Bibliotheca Sacra 139 (1982) 330-341.
Copyright © 1982 by
Selected Studies from 1 Peter
Counsel for Christ's Under-
Shepherds: An Exposition of
1 Peter 5:1-4
Therefore, I exhort the elders among you, as your fellow-elder
and witness of the sufferings of Christ, and a partaker also of the
glory that is to be revealed, shepherd the flock of God among you,
not under compulsion, but voluntarily, according to the will of God:
and not for sordid gain, but with eagerness; nor yet as lording it over
those allotted to your charge, but proving to be examples to the
flock. And when the Chief Shepherd appears. you will receive the
unfading crown of glory (1 Pet. 5:1-4, NASB).
In these four verses Peter offers loving counsel to the leaders
of the afflicted believers living in five Roman provinces in what is
concluding paragraph (5:1-11) of this practical epistle.
The opening "Therefore" (ou#n) indicates a logical thought
connection with what has gone before. This particle is omit-
ted in the Textus Receptus, perhaps because this concluding
paragraph of the epistle proper does not seem to be an obvious
deduction from what has just been said, as "therefore" seem-
ingly suggests. If it is omitted, 5:1-11 may be viewed as an
appropriate summary of the author's ethical appeals to his
readers. But modern textual editors agree in accepting it as the
original reading.1 Then, in keeping with the inferential force
of the particle, it is generally viewed as constituting, in effect,
an expansion on "doing what is right" (e]n a]gaqopoii<%), the
concluding words of the preceding paragraph (4:19).
In these words of counsel to Christian leaders Peter names
the recipients of his appeal (v. la), identifies the person making
Counsel for Christ's Under-Shepherds: An Exposition of 1 Peter 5:1-4 331
the appeal (v. lb), concisely designates the duty of the elders (v.
2a), underlines the motives that must govern their work (vv.
2b-3), and points to the reward awaiting the faithful under-
shepherds (v. 4).
The Recipients of the Appeal
The words "I exhort the elders among you" (v. la) identify
the specific group now addressed. "The elders" (presbute<rouj)
stands prominently first in the sentence. But "among you"(e]n
u[mi?n) — the churches addressed — makes clear that he is
addressing them in their relation to the churches. Each of the
churches had one or more "elders" in their midst. The context
establishes that "elders" is used in an official sense, but from
verse 5 it is clear that the term retains something of its original
sense of age, "one older than another" (Luke 15:25). The term
does not imply "advanced age but merely establishes seniority."2
Whenever the New Testament refers to these officers, it con-
sistently pictures a plurality of elders in the local church (Acts
14:23; 20:17, 28; Phil. 1:1; 1 Thess. 5:12; James 5:14). There is
no account of the institution of the office of elder in the New
Testament church; when first mentioned it was already in exis-
tence in the
church leadership was obviously drawn from the Jewish syna-
gogue. On their first missionary journey Paul and Barnabas
followed that pattern in organizing their recently established
Gentile churches (Acts 14:23). The designation was well known
in the Greco-Roman world as applied to leaders in civic as well as
religious associations.3 This simple terminology is consistent
with the early date of the epistle. Peter was well aware that in time
of persecution much depended on the prudence and fidelity of
"I exhort" (parakalw?), not "I command," marks Peter's atti-
tude in addressing these leaders. He does not stress his own
authority but rather appeals to their own sense of what is right.
He avoids any implication of the imposition of a higher authority
but uses instead the method of spiritual persuasion.
