Criswell Theological Review 3.1 (1988) 185-97.
Copyright © 1988 by The
A REVIEW ARTICLE
COMMENTING ON COMMENTARIES
ON THE BOOK OF JOHN
JOHN A. BURNS
The Fourth Gospel will soon be the object of Bible study in many churches.
The purpose of this article is to give some hints about the study of the Gospel
In addition to the direct study of the Gospel's text and the use of
commentaries, there are other considerations in preparing to teach the Fourth
Gospel. The theology of this Gospel emphasizes the importance of signs and
the predominance of glory. Robert Cook's Theology of John and W. F.
Howard's Christianity According to St. John will assist the student in the
theological content of the book.
A number of themes could be profitably studied in this Gospel, such as its
Jewish background, omissions in the book, the role of John the Baptist, the
Second Exodus theme--and Jesus as the "new Moses," controversy with the
Jews, the Graeco-Roman background of John (e.g., logos, cosmos), the Upper
Room Discourse, worship patterns, apologetic patterns, Jesus' Sonship and
related personal titles, witness in the Fourth Gospel, and truth in this Gospel.
There are a number of volumes and articles which will assist in the
literary study of the Fourth Gospel. Literary communication takes notice of
the three aspects of the message: the author's literary intention, the written
"signals" and the mindset of the original receivers of this message. It should
not be overlooked that the text of Scripture may have a range of secondary
purposes. Three books which will introduce the student to the literary study
of John are R. A. Culpepper's Anatomy of the Fourth Gospel, P. D. Duke's
Irony in the Fourth Gospel, and L. Ryken's How to Read the Bible as
Literature. A more advanced study in this vein is B. Olsson's Structure and
Meaning in the Fourth Gospel. A helpful general introduction to literary study-
will be found in Literary Approaches to Biblical Interpretation by T. Long-
For the student who has no facility with the Greek of the NT, a number
of helps ate available. There are word study helps like A. T. Robertson s
Word Pictures in the New Testament, H. Alford's New Testament, M. Vin-
cent's Word Studies, and the emphasis on word meanings in Barclay's well
186 CRISWELL THEOLOGICAL REVIEW
known set of commentaries. Those who are adventuresome enough to read
between the lines of Greek and benefit from the English explanations will
greatly profit from the use of such recent commentaries as C. K. Barrett's
masterful The Gospel According to St. John or well known standards like
F. Wescott's The Gospel According
through theological divergences, you may wish to consult Brown's two
volumes in the Anchor bible or Schnakenburg's three-volume set; both sets
are by Roman Catholic authors. The two-volume commentary by Haenchen
provides, in addition to textual study, an excellent and nearly exhaustive
bibliography at the close of each section. The works of E. C. Hoskyns and
C. H. Dodd still exert great influence.
A more exhaustive study of key words can be made by using a concor-
dance such as Young's or Strong's, and then consultation of G. W. Bromiley's
translation of Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, edited by Kittel
and Friedrich (either the one-volume abridgement or the full ten-volume
set). Brown's New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology
(3 volumes) can be utilized in thematic study when used with the Scripture
Index to the New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology by
D. Townsley and R. Bjork. It has over 1,250 references to locations in the
three-volume set. Concerning the Fourth Gospel, additional help may be had
from Trench's Synonyms of the New Testament and Earle's Word Meanings
in the New Testament. A model of such doctrinal study can be found in
M. Tenney's volume Galatians, the Charter of Christian Liberty where he
employs several methods of Bible study.
Whenever the student looks for background studies on John, articles in
the Zondervan Pictorial Bible Dictionary and the more recent International
Bible Encyclopedia (vol. 2) will give a thorough grasp of the development of
this Gospel, its characteristics, authorship, date, relationship to the other
Gospels, and purpose. Alternative solutions to critical questions are proposed
in both works. Seminal studies in this Gospel may be found in W. Graham
Scroggie's Guide to the Gospels and in Morris' Studies in the Fourth Gospel.
