slip or inadvertent error brought about by the
pressures of litigation. It is, on the contrary, a deliberate attempt to
develop his theology by selecting materials from the biblical text.30 As
such, the reference to the Abrahamic call in Ur is conscious and
planned; it is an integral part of the theology that Stephen is present-
ing and that Luke is integrating with his theological development in
the book of Acts.
The Death of Terah
At first glance, the reference to Terah's death in Acts 7:4 seems
to contain no theological significance, but is rather a simple allusion
to an apparent historical fact in Genesis: the call of Abraham is
recorded as occurring subsequent to Terah's death. Strack and Biller-
beck suggest that the reason for the intrusion of this problematic
phrase in Acts 7 is a simple reliance on an old rabbinic tradition that
was created to absolve Abraham from the atrocious action of desert-
ing his aged father.31
29 Kilgallen, Stephen's Speech, 42-43. See also Nils A. Dahl, "The Story of
Abraham in Luke-Acts," Studies in Luke-Acts, ed. by Leander E. Keck and J. Louis
Martyn (Nashville: Abingdon, 1966) 143: "Thus God's revelation is made the starting
point of Abraham's migrations."
30 E. Richard, though attributing the red active work to the Lucan author, stresses
that the changes in the Stephen speech are not accidental, but are related to the
"overall purpose of the speech and its context." Acts 6:1-8:4: The Author's Method of
Composition (SBL Dissertation Series, 41; Missoula: Scholars Press, 1978) 56.
31 Herman L. Strack and Paul Billerbeck, Kommentar zum Neuen Testament (6
vols.; Munich: C. H. Beck'sche, 1961) 2. 667-68. See particularly the rabbinic tradition
reflected in Gen. Rab. 39:7: "Now what precedes this passage? And Terah died in
Haran [which is followed by] Now the Lord said unto Abram: Get thee (Iek leka).
R. Isaac said: From the point of view of chronology a period of sixty-five years is still
required. But first you may learn that the wicked, even during their lifetime, are called
dead. For Abraham was afraid saying, 'Shall I go out and bring dishonor upon the
Divine Name, as people will say, "he left his father in his old age and departed"?'
Therefore the Holy One, blessed be He, reassured him: 'I exempt thee (leka) from the
112 GRACE THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL
This suggestion may be too simple, however. In view of the
obvious apologetic activity of Stephen, the phrase may well have been
introduced for a distinct theological purpose. It is certainly possible
that the reason for this inclusion is the relationship between Jewish
tradition surrounding Terah and a subsidiary "exodus" motif that
arises in the speech.
The Jewish tradition regarding Terah is exemplified in Gen. Rob.
38: 13, where Terah is referred to as a manufacturer of idols, and it is
held that the death of his son Haran was due to Terah's practice.32
The implication in the tradition is that, even though Abraham left Ur
at the divine call, he brought with him an idolatrous father-and
thereby a potential return to Chaldean idolatry.
The text of Acts 7 implies, moreover, that the stay in Haran was
itself divinely directed.33 In this way Stephen stresses that Abraham
did not enter the land of promise until his idolatrous father was dead
and hence unable to contaminate his pure devotion to Yahweh. For
Stephen, the death of Terah may thus mark Abraham's final break
with his past.34
This emphasis on Abraham's break with his father is signifi-
cant in view of a subsidiary "exodus" motif that may be seen in
the Stephen speech. In the Joseph section (vv 9-16), Joseph (like
Abraham) is separated from his family. The text indicates, however,
that God was with Joseph as opposed to the "fathers." In the Moses
section, it was "our fathers" who refused to obey Moses and turned
duty of honouring thy parents, though I exempt no one else from this duty. Moreover,
I will record his death before thy departure.' Hence, 'And Terah died in Haran' is
stated first, and then, Now the LORD said unto Abram, etc."
32The tradition probably has its roots in the canonical statement of Josh 24:2:
"Long ago your forefathers, including Terah the father of Abraham and Nahor, lived
beyond the River and worshiped other gods." A similar reflection of the tradition
stemming from this may be found in Jub. 12:1-6, where Abram is said to have
confronted his father on the uselessness of idolatry before leaving Ur, and where his
brother Haran is to have died trying to save his idols from conflagration set by
Abram for the purpose of destroying them. -
33 In 7:3 the words "Go into the land I will show you" are immediately followed by
"then he settled in Haran." This implies that the otherwise inexplicable stopover in
Haran was done at Yahweh's command. Abraham may well have waited there for the
idolatrous tendencies in his own family to be resolved before entering the land of
34 This is contrary to the opinion of Vawter. He holds that the priestly author of
Genesis 11-12 intended to indicate that Terah was very much alive during the first
years of Abram in Canaan, thus making the separation of the two ways all the more
real since both leaving and staying would have been live options for Abraham (Bruce
Vawter, On Genesis: A New Reading [Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1977], 173-74).
Vawter does not consider the possibility, however, that the listing of Terah's sons may
have been theological in order rather than chronological.