The Person Making the Appeal
The writer identifies himself "as your fellow-elder and wit-
ness of the sufferings of Christ, and a partaker also of the glory
332 Bibliotheca Sacra — October-December 1982
that is to be revealed" (v. 1b). In form it is a double appositional
expansion of the "I" in the verb "exhort." This intimate self-
identification adds to the persuasiveness of the appeal. Aside
from his name in 1:1, the writer's identity appears more forceful-
ly here than anywhere else in the epistle. Modestly, his apostolic
identity is not asserted. This fact has been appealed to by both
opponents and proponents of Petrine authorship. Beare, who
rejects apostolic authorship, sees in this self-identification "the
apparatus of pseudepigraphy" and insists that it "would ill be-
come Peter himself, but is perfectly natural in the language of
another man writing in his name.''4 Polkinghorne replies, "Sure-
ly, however, a forger would most certainly have stressed aposto-
licity: otherwise there would be little purpose in using Peter's
name, so that the omission is actually favourable to Petrine
authorship."5 This writer agrees. This self-description shows
"that what Peter here urges upon elders he exemplifies in his own
life and office."6
The designation "your fellow-elder" (o[ sumpresbu<teroj), "the
fellow-elder," occurs only here in the New Testament and places
the writer on a level with the elders being addressed. "He is not
speaking down to them as a superior to inferiors."7 In calling
himself an "elder" Peter doubtless was thinking of the commis-
sion given him by the risen Lord to shepherd His flock (John
21:15-17). The Apostle John also called himself "the elder" (2
John 1; 3 John 1), and Papias (ca. A.D. 60-130) wrote of John as
an elder and of the other apostles as elders.8 The apostolic office
included the work of the elders, although it was much wider in
extent. "What the elders were for the individual congregations,
that were the apostles for the whole church.”9 Peter thus indi-
cates that he "personally felt the responsibilities, and from ex-
perience knew the difficulties, of an elder."10
As fellow-elder he is also a "witness of the sufferings of
Christ." "And" connects his position with his experience as a
"witness" (ma<rtuj). 'The term does not denote a spectator but one
who testifies to sornething. He gave testimony concerning "the
sufferings of Christ" (tw?n tou? Xristou? paqhma<twn), the sufferings
which the Messiah Himself endured (cf. 4:13). "Witness" may
mean either an eyewitness or more generally one who bears
testimony to what he accepts as true. If the writer is Peter, the
natural meaning is that he was an eyewitness of Christ's suffer-
ings. The following description of himself as "a partaker also of
the glory that is to be revealed" clearly points to the idea of
Counsel for Christ's Under-Shepherds: An Exposition of 1 Peter 5:1-4 333
personal experience. In the light of Acts 1:8, 22 the term implies
an apostolic witness. It is in the sense of a personal eyewitness
that Peter uses this term in Acts 2:32; 3:15; 5:32; 10:39. The
thought of the Messiah suffering was at one time very distasteful
to Peter (Matt. 16:22), but he has himself seen those sufferings
and it is now his task to bear witness to their reality and signifi-
cance. He has done so repeatedly in this epistle (1:11; 2:21: 3:18:
Opponents of Petrine authorship point out that the Gospels
do not mention Peter as personally present at the Crucifixion.
The same is also true of the rest of the Twelve, except John. Yet
Peter, as well as others of the Twelve, may well have been among
"all His acquaintances" who observed the event from afar (Luke
23:49). It is contrary to the structure of Luke's statement to limit
these observers to "a number of women," as Leaney does.11 Peter
certainly did observe the agony of Christ in
Him bound and delivered into the hands of His enemies, and
observed at least some of the injustices heaped on Him in the
court of the high priest. Thus understood, the term is a delicate
reminder of the actual difference between himself and the elders
addressed. His teaching about the sufferings of Christ was
grounded in personal experience.
Those who date the epistle after the death of Peter naturally
find the eyewitness implication unacceptable and insist that the
term here simply means "'one who testifies' ... to what he holds
to be the truth."12 It is held that any implication that he was an
eyewitness is inconsistent with the fact that Peter has just placed
himself on a level with the elders in calling himself a "fellow-
elder." But this supposed difficulty is without force; having
initially identified himself as "an apostle of Jesus Christ" (1:1).
using this term now to underscore the validity of his testimony is
natural. If the writer meant that he, like the elders addressed,
was simply proclaiming the message of Christ's sufferings. it
would have been proper to call himself "a fellow-witness" as
further marking his equality with them. Peter does not say that
he actually shared in the sufferings of the Messiah. but it is true
that he has since then personally suffered for his faith and
testimony. In thus suffering for his Christian witness Peter was
indeed on a level with the elders addressed.