An example of a detailed study is to be found in Bargen's Bread from
Heaven, an exegetical study of the concept of Manna in this Gospel. A recent
doctrinal study of interest is Gruenler's The Trinity in the Gospel of John.
Even if one does not share all the author's conclusions, this study points one in
the direction of how John can be studied doctrinally.
When looking for devotional studies in this Gospel, the reprint of J. C.
Macaulay's Expository Commentary provides a homiletical outline in each of
its 57 chapters and includes helpful illustrations. M. Boice has a multi-volumed
expositional set on John. The material is largely homiletical and often evange-
listic; the reader is challenged spiritually in each chapter. A helpful example
of the devotional-expositional method is presented in the reprint of Rainsford's
work on John 17, Our Lord Prays for His Own. This book of 476 pages is
profitable for study and private meditation.
Of course, it is best to study any book of the Bible by direct study of the
text, with appeal to reference works whenever necessary. Concordances,
Bible dictionaries, word study helps, volumes dealing with geography, his-
Bums: COMMENTING ON COMMENTARIES 187
torical background, and biblical customs will greatly enhance the first-hand
study of the Word of God. Once these resources have been used, it is time to
open up new lines of study and to provide confirmation through the employ-
ment of commentaries and periodical articles selected from an Index to
Religious Periodical Literature. At times, a study guide like those on John by
Jensen or Kysar will reinforce the unity of the book studied.
The following four commentaries have been specifically chosen for dis-
cussion because they are usable by everyone, their cost is not prohibitive,
they have verse-by-verse exposition of the Greek text, and they are not
conditioned by severe and unsympathetic methodologies that are destructive
to confidence in the Bible. It needs to be emphasized that there are many
books and commentaries that are useful to a certain readership, some of them
are extremely technical, others, purposefully simplistic in their treatment of
the Gospel of John. These four selected books have extensive bibliographies
which will guide the advanced student for further study.
R. Beasley-Murray, John. Word Bible Commentary. Vol. 3.
The academic exposure under which the author grew (Dodd, Gardner-
Smith), his reading sources (Hoskyns, Schlatter, Brown, Bultmann and Barrett),
and the range of his preparation (attested by the tables of abbreviations) give
promise of a most useful commentary.
His introduction of 60 pages deal with the usual matters related to the
nature of this Gospel, its origin in literature, tradition and religion, authorship,
date and place of writing, its theology, purpose and structure. The author
gives us the benefit of his study of a wide range of writers. His observations
regarding the relation of the terms "sign" and "work" are informative (p. xi)
as is his discussion of sources surrounding this Gospel and its preaching
(p. xlii) by the whole church (p. xliv).
The authorship of the Gospel is in Beasley-Murray's mind anonymous,
the uncertainty of identity not affecting the authority of the message. He
refers to the unknown Beloved Disciple as the messenger of a tradition which
Beasley-Murray’s position that in addition to Christology, the theology of
the book features soteriology and eschatology is well taken and ably demon-
strated, including a suggestive list of 22 ways in which Jesus is confessed and
described in John's Gospel. Beasley-Murray's interest centers more on the
eschatological contents of John's Gospel than its soteriology. His treatment
of the structure lacks theological cohesion, being built around three features:
the Prologue, the Public Ministry of Jesus, and the Passion and Resurrection
of Jesus. Each sub-segment of the outline carries a well-chosen special
There are 25 sections in the commentary. Each section begins with a
specific, detailed bibliography and is followed by a fresh translation of the
verses in that segment. The reader will not always agree with certain points in
translation. It would be best to compare any verse in question with other
translations and other commentaries. A case in point is John 1:4 where
Beasley-Murray's translation is, "What has come into being had its life in
188 CRISWELL THEOLOGICAL REVIEW
him." The explanation in a footnote does not address the first clause. One
might question the translation in v 5 by the word "grasp" and the rendering of
the participle "by coming" in v 9. The word "children" is still a better
rendering of the Greek idea than "son" (v 12). So, though the translation is
quite adequate, it needs to be compared with well-accepted translations for
the sake of certainty.
