Bibliotheca Sacra 139 (1982) 330-341.

          Copyright © 1982 by Dallas Theological Seminary.  Cited with permission.



                                   Selected Studies from 1 Peter

                                                       Part 4:



                   Counsel for Christ's Under-

                   Shepherds: An Exposition of

                                1 Peter 5:1-4



                                             D. Edmond Hiebert



                 Therefore, I exhort the elders among you, as your fellow-elder

            and witness of the sufferings of Christ, and a partaker also of the

            glory that is to be revealed, shepherd the flock of God among you,

            not under compulsion, but voluntarily, according to the will of God:

            and not for sordid gain, but with eagerness; nor yet as lording it over

            those allotted to your charge, but proving to be examples to the

            flock. And when the Chief Shepherd appears. you will receive the

            unfading crown of glory (1 Pet. 5:1-4, NASB).


            In these four verses Peter offers loving counsel to the leaders

of the afflicted believers living in five Roman provinces in what is

today called Asia Minor. They constitute the first section of the

concluding paragraph (5:1-11) of this practical epistle.

            The opening "Therefore" (ou#n) indicates a logical thought

connection with what has gone before. This particle is omit-

ted in the Textus Receptus, perhaps because this concluding

paragraph of the epistle proper does not seem to be an obvious

deduction from what has just been said, as "therefore" seem-

ingly suggests. If it is omitted, 5:1-11 may be viewed as an

appropriate summary of the author's ethical appeals to his

readers. But modern textual editors agree in accepting it as the

original reading.1 Then, in keeping with the inferential force

of the particle, it is generally viewed as constituting, in effect,

an expansion on "doing what is right" (e]n a]gaqopoii<%), the

concluding words of the preceding paragraph (4:19).

            In these words of counsel to Christian leaders Peter names

the recipients of his appeal (v. la), identifies the person making



Counsel for Christ's Under-Shepherds: An Exposition of 1 Peter 5:1-4 331


the appeal (v. lb), concisely designates the duty of the elders (v.

2a), underlines the motives that must govern their work (vv.

2b-3), and points to the reward awaiting the faithful under-

shepherds (v. 4).


                             The Recipients of the Appeal


            The words "I exhort the elders among you" (v. la) identify

the specific group now addressed. "The elders" (presbute<rouj)

stands prominently first in the sentence. But "among you"(e]n

u[mi?n) — the churches addressed — makes clear that he is

addressing them in their relation to the churches. Each of the

churches had one or more "elders" in their midst. The context

establishes that "elders" is used in an official sense, but from

verse 5 it is clear that the term retains something of its original

sense of age, "one older than another" (Luke 15:25). The term

does not imply "advanced age but merely establishes seniority."2

            Whenever the New Testament refers to these officers, it con-

sistently pictures a plurality of elders in the local church (Acts

14:23; 20:17, 28; Phil. 1:1; 1 Thess. 5:12; James 5:14). There is

no account of the institution of the office of elder in the New

Testament church; when first mentioned it was already in exis-

tence in the church of Jerusalem (Acts 11:30). The pattern for

church leadership was obviously drawn from the Jewish syna-

gogue. On their first missionary journey Paul and Barnabas

followed that pattern in organizing their recently established

Gentile churches (Acts 14:23). The designation was well known

in the Greco-Roman world as applied to leaders in civic as well as

religious associations.3 This simple terminology is consistent

with the early date of the epistle. Peter was well aware that in time

of persecution much depended on the prudence and fidelity of

these leaders.

            "I exhort" (parakalw?), not "I command," marks Peter's atti-

tude in addressing these leaders. He does not stress his own

authority but rather appeals to their own sense of what is right.

He avoids any implication of the imposition of a higher authority

but uses instead the method of spiritual persuasion.