The words, "and a partaker also of the glory that is to be
revealed," is structurally a second appositional description of the
writer. Here Peter identifies himself in relation to the Christian
334 Bibliotheca Sacra — October-December 1982
hope for the future. "And" (kai>) indicates that this eschatological
element is properly a part of the full picture. Suffering and glory
are never far apart in Peter's mind. "Of the about-to-be-revealed
glory" (Greek order) points to a glory whose unveiling is eagerly
anticipated. The reference is not to "the glories of heaven" to be
entered at death, as Barnes suggests,13 but to the unveiling of
Christ's glories at His return to earth. Having witnessed the
sufferings of the Messiah, Peter is assured that the revelation of
the messianic glory will follow (1:11). Of that glory Peter describes
himself as being "a partaker" (koinwno<j, "one who takes part in
something with someone").14 The term implies personal parti-
cipation. Peter had a glimpse of that glory at the Transfiguration
(cf. 2 Pet. 1:16-18), but on that occasion he did not himself
participate in the glory. With his experience of the "living hope''
through the risen Christ (1 Pet. 1:3), he already knows the reality
of rejoicing "with joy inexpressible and full of glory" (1:8), but he
also knows that this new life, already connected with glory in the
soul, awaited its full glorious manifestation at the time of
The Duty to Shepherd the Flock
Peter's exhortation, "Shepherd the flock of God among you"
(v. 2a), tersely portrays the work of the elders under the familiar
shepherd imagery. This shepherd-sheep relation, describing the
spiritual task of the leaders of God's people, involves "the twofold
function of control and devotion."15 The command, "shepherd"
(poima<nate), includes all that is involved in the work of the
shepherd: guiding and guarding, feeding and folding. The aorist
command conveys a sense of urgency. It "calls upon the elders to
have their official life as a unity characterized by the spirit of
devotion to service."16
They must devote themselves to "the flock of God among
you." "Flock" (poi<mnion) as a singular noun depicts the unity of
the Christian church. It is a diminutive form, "the little flock" (cf.
Luke 12:32), but the force of the diminutive cannot be pressed.17
Its use here and in verse 3 apparently expresses endearment.
God" designates this flock "as belonging, not to the elders who
tend it, but to God as His peculiar property."19 "Among you" (e]n
u[mi?n), placed attributively between the article and the noun,
points to the character of the flock in the presence of the
Counsel for Christ's Under-Shepherds: An Exposition of 1 Peter 5:1-4 335
shepherds. They are not absentee lords, but are shepherds
actively working with the flock around them.
The Authorized Version, following the Textus Receptus, has
the further words, "taking the oversight thereof" (e]piskopou?ntej),
a further characterization of the work of the elders. This partici-
ple is present in the majority of the Greek manuscripts and in all
the early versions, but some important manuscripts omit it.
Modern textual critics debate whether it is to be accepted as
authentic.20 This writer accepts it as most probably original. It is
especially appropriate in introducing what follows and is fully in
keeping with Peter's fondness for participles.
The participle expands on the manner in which the elders
are to carry out their assignment of shepherding the flock. The
verb means "to oversee, to care for"; it depicts the pastoral func-
tion of overseeing or caring for those under their supervision.
The noun is commonly rendered "bishop" or "overseer." This
indicates that as yet no difference between "elders" and
"bishops" had developed when this letter was written. In the New
Testament these two terms are used interchangeably of the same
men (Acts 20:17-28; Titus 1:5-7). "Elder" points to the mature
age which qualified the individual for the office; "bishop" (over-
seer) indicates that the duties of the office involve spiritual over-
The Motives of the Elders
Peter, keenly aware that motives are important in the service
of the Lord, sets forth three adverbial modifiers, each negatively
and positively stated, to guide the work of the elders. He touches
on three common vices in Christian service with their alternative
PERSONAL ATTITUDE TOWARD THE WORK (v. 2b)
Negatively, the elder must do his work "not under compul-
sion" (mh> a]nagkastw?j), an adverbial form appearing only here in
the New Testament. He should not occupy the office as a reluc-
tant draftee, doing an irksome task because he feels he cannot
escape it. Such a feeling may arise out of "a false sense of un-
worthiness, a reluctance for responsibility, or a desire to do no
more than was morally required in the office."21 Such feelings are
unworthy of one called to sacred service. But in 1 Corinthians
9:16 Paul mentions a proper sense of compulsion, the constraint
336 Bibliotheca Sacra — ctober-December 1982
of God's sovereign will for one's life, which is to be accepted
willingly and wholeheartedly.
Positively, one motivated by such a sense of compulsion will
do the work "voluntarily" (e[kousi<wj), deliberately and inten-
tionally as a matter of free will. like a volunteer who delights to do
the work. Love for the Lord and His work prompts willing service.