The author's treatment of the literary structure of the Prologue is very
helpful, especially his comparison of the Greek and Hebrew terms for "word."
It is apparent throughout the commentary that he has come to grips with the
significant literature on the Fourth Gospel. An illustration of this concerns his
treatment of the
meaning and use of the word "sign," Beasley-Murray's comments are very
informative. His treatment of the
student may not sympathize with the author's conclusions regarding source
criticism (see p. 71) or his judgment about 7:53-8:11 but the comments will
familiarize the reader with problems and prepared solutions. An example of
this is found in the comments of chap 11, especially in connection with 11:25-
26. His handling of the problems of chap 12, and especially his translation of
the early part of chap 13, is indicative of the author's range of ability. The
same helpfulness is exhibited in his handling of the word "abide" in chap 15.
Though Beasley-Murray does not deal with the theological problems that
most readers will encounter in this chapter, he does supply information that
can help one refocus on the interpretation of the text. Likewise, he provides a
helpful treatment of the trial of Jesus and an interesting sidelight on Pilate's
character (pp. 332-34). There is a helpful chronology of the events of Jesus'
arrest, examination, trials, passion and burial (p. 321); his c.omments on "It is
finished" are well taken (19:30).
Beasley-Murray provides close to 50 pages on the resurrection and post-
resurrection ministry of Jesus. The reader will wish that even more space
could have been given to this section of the book which often is treated too
briefly by commentators.
This up-to-date commentary will stimulate your imagination in Bible
study. As in others of his books, he has given us a work that will be in-
dispensible in the study of the Fourth Gospel.
Tenney, Merrill C. "The Gospel of John" in The Expositor's Bible Com-
9. Ed. F. E. Gaebelein.
This commentary series has replaced many other sets for a large segment
of Bible students. It combines general exposition with notes for further study.
Each book has an introduction, bibliography, and at least one map, following
an outline. The translation found at the head of each portion of the outline is
the NIV. The author has been Professor of Bible and
College and is now Emeritus.
The pages given to the study of John are about one-half of the number in
Beasley-Murray's volume. The approach in the introduction is more general
than that of the previous commentary. Although the bibliography is quite
brief, the author has utilized a broader scope of Johannine literature than he
quotes. Some distinctly evangelical authors are listed in the bibliography;
Burns: COMMENTING ON COMMENTARIES 189
these are absent from the Word series. Because of the book's size, most
comments are less extensive; this is also true of the treatment of critical
problems, a number of which are not mentioned in this work. Foreign words
are transliterated for the reader; there are occasional notes referring to Greek
grammar (p. 30) and syntax (p. 34). Contact with the literature of other
religions is mentioned, though not extensively, nor in depth.
The treatment of the Prologue, given the size of the commentary, is quite
brief. Perhaps the author was pledged to accept the NIV translation; at any
rate, he comes to no conclusion about the textual.problem, which, based on
the two most recent Greek editions, should read (at 1:18) "only or uniquely
begotten God." Tenney has an interesting comparison between the days of
the last part of chap 1, and the days of Jesus' last earthly week are worthy of
There should be a full treatment of the word "miraculous sign" at 2:11
but there is not even a footnote, let alone linguistic observations about the
terminology of miracle in the Gospels. There could also be a listing of the
"signs" and their individual significance (p. 68 provides no indication of
Tenney's corrective note on the NIV's "again" (3:3) is well taken. His
definition of "born again" is helpful. The discussion of 3:5 is far from adequate,
especially in view of the theological ramifications involved.
The author's conclusion about the account of the adulterous woman is
basically the same as Beasley-Murray's. Tenney's footnote gives the teacher an
adequate listing of text-critical evidence. There is no discussion of rabbinic
teaching; such would enhance the information one needs to teach this passage.
The connection between John 11:25 and the Pauline statement (1 Thess
4:16-17) is helpful. It does not seem to be important that Jesus' anger could be
directed against unbelief-or even against the revelation of sin's consequences
(11:33-35). The student will be interested in the comparison of the three words
signifying Jesus' feelings in this passage.