KOIVISTO: STEPHEN'S SPEECH 113
their hearts back to Egypt (v 39). The patriarchal distinction is
brought to a pointed conclusion with the final words of Stephen:
"You stiff-necked people, with uncircumcised hearts and ears! You
are just like your fathers: You always resist the Holy Spirit!" (v 51).
These internal factors suggest that the reference to the death of
Terah may begin a foil against which the disobedience of Stephen's
own contemporaries is brought into sharp relief. Abraham broke with
his disobedient father at his death; Stephen's contemporaries had not
yet broken with their disobedient and long-dead fathers.
This "error" thus shows marks of a calculated insertion into the
narrative for theological purposes as well. Like the call of Abraham
in Stephen's speech, the problem cannot simply be removed without
violating the theology which Stephen is building, and which Luke
The Abrahamic Purchase
Both a theological point and an exegetical difficulty are involved
in Stephen's inclusion of an otherwise unknown acquisition by
Abraham of land at Shechem. Shechem certainly held theological
significance in the Abrahamic narrative of the OT, for it was there
that Abraham first exhibited his relationship to the land of promise
by building an altar to Yahweh.35 A reference to an Abrahamic tomb
purchase, however, would have most likely brought to the minds of
Stephen's listeners the sacred and revered tomb at Hebron. Stephen
asserts that Abraham purchased a tomb not at revered Hebron, but
at despised Shechem.
Certainly this reference to what was Samaritan territory in
Stephen's day, particularly in the context of the Temple and worship
motifs in his speech, would have had significant theological over-
tones,36 especially since the Samaritans were for all practical purposes
considered outside the land.37 It is thus not without significance that
35 Martin H. Scharlemann, Stephen: A Singular Saint (AnBib 34; Rome: Biblical
Institute Press, 1968) 38.
36 Cf. E. F. Harrison: "Stephen's mention of Shechem was probably not casual but
deliberate. ...A rigid Jew might want to forget the patriarchal contacts with Shechem,
but Stephen would not permit that. To mention Shechem was almost the equivalent of
calling attention to Samaria" (Acts, 115-16). See also Bacon, "Stephen's Speech," 230.
For a contrary opinion, see Loisy, Actes, 327. Loisy's objection to a polemic here,
however, assumes that the only Abrahamic tomb purchase known to the Jews was the
Hittite transaction of Genesis 23. With the abundance of extrabiblical accounts and
traditions of Abraham circulating in the first century, this may be too great an
37 Cf. Gerhard Schneider ("Stephanus, die Hellenisten, und Samaria," in Les Actes
des Apotres: Tradition. Redaction, Theologie, ed. by J. Kremer [Louvain: Paris
Gemloux, 1979] 229). Note particularly the “God is spirit” concept communicated to
114 GRACE THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL
Luke follows this speech with a narrative of the evangelization of that
same Samaritan territory (Acts 8:4-25). In view of the conscious
theological selection of the term "Shechem" on Stephen's part, and
the significant Lucan use of this element in his narrative, one must
again conclude that the use of this "error" is a conscious one loaded
with theological import.38
The theological function of the "errors" within the development
of Acts 7 indicates that at least three of the divergences are inten-
tional assertions that produce in their contexts a theological thrust
that would be absent without them. And though a systematic recon-
ciliation between Stephen's recounting of history and the OT record
itself has not been attempted in this study, such an approach must
reckon with the conclusion drawn here: that the divergences found in
Stephen's speech and recorded by Luke are deliberate. Hence, there is
a renewed need to reconcile Stephen's comments on OT history with
the OT record. Allowing Stephen to have been "in error" simply will
not do if a sound view of the trustworthiness of Scripture is to be
the Samaritans by our Lord (John 4:24). The possible connection between the Johan-
nine theology thus represented and the Hellenistic concept represented by Stephen is
shown by Oscar Cullmann, "A New Approach to the Interpretation of the Fourth
Gospel," Parts I and II, ET 71 (1959) 8-12; 39-43.
38 This may explain why Shechem has a part in the theological focus, but it does
not explain why Abraham was the one who needed to have made the purchase, nor
why a tomb purchase is significant in the narrative at all. The role of a tomb in OT
theology, however, may relate here to the concept of promise. Abraham's purchase of a
tomb plot in Hebron, for example, was evidence of his settling down in the land of
promise. In the same way the patriarchal burials in Shechem, not mentioned by
Stephen, are further examples of fulfillment in the land of promise. This fits Stephen's
theology quite well in that it is the rejected brother who ensures burial of the rejectors
in the land of promise. The mention of Abraham as the purchaser forms a nice literary
inclusion: "Abraham began this history, receiving the promise of the land, at v. 16,
before the new generation of Exodus and the Pharaoh 'who knew not Joseph' appear.
We see a literary, redactional nicety which gives a partial fulfillment to what God had
promised Israel in the person of Abraham which in turn becomes an encouragement to
hope for the future that some day all the land will pass into total possession of
Abraham's descendants" (Kilgallen, Stephen's Speech, 62).
This material is cited with gracious permission from:
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Winona Lake, IN 46590
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