The words “according to the will of God” (kata> qeo<n) are to be
taken closely with "voluntarily." They are not in the Textus Re-
ceptus, represented by the Authorized Version. This preposition-
al phrase is not found in some uncials, nor in most minuscule
manuscripts, but it does appear in various early Greek manu-
scripts and different versions.22 Textual editors are not agreed
but generally accept the words as authentic.23 They were probably
omitted by the scribes who found difficulty in understanding the
precise import of the phrase. It can, by expansion, be understood
to mean "according to the will of God.” Then the meaning is that
the elder must be obedient to what he knows to be God's will for
him. But more probably the preposition (kata>) is to be taken in
its familiar force of indicating a standard or model (cf. 1:15: 4:6)
"according to God," that is, "just as God shepherds His flock."24
Cranfield remarks that the meaning is best illustrated "in the
whole-heartedness of the Chief Shepherd himself, who could say,
‘My meat is to do the will of him that sent me. and to accomplish
PERSONAL PROFIT FROM THE WORK (v. 2b)
"And not for sordid gain, but with eagerness" raises the
matter of deriving personal gain from Christian service. "Not for
sordid gain" (mhde> ai]sxrokerdw?j), another adverb occurring
only here in the New Testament, means "fondness for dishonest
gain," gain procured in a base and avaricious manner, produc-
ing shame if uncovered. This does not prohibit the elder from
receiving a fair return for honest toil. Peter, like Paul, accepted
the ordinance of Christ that ""the laborer is worthy of his wages"
(Luke 10:7: 1 Tim. 5:18). But Peter is warning against taking up
the work because of a desire for material gain, "it being a shame-
ful thing for a shepherd to feed the sheep out of love to the
fleece.”26 It is a warning against a sordid preoccupation with
material advantages. To enter the ministry simply because it
offers a respectable and intellectually stimulating way of gaining
a livelihood is to prostitute that sacred work. This warning also
includes the temptation to use the work of the ministry to gain
Counsel for Christ's Under-Shepherds: An Exposition of 1 Peter 5:1-4 337
personal popularity or social influence. When a love for gain
reigns, the shepherds are prone to become mere hirelings, feed-
ing themselves at the expense of the flock.
The antidote to this evil is serving "with eagerness"
(proqu<mwj, "eagerly," or "zealously"), doing so with inward de-
light. The desire to serve must precede any consideration of
PERSONAL RELATION TO THE PEOPLE (v.3)
The third indication of motives, "nor yet as lording it over
those allotted to your charge, but proving to be examples to the
flock," concerns the elder's personal relation to his people. Peter
now uses two participles with adverbial force to depict the wrong
and the right relationship.
The warning to the elders not to act "as lording it over" (mhd ]
w[j katakurieu<ontej) the people implies that they did exercise a
real authority in the congregations; the subtle danger was the
temptation to misuse that authority. "As" implies the assump-
tion of a position that was not proper. The compound verb pic-
tures the scene: the simple verb kurieu<w means "to control, rule,
to be lord or master of," while the preposition kata> ("down")
indicates intensity and depicts a heavy-handed use of authority
for personal aggrandizement, manifesting itself in the desire to
dominate and accompanied by a haughty demand for com-
pliance. Jesus directly condemned such abuse of authority
among His followers (Matt. 20:25-27; Mark 10:42-44). The tragic
impact of such an attitude is illustrated by the account of Dio-
trephes in 3 John 9-10. All genuine rule in the church is in no
sense a lordship but an administration of Christ's lordship by
His willing servants.
The people subjected to this abuse of authority are desig-
nated as "those allotted to your charge" (tw?n klh<rwn). This noun
literally means "a lot," and then "that which is assigned by lot," a
portion or share of something. The plural, "the portions," refers
to the various congregations which in God's providential
arrangement have been allotted to different groups of elders. The
allotment implies responsibility; God has assigned the various
portions of His precious possession to their personal care. Elders
thus ought not think they can do with their allotted portion as
"But" (a]lla>), marking a contrast, introduces the true rela-
tionship of the elders to their people: "proving to be examples to
338 Bibliotheca Sacra — October-December 1982
the flock" (tu<poi gino<menoi tou? poimni<ou, literally, "patterns [or
models] becoming of the flock"). Instead of domineering lords,
they themselves must be models their people can follow. As spir-
itual shepherds they must lead, not drive.