Tenney's comments on the chronological problems of chap 13 are a good
summary, though many will want a more extensive marshalling of the
information. Mention is made of the significance of the lateness of Jesus'
intrusion into the course of the Passover meal to wash the disciples' feet (13:2).
His observation that Peter may have been speaking for the disciples in his
protestation is interesting. Also useful is the alternate meaning of the word "cut
off," but he does not explain it in relation to the statement that God,
" . . . removes the dead wood from his church. . ." in 15:2. There is no
chronological pattern provided for the arrest and trials of Jesus, though there is
a brief discussion and a note emphasizing the "word" from the cross, "It is
The comments on chaps 20 and 21 occupy 17 pages. There are notes on
only nine of the verses of these two chapters. The notes on vv five and six and
the note on angels in v 12 provide a few helps not found in the similar works.
There is assistance in the note on page 19 that will qualify as one of the most
informative in the entire volume. It would have been helpful to provide
information about the fish beyond their approximate weight. There is a very
190 CRISWELL THEOLOGICAL REVIEW
brief but suggestive indication of how to render the verb usually translated "we
Tenney's volume is not meant to be in the direction of a full commentary,
but it is one that will render assistance to the Bible student who is not looking
for an in-depth treatment of the text and its problems. This overview of the
Gospel of John will provide a vantage point for those whose needs do not
require a great deal of detailed information, but it may be consulted with profit
by pastors as well as other Bible students.
Bruce, F. F. The Gospel of John, Introduction, Exposition and Notes. Grand
Rapids: Eerdmans, 1983.
The name of the author is well known to students of Pauline and Lukan
studies. This commentary came out of his early retirement years; it is the
outcome of 30 years of study.
Although the book is nearly 450 pages in length, it makes no attempt to be
exhaustive. Its introduction to this Gospel is only 17 pages in length. Its
emphasis is on the Evangelist, his gospel, and the message in the context of the
early church. The outline consists of six major points. Bruce, in his preface,
states he has written for the general Christian reader engaged in serious Bible
study. Since it is not targeted for the professional or specialist, critical questions
are only casually treated. There is a five-page bibliography of English language
works from Westcott to Beasley-Murray. There are 56 notes concerning the
Chap 1 occupies pp. 28-65, with five and one-half pages of notes for
further study. Each verse segment studied is grouped in clusters of one to five
verses. Explanations are brief but provide a responsible, continuous exposition.
Statements are substituted for explanations because of the intended scope but
are a distillation of extensive study of the Johannine literature. An example of
this procedure is illustrated in the study of such ideas as "word" (p. 29), third
day (p. 30) and sign (p. 72).
Having declined to identify Nicodemus with a person named in the
Talmud, Bruce regards Nicodemus an exception to most Pharisees. He bases
this on grammatical considerations as well as the Pharisee's actions. He states
there is no difference between being born from above and born of water and
Spirit. The latter expression is used to remind Jesus' inquirer of OT phrase-
ology. (Ezek 36:27).
The story of the adulterous woman is considered at the close of the
commentary. As is the case with other authors, Bruce considers the account "a
fragment of authentic gospel material not originally included in any of the four
gospels." It is found interspersed in five locations in Luke and John. His
comment that adultery is not committed by one person in solitude (p. 414)
highlights the injustice of this attempt to trap Jesus. Bruce rejects the identifica-
tion of this incident with the one cited in the Gospel according to the Hebrews.
The author specifies Judas as the branch among his disciples which must
be removed; he says in a related connection" . . . it may be implied that his
word is the means used by the Father to perform his work of pruning" (p. 309)
Burns: COMMENTING ON COMMENTATARIES 191
Bruce distinguishes between the sour wine drunk by the soldiers guarding
the crosses and the myrrh mixed wine which was a sedative (p. 373). He makes
a knowledgable comment about the hyssop sponge impaled on a Roman
soldier's weapon. A connection is made between Jesus' cry of accomplishment
and his anticipation of it in 17:4, and there is a concise, illuminating paragraph
about the process of Christ's physical death (p. 375).