                          The Person Making the Appeal


            The writer identifies himself "as your fellow-elder and wit-

ness of the sufferings of Christ, and a partaker also of the glory


332     Bibliotheca Sacra — October-December 1982


that is to be revealed" (v. 1b). In form it is a double appositional

expansion of the "I" in the verb "exhort." This intimate self-

identification adds to the persuasiveness of the appeal. Aside

from his name in 1:1, the writer's identity appears more forceful-

ly here than anywhere else in the epistle. Modestly, his apostolic

identity is not asserted. This fact has been appealed to by both

opponents and proponents of Petrine authorship. Beare, who

rejects apostolic authorship, sees in this self-identification "the

apparatus of pseudepigraphy" and insists that it "would ill be-

come Peter himself, but is perfectly natural in the language of

another man writing in his name.''4  Polkinghorne replies, "Sure-

ly, however, a forger would most certainly have stressed aposto-

licity: otherwise there would be little purpose in using Peter's

name, so that the omission is actually favourable to Petrine

authorship."5 This writer agrees. This self-description shows

"that what Peter here urges upon elders he exemplifies in his own

life and office."6

            The designation "your fellow-elder" (o[ sumpresbu<teroj), "the

fellow-elder," occurs only here in the New Testament and places

the writer on a level with the elders being addressed. "He is not

speaking down to them as a superior to inferiors."7 In calling

himself an "elder" Peter doubtless was thinking of the commis-

sion given him by the risen Lord to shepherd His flock (John

21:15-17). The Apostle John also called himself "the elder" (2

John 1; 3 John 1), and Papias (ca. A.D. 60-130) wrote of John as

an elder and of the other apostles as elders.8  The apostolic office

included the work of the elders, although it was much wider in

extent. "What the elders were for the individual congregations,

that were the apostles for the whole church.”9  Peter thus indi-

cates that he "personally felt the responsibilities, and from ex-

perience knew the difficulties, of an elder."10

            As fellow-elder he is also a "witness of the sufferings of

Christ." "And" connects his position with his experience as a

"witness" (ma<rtuj). 'The term does not denote a spectator but one

who testifies to sornething. He gave testimony concerning "the

sufferings of Christ" (tw?n tou? Xristou? paqhma<twn), the sufferings

which the Messiah Himself endured (cf. 4:13). "Witness" may

mean either an eyewitness or more generally one who bears

testimony to what he accepts as true. If the writer is Peter, the

natural meaning is that he was an eyewitness of Christ's suffer-

ings. The following description of himself as "a partaker also of

the glory that is to be revealed" clearly points to the idea of


Counsel for Christ's Under-Shepherds: An Exposition of 1 Peter 5:1-4            333


personal experience. In the light of Acts 1:8, 22 the term implies

an apostolic witness. It is in the sense of a personal eyewitness

that Peter uses this term in Acts 2:32; 3:15; 5:32; 10:39. The

thought of the Messiah suffering was at one time very distasteful

to Peter (Matt. 16:22), but he has himself seen those sufferings

and it is now his task to bear witness to their reality and signifi-

cance. He has done so repeatedly in this epistle (1:11; 2:21: 3:18:

4:1, 13).

            Opponents of Petrine authorship point out that the Gospels

do not mention Peter as personally present at the Crucifixion.

The same is also true of the rest of the Twelve, except John. Yet

Peter, as well as others of the Twelve, may well have been among

"all His acquaintances" who observed the event from afar (Luke

23:49). It is contrary to the structure of Luke's statement to limit

these observers to "a number of women," as Leaney does.11  Peter

certainly did observe the agony of Christ in Gethsemane, saw

Him bound and delivered into the hands of His enemies, and

observed at least some of the injustices heaped on Him in the

court of the high priest. Thus understood, the term is a delicate

reminder of the actual difference between himself and the elders

addressed. His teaching about the sufferings of Christ was

grounded in personal experience.

            Those who date the epistle after the death of Peter naturally

find the eyewitness implication unacceptable and insist that the

term here simply means "'one who testifies' ... to what he holds

to be the truth."12  It is held that any implication that he was an

eyewitness is inconsistent with the fact that Peter has just placed

himself on a level with the elders in calling himself a "fellow-

elder." But this supposed difficulty is without force; having

initially identified himself as "an apostle of Jesus Christ" (1:1).

using this term now to underscore the validity of his testimony is

natural. If the writer meant that he, like the elders addressed,

was simply proclaiming the message of Christ's sufferings. it

would have been proper to call himself "a fellow-witness" as

further marking his equality with them. Peter does not say that

he actually shared in the sufferings of the Messiah. but it is true

that he has since then personally suffered for his faith and

testimony. In thus suffering for his Christian witness Peter was

indeed on a level with the elders addressed.