"Proving to be" (gino<menoi) implies conscious effort, for the
verb suggests a process of ever more fully becoming worthy exam-
ples. Each of them as an elder "must stand out as a distinct
representative of the unseen Master to whom he and his people
must be conformed."27 Although each elder works directly with
only a portion of the whole flock, the singular noun "the flock"
recalls the spiritual unity of all of God's people. Their "tyranniz-
ing could only apply to the portion over which their authority
extended, but the good example would be seen and followed by
the whole church."28
The Reward of the Faithful Under-Shepherds
"And when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the
unfading crown of glory" (v. 4). "And" (kai>) indicates simple
sequence. The leaders' faithful fulfilling of the negative and posi-
tive injunctions set forth in verses 2b-3 will be followed by God's
bestowal of a reward. The prospect of the future must have its
impact on their performance in the present. The difficulties of
their work, as well as their awareness of their own inadequacies
and failures, will often discourage the most prudent; but "to
prevent the faithful servant of Christ from being cast down, there
is this one and only remedy, to turn his eyes to the coming of
"When the Chief Shepherd appears," a genitive absolute
construction, sets forth the time and circumstances for the
bestowal of the reward. "Appears" (fanerwqe<ntoj), an aorist pas-
sive participle, denotes a single event, the second coming of
Christ: when He "has been made manifest, has become visible"
in open splendor. In 1 Peter 1:20 this verb was used of Christ's
appearing at His first advent (cf. 1 Tim. 3:16; Heb. 9:26; 1 John
1:2). Here the reference is to His second coming (cf. Col. 3:4;
1 John 2:25; 3:2b). The elders' reward from the returning Lord
will involve their open vindication before a Christ-rejecting
Christ will return as "the Chief Shepherd" (tou?
a]rxipoi<menoj, "the Arch-Shepherd"), a designation occurring
only here in the New Testament. The term, once thought to be
Counsel for Christ's Under-Shepherds: An Exposition of 1 Peter 5:1-4 339
Peter's own coinage, has been found on an Egyptian mummy
label in the sense of "master-shepherd."30 As the "Chief
Shepherd" Christ is in charge of the entire flock and all the elders
are under-shepherds whose work will be evaluated and rewarded
Peter assured the elders that when Christ appears "you will
receive the unfading crown of glory." "You" is left unrestricted,
thus assuming that the elders being exhorted will faithfully per-
form their duties. The verb "will receive" (komiei?sqe) conveys the
thought of getting something for oneself and carrying it off as
wages or a prize. In that coming Day they will joyfully carry away
as their own "the unfading crown of glory." The promised
"crown" is not the kingly or imperial "crown" (dia<dhma), the
badge of sovereignty (Rev. 12:3; 19:12), but rather the "crown"
(ste<fanoj), the "wreath" or "garland" used on various nonimpe-
rial occasions. The term was used of "the crown of victory in the
games, of civic worth, of military valour, of nuptial joy, of festive
gladness."31 Woven of perishable materials, they were used to
celebrate occasion of joy or victory. The scene here envisioned
may be the festive occasion of a banquet or the crowning after
struggle for victorious achievement. For Peter's readers the
crowning which concluded the athletic contests would readily
come to mind. This picture is in keeping with the context.
Two modifiers, placed attributively between the article and
the noun (to>n a]mara<ntinon th?j do<chj ste<fanon), further describe
the nature of this crown. The adjective rendered "unfading"
(a]mara<ntinon) occurs only here in the New Testament. It differs
slightly from the adjective rendered "will not fade away"
(a]ma<ranton) in 1 Peter 1:4. The use of this variant form
suggests that a somewhat different meaning is intended here.
The form used in 1:4 points to a quality that will not fade away;
the term. here, using the suffix -inon, points rather to the material
from which the thing is made. Then the crown is described as
"made of amaranth," a flower whose unfading quality was the
symbol of immortality. In contrast to the flowers of this world,
the crown itself is made of material which never loses its beauty
The crown is further characterized as "of glory" (th?j do<chj);
the genitive is appositional, identifying its material; the crown
consists of "the [heavenly] glory." After His own suffering, Christ
was "crowned with glory and honor" (Heb. 2:9); He will reward
His faithful under-shepherds in having them share in His own
340 Bibliotheca Sacra — October-December 1982
unfading glory. Clearly Peter believes that the prospect of a glo-
rious future must motivate faithfulness in the present. Prophetic
truth is indeed practical!
1 Brooke Foss Westcott and Fenton John Anthony Hort, The New Testament in
the Original Greek (New York: Macmillan Co., 1935); Alexander Souter, Novum
Testamentum Graece, 2d ed. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1962); Erwin Nestle and
Aland, 24th ed., Novum Testamentum Graece
Society n.d.): Kurt Aland, et al.. eds., 3d ed., The Greek New Testament (New
Being the Text
Translated in the New English Bible 1961 (
University Press, 1964).