The author makes a significant connection between the Spirit imparted by
Jesus (p. 392) and the verb employed in the LXX of Gen 2:7, where, as a
consequence of the impartation, man became a living being, as well as the
reference in Ezek 37:9. Bruce is correct in noting that there is more in the
incident of the great fish catch, "than meets the eye" (p. 402). He calls it a
parable of "their missionary activity." The author correctly recognizes the four
pairs of synonyms in 21:15-17.
This volume is worth much more than its weight as a model of exegetically-
based exposition. No student or professional should consider by-passing this
The Principal of Ridley College,
extensive commentary on the Fourth Gospel. After a few pages of contents,
editor's forward and a one-page author's preface with acknowledgements,
there is a commentary of 930 pages, including 41 pages of indices. There is a
table of abbreviations that doubles as a bibliography.
The introduction to the book is composed of nine sections of three to five
pages each, except for the discussion of authorship which is 22 pages. Of the
four commentaries examined, only this one calls John the Apostle the author
of this Gospel. He posits a pre-A.D. 70 date after a long oral tradition, with
20:31 as the Apostle's statement of purpose-a theological purpose without
distortion of fact or discount of history. His observation about ancient his-
torians and their writing is worth noticing (p. 48). His evaluation of the
evidences for Johannine dependence must be considered; he sees no evidence
of written connection with the Synoptics.
Morris cites an important catalog of those who reject displacement
theories. He also surveys the theories of source criticism applied to John. He
reminds us that the style of this Gospel is uniform, not denying that John
made use of sources at
Hellenistic world of thought, and he is acquainted with the same Christ as
Paul without trace of Paulinism or Gnosticism.
The history of the understanding of 1:7 sheds light on a long-standing
problem of how to deal with the fact that "nothing is outside the range of his
activity in creation and proto-Gnostic claims." Life is one of John's frequently
used terms (36 times). He refers to the recipients of life as "children" of God,
rather than "sons" (1:12). Another correction he makes is at 1:18, where "only
begotten God" is the preferable translation on the basis of impressive textual
In Appendix G (p. 684ff), Morris discusses at length the word "sign" and
sign-structure of John, but he reminds us that signs are purposed to display
192 CRISWELL THEOLOGICAL REVIEW
glory. The interpretations of John 3:5, he reminds us, may be classified in
three main groupings: Purification, Procreation and Water Baptism. His pre-
ference is for the second category. He reminds us that John enjoys using
expressions that can be taken in more than one way.
His consideration of 7:53-8:11 comes in an appendix at the close of this
book (p. 882ff). He does not understand this section as an authentic part of
the Gospel. He reminds us that there are textual variations in addition to the
question of its placement. He concedes that the story is ". . . true to the
character of Jesus" (p. 983) and quite ancient. He recognizes the Pharisees
aim at entrapment first of the woman, then of Jesus.
Jesus gives more than the promise of resurrection and life. He gives
Himself, and He is both resurrection and life. With personal trust in Jesus, a
man will live even though he dies. The life of the age to come may be
experienced now. Morris is the only one of the four commentators to explain
(in the reviewer's mind) the reason for Jesus' weeping. The other instance of
His weeping is also in a context of Jewish unbelief. The verb "to weep" is
only here in the NT, though the cognate noun occurs ten times.
The first footnote in chap 13 reminds us that there are many allusions in
Jesus' Farewell Discourse to Moses's Farewell Discourse in Deuteronomy.
Morris rejects the idea of Judas' heart being entered, preferring with some
others to mean, "the devil made up his mind that Judas. . . ." There is,
however, an altered reading of the text concerning the event that transpired
Morris reminds us of the widespread background of the vine motif in the
OT. He connects the true vine idea to that of the believer in Christ; the
connection is that of vitality between Christ and His own. He is the only one
of the four commentators who directly addresses the theological difficulties in
15:2. The point is that left to itself "a vine will produce a good deal of
unproductive growth, thus pruning is an essential work of the Father."