            The words, "and a partaker also of the glory that is to be

revealed," is structurally a second appositional description of the

writer. Here Peter identifies himself in relation to the Christian


334     Bibliotheca Sacra — October-December 1982


hope for the future. "And" (kai>) indicates that this eschatological

element is properly a part of the full picture. Suffering and glory

are never far apart in Peter's mind. "Of the about-to-be-revealed

glory" (Greek order) points to a glory whose unveiling is eagerly

anticipated. The reference is not to "the glories of heaven" to be

entered at death, as Barnes suggests,13 but to the unveiling of

Christ's glories at His return to earth. Having witnessed the

sufferings of the Messiah, Peter is assured that the revelation of

the messianic glory will follow (1:11). Of that glory Peter describes

himself as being "a partaker" (koinwno<j, "one who takes part in

something with someone").14 The term implies personal parti-

cipation. Peter had a glimpse of that glory at the Transfiguration

(cf. 2 Pet. 1:16-18), but on that occasion he did not himself

participate in the glory. With his experience of the "living hope''

through the risen Christ (1 Pet. 1:3), he already knows the reality

of rejoicing "with joy inexpressible and full of glory" (1:8), but he

also knows that this new life, already connected with glory in the

soul, awaited its full glorious manifestation at the time of

Christ's return.


                          The Duty to Shepherd the Flock


            Peter's exhortation, "Shepherd the flock of God among you"

(v. 2a), tersely portrays the work of the elders under the familiar

shepherd imagery. This shepherd-sheep relation, describing the

spiritual task of the leaders of God's people, involves "the twofold

function of control and devotion."15 The command, "shepherd"

(poima<nate), includes all that is involved in the work of the

shepherd: guiding and guarding, feeding and folding. The aorist

command conveys a sense of urgency. It "calls upon the elders to

have their official life as a unity characterized by the spirit of

devotion to service."16

            They must devote themselves to "the flock of God among

you." "Flock" (poi<mnion) as a singular noun depicts the unity of

the Christian church. It is a diminutive form, "the little flock" (cf.

Luke 12:32), but the force of the diminutive cannot be pressed.17

Its use here and in verse 3 apparently expresses endearment.

Rotherham translates, "Shepherd the beloved flock of God.''18 "Of

God" designates this flock "as belonging, not to the elders who

tend it, but to God as His peculiar property."19 "Among you" (e]n

u[mi?n), placed attributively between the article and the noun,

points to the character of the flock in the presence of the


Counsel for Christ's Under-Shepherds: An Exposition of 1 Peter 5:1-4 335


shepherds. They are not absentee lords, but are shepherds

actively working with the flock around them.

            The Authorized Version, following the Textus Receptus, has

the further words, "taking the oversight thereof" (e]piskopou?ntej),

a further characterization of the work of the elders. This partici-

ple is present in the majority of the Greek manuscripts and in all

the early versions, but some important manuscripts omit it.

Modern textual critics debate whether it is to be accepted as

authentic.20 This writer accepts it as most probably original. It is

especially appropriate in introducing what follows and is fully in

keeping with Peter's fondness for participles.

            The participle expands on the manner in which the elders

are to carry out their assignment of shepherding the flock. The

verb means "to oversee, to care for"; it depicts the pastoral func-

tion of overseeing or caring for those under their supervision.

The noun is commonly rendered "bishop" or "overseer." This

indicates that as yet no difference between "elders" and

"bishops" had developed when this letter was written. In the New

Testament these two terms are used interchangeably of the same

men (Acts 20:17-28; Titus 1:5-7). "Elder" points to the mature

age which qualified the individual for the office; "bishop" (over-

seer) indicates that the duties of the office involve spiritual over-



                              The Motives of the Elders


            Peter, keenly aware that motives are important in the service

of the Lord, sets forth three adverbial modifiers, each negatively

and positively stated, to guide the work of the elders. He touches

on three common vices in Christian service with their alternative




            Negatively, the elder must do his work "not under compul-

sion" (mh> a]nagkastw?j), an adverbial form appearing only here in

the New Testament. He should not occupy the office as a reluc-

tant draftee, doing an irksome task because he feels he cannot

escape it. Such a feeling may arise out of "a false sense of un-

worthiness, a reluctance for responsibility, or a desire to do no

more than was morally required in the office."21 Such feelings are

unworthy of one called to sacred service. But in 1 Corinthians

9:16 Paul mentions a proper sense of compulsion, the constraint


336     Bibliotheca Sacra — ctober-December 1982


of God's sovereign will for one's life, which is to be accepted

willingly and wholeheartedly.

            Positively, one motivated by such a sense of compulsion will

do the work "voluntarily" (e[kousi<wj), deliberately and inten-

tionally as a matter of free will. like a volunteer who delights to do

the work. Love for the Lord and His work prompts willing service.