2 E. M. Blaiklock, First Peter: A Translation and Devotional Commentary
(Waco, TX: Word Books Publisher, 1977), p. 103.,
3 James Hope Moulton and George Milligan, The Vocabulary of the Greek
from the Papyri and Other Non-Literary Sources (
Hodder & Stoughton, 1952), p. 535; William Barclay, The Letters of James and
Peter, The Daily Study Bible, 2d ed. (Edinburgh: Saint Andrew Press, 1960),
4 Francis Wright Beare, The First Epistle of Peter: The Greek Text with Intro-
duction and Notes (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1970), p. 198.
5 G. J. Polkinghorne, "The First Letter of Peter," in A New Testament Commen-
tary, ed. G. C. D. Rowley (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. 1969),
6 R. C. H. Lenski, The Interpretation of the Epistles of St.
Jude (Columbus, Ohio: Lutheran Book Concern, 1938), p. 220.
7 Wm. C. Waltemyer, "The First Epistle of Peter," in New Testament Commen-
tary, ed. Herbert C. Allernan (
8 As quoted in Eusebius Pamphilus, The Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius
Pamphilus, trans. C. F. Cruse (London: George Bell & Sons, 1897), 3:39.
9 Joh. Ed. Huther, "Critical and Exegetical Handbook to the General Epistles of
Peter and Jude," in Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New
Testament (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1881), p. 230.
10 Robert Johnstone, The First Epistle of Peter: Revised Text, with Introduc-
tion and Commentary (1888; reprint ed.,
tian Publishers, 1978), p. 379.
11 A. R. C. Leaney,
"The Letters of Peter and Jude," in The
Commentary, New English Bible (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1967),
12 Beare, The First Epistle of Peter, p. 198.
13 Albert Barnes, Barnes' Notes on the New Testament (reprint ed., Grand
Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1962), p. 1433.
14 William F. Arndt and F. Wilbur Gingrich, A Greek-English Lexicon of the
New Testament and Other
Early Christian Literature (
15 James Moffatt, The General Epistles, James, Peter, and Judas, The
Moffatt New Testament Commentary (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1928), pp.
16 Johnstone, The First Epistle of Peter, p. 382.
Counsel for Christ's Under-Shepherds: An Exposition of 1 Peter 5:1-4 341
17 Moulton and Milligan, The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament, p. 524.
18 Joseph Bryant Rotherham, The Emphasized New Testament (reprint ed.,
19 Huther, "General Epistles of Peter and Jude," p. 232.
20 It is omitted in the Greek texts of Westcott and Hort; Nestle and Aland (24th
ed.); and Tasker. It is included in brackets in the United Bible Societies text (3d
and Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum Graece
lestiftung, 1979) . It is included without brackets in Souter; and in the United
Bible Societies text (1st ed., 1966).
21 David H. Wheaton, " 1 Peter," in The New Bible Commentary, Revised, eds.
D. Guthrie and J. A. Moyter (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1970), p.
22 For the evidence see the United Bible Societies Greek text.
23 The words (kata> qeo<n) were omitted by Westcott and Hort, and by Nestle and
Aland (24th ed.). They appear in the text of Souter; United Bible Societies text;
24 A. F. Mitchell, Hebrews and the General Epistles, The
Testament (London: Andrew Melrose, 1911), pp. 279-80.
25 C. E. B. Cranfield, I & II Peter and Jude: Introduction and Commentary,
Torch Bible Commentaries (London: SCM Press, 1960), pp. 128-29.
26 Matthew Poole, A Commentary on the Holy Bible, vol. 3: Matthew—Reve-
lation (1685; reprint ed.,
27 F. C. Cook, "The First Epistle General of Peter," in The Speaker's Commen-
tary, New Testament, ed. F. C. Cook, 4 vols. (London: John Murray, 1881), 4:216.
28 Henry Alford, The New Testament for English Readers (reprint ed., Chica-
go: Moody Press, n.d.), p. 1966.
29 John Calvin, "The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Hebrews and the First
and Second Epistles of St Peter," Calvin's Commentaries, trans. William B.
30 Moulton and Milligan, The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament, p. 82.
31 Richard Chenevix Trench, Synonyms of the New Testament (1880; reprint
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