Attention should be called to an entire series of added notes and ap-
pendices sprinkled through the book. One is at the end of his extensive
treatment of the Roman trial of Jesus--a note on the Last Supper and the
Passover. It explores several of the problems of this subject. His conclusions
about chronology are some of the best features of the book. He concludes the
note by offering some special bibliography.
Morris has an extensive footnote concerning "hyssop." He explains its
connection with the Passover and with the Cross. In chap 19 he refuses a
drink that would have dulled his mind but accepts a different kind that will
moisten his dry throat. Amid suffering there is the thought of Jesus' peaceful
death. His trust in His Father is indicated by the bowing of his head (only in
John); the same expression is used for "going to bed."
The "forgiving" and retaining of sins (20:23) is explained, together with
objections to understanding this as the power of forgiveness of sins of indi-
vidual men. He notes also the importance of the perfect verb tense. The
intention of the text is to remind the entire church that under the leadership of
the Spirit they will express what has already been determined in heaven.
Burns: COMMENTING ON COMMENTARIES 193
Even under Peter's expert organization, the net was too heavy with fish
to be moved. Morris rejects any symbolic meaning to the number of fish
caught, believing there is no actual evidence to support the view. It remains,
however, the only other place (besides the feeding of the multitude) when the
count of fish is provided. The differing views of Jesus' words about Peter's
love is discussed in both text and in footnotes. The author's intent is to show
Peter's restoration has been accomplished.
Certainly this is the best extended treatment of the Fourth Gospel, just as
Bruce's work is the best shorter commentary.
Selected Bibliography on the Gospel of John
William. The Gospel of
John. 2 vols.
C. K. The Gospel
Beasley-Murray, George R. "John." Word Biblical Commentary. Volume 36.
J. H. The Gospel
T & T Clark, 1928.
Blank, J. The Gospel According to
Blum, Ed. "John." The Bible Knowledge Commentary. Edited by J. Walvoord
Boice, James M.
The Gospel of John.
Witness and Revelation
in the Gospel of John.
Bonneau, N. R. "The Woman at the Well: John 4 and Genesis 24." The Bible
Today 67 (1973) 1~2-59.
Bowman, John. "The Fourth Gospel and the Samaritans." BJRL 40 (1958)
Raymond E. The
Community of the Beloved Disciple.
_______. The Gospel According to John. 2 vols. AB. Garden City: Doubleday,
_______. “Incidents That are Units in the Synoptic Gospels, but Dispersed in
_______."The Passion According to John: Chapters 18 and 19." Worship 49
F. F. The Gospel of
Bultmann, Rudolf. The Gospel of John. Trans. G. R. Beasley-Murray. Phila-
John. The Gospel
Trans. T. H. L. Parker. 2 vols.
Carson, D. A. "Current Source Criticism in the Fourth Gospel: Some Metho-
dological Questions." JBL 97 (1978) 111-29.
Divine Sovereignty and
194 CRISWELL THEOLOGICAL REVIEW
________. “Historical Tradition in the Fourth Gospel: After Dodd, What?"
Gospel Perspectives. Edited by J. Wenham and R. France.
JSNT Press (1981) 83-145.
________. “Understanding Misunderstanding in the Fourth Gospel." TynBul 33
Collins, R. F. “The Representative Figures of the Fourth Gospel.” The Down-
side Review 94 (1976) 26-46, 118-32.
Connick, C. M. “The Dramatic Character of the Fourth Gospel.” JBL 67
Robert. Theology of
F. L., ed. Studies in the Fourth Gospel.
Cullmann, Oscar. The
Early Disciples and in Early
_________. Early Christian Worship. Trans. by A. S. Todd and J. B. Torrence.
Culpepper, R. Alan. Anatomy of the Fourth Gospel: A Study in Literary
________. "The Pivot of John's Prologue." NTS 27 (1980) 1-31.
C. H. Historical Tradition in the Fourth
Interpretation of the
Paul D. Irony in the Fourth Gospel.
Dunn, James D. G. "The Washing of the Disciples' Feet in John 13:1-20."
ZNW 61 (1970) 246-52.
H. E. The Disciple Who
Wrote These Things.
Epp, E. J. "Wisdom, Torah, Word: The Johannine Prologue and the Purpose
of the Fourth Gospel." Current Issues in Biblical and Patristic Interpreta-
J. C. The Gospel
According to John. NCIB.
J. A. The Fourth
Fortna, R. T. The Gospel of Signs. SNTSMS.
Freed, E. D. "Samaritan Influence in the Gospel of John." CBQ 30 (1968) 580-87.
Gaebelein, A. C. The Gospel of John.
Gardner-Smith, P. St. John and the Synoptic Gospels.
Giblin, C. H. "Suggestion, Negative Response, and Positive Action in St.
John's Portrayal of Jesus (John 2:1-11; 4:46-56; 7:2-14; 11:1-44)" NTS 26
Godet, Frederick. Commentary on the Gospel of
T & T Clark, 1899-1900.
Haenchen, Ernst. A Commentary on the Gospel of John. 2 vols. Hermeneia.
Burns: COMMENTING ON COMMENTARIES 195
________. "History and Interpretation in the Johannine Passion Narrative." Int
24 (1970) 198-219.
Headlam, A. C. The Fourth Gospel as History.
Hendricksen, William. Exposition of the Gospel According to John. 2 vols.
H. H. An Exposition of
the Gospel of John.
Hoskyns, E. C. The Fourth Gospel.
Howard, W. F. "The Gospel According to John." Interpreter's Bible. Nash-
ville: Abingdon, 1952.
and P. Visoray. The Gospel According to
William. "John." Broadman Bible Commentary.
A. M. The Gospel
According to John.
Jonge, Marinus de. "Nicodemus and Jesus. Some Observations on Misunder-
standing and Understanding in the Fourth Gospel." BJRL 53 (1971)
Kasemann, Ernst. The Testament of Jesus: A Study of the Fourth Gospel in
Light of Chapter 17. Trans. G. Krodel.
Kent, Homer A. Light in the Darkness: Studies in the Gospel of John. Grand
Rapids: Baker, 1974.
Kysar, Robert. "Community and Gospel: Vectors in the Fourth Gospel Criti-
cism." Int 31 (1977) 355-66.
________. The Fourth Evangelist and His Gospel: An Examination of Contem-
Leon-Defour, Xavier. "For A Symbolic
27 (1981) 439-56.
Lightfoot, R. H.
versity Press, 1956.
Lindars, Barnabas. Behind the Fourth Gospel.
The Gospel of John.
MacRae, George W. Invitation to John: A Commentary on the Gospel of
________. "The Fourth Gospel and Religionsgeschichte." CBQ 32 (1970) 13-24.
Manson, T. W. "The Fourth Gospel" BJRL 30 (1946-47) 312-29.
Marsh, John. The Gospel of John. The Pelican Gospel Commentaries. Balti-
more: Penguin Books, 1968.
Martyn, J. Louis, "Glimpses into the History of the J ohannine Community"
The Gospel of John in Christian History.
History and Theology in
the Fourth Gospel.
Meeks, Wayne A. "The Man from Heaven in Johannine Sectarianism" JBL 41
________. The Prophet-King: Moses Traditions and the Johannine Christology.
Metzger, Bruce M."On the Translation of John 1:1" EvT 63 (1951) 125.
196 CRISWELL THEOLOGICAL REVIEW
Moloney, Francis J. "From Cana to Cana (John 2:1-4:54) and the Fourth
Evangelist's Concept of Correct (and Incorrect) Faith" Salesianum 40
The Gospel According to
Negrey, J. H. "Jacob Traditions and the Interpretation of John 4:10-26" CBQ
41 (1979) 419-37.
Newbigin, Leslie. The Light Has Come: An Exposition of the Fourth Gospel.
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