The words “according to the will of God” (kata> qeo<n) are to be

taken closely with "voluntarily." They are not in the Textus Re-

ceptus, represented by the Authorized Version. This preposition-

al phrase is not found in some uncials, nor in most minuscule

manuscripts, but it does appear in various early Greek manu-

scripts and different versions.22  Textual editors are not agreed

but generally accept the words as authentic.23 They were probably

omitted by the scribes who found difficulty in understanding the

precise import of the phrase. It can, by expansion, be understood

to mean "according to the will of God.”  Then the meaning is that

the elder must be obedient to what he knows to be God's will for

him. But more probably the preposition (kata>) is to be taken in

its familiar force of indicating a standard or model (cf. 1:15: 4:6)

"according to God," that is, "just as God shepherds His flock."24

Cranfield remarks that the meaning is best illustrated "in the

whole-heartedness of the Chief Shepherd himself, who could say,

‘My meat is to do the will of him that sent me. and to accomplish

his work.’"25



            "And not for sordid gain, but with eagerness" raises the

matter of deriving personal gain from Christian service. "Not for

sordid gain" (mhde> ai]sxrokerdw?j), another adverb occurring

only here in the New Testament, means "fondness for dishonest

gain," gain procured in a base and avaricious manner, produc-

ing shame if uncovered. This does not prohibit the elder from

receiving a fair return for honest toil. Peter, like Paul, accepted

the ordinance of Christ that ""the laborer is worthy of his wages"

(Luke 10:7: 1 Tim. 5:18). But Peter is warning against taking up

the work because of a desire for material gain, "it being a shame-

ful thing for a shepherd to feed the sheep out of love to the

fleece.”26  It is a warning against a sordid preoccupation with

material advantages. To enter the ministry simply because it

offers a respectable and intellectually stimulating way of gaining

a livelihood is to prostitute that sacred work. This warning also

includes the temptation to use the work of the ministry to gain


Counsel for Christ's Under-Shepherds: An Exposition of 1 Peter 5:1-4 337


personal popularity or social influence. When a love for gain

reigns, the shepherds are prone to become mere hirelings, feed-

ing themselves at the expense of the flock.

            The antidote to this evil is serving "with eagerness"

(proqu<mwj, "eagerly," or "zealously"), doing so with inward de-

light. The desire to serve must precede any consideration of

personal profit.



            The third indication of motives, "nor yet as lording it over

those allotted to your charge, but proving to be examples to the

flock," concerns the elder's personal relation to his people. Peter

now uses two participles with adverbial force to depict the wrong

and the right relationship.

            The warning to the elders not to act "as lording it over" (mhd ]

w[j katakurieu<ontej) the people implies that they did exercise a

real authority in the congregations; the subtle danger was the

temptation to misuse that authority. "As" implies the assump-

tion of a position that was not proper. The compound verb pic-

tures the scene: the simple verb kurieu<w means "to control, rule,

to be lord or master of," while the preposition kata> ("down")

indicates intensity and depicts a heavy-handed use of authority

for personal aggrandizement, manifesting itself in the desire to

dominate and accompanied by a haughty demand for com-

pliance. Jesus directly condemned such abuse of authority

among His followers (Matt. 20:25-27; Mark 10:42-44). The tragic

impact of such an attitude is illustrated by the account of Dio-

trephes in 3 John 9-10. All genuine rule in the church is in no

sense a lordship but an administration of Christ's lordship by

His willing servants.

            The people subjected to this abuse of authority are desig-

nated as "those allotted to your charge" (tw?n klh<rwn). This noun

literally means "a lot," and then "that which is assigned by lot," a

portion or share of something. The plural, "the portions," refers

to the various congregations which in God's providential

arrangement have been allotted to different groups of elders. The

allotment implies responsibility; God has assigned the various

portions of His precious possession to their personal care. Elders

thus ought not think they can do with their allotted portion as

they please.

            "But" (a]lla>), marking a contrast, introduces the true rela-

tionship of the elders to their people: "proving to be examples to


338     Bibliotheca Sacra — October-December 1982


the flock" (tu<poi gino<menoi tou? poimni<ou, literally, "patterns [or

models] becoming of the flock"). Instead of domineering lords,

they themselves must be models their people can follow. As spir-

itual shepherds they must lead, not drive.

            "Proving to be" (gino<menoi) implies conscious effort, for the

verb suggests a process of ever more fully becoming worthy exam-

ples. Each of them as an elder "must stand out as a distinct

representative of the unseen Master to whom he and his people

must be conformed."27 Although each elder works directly with

only a portion of the whole flock, the singular noun "the flock"

recalls the spiritual unity of all of God's people. Their "tyranniz-

ing could only apply to the portion over which their authority

extended, but the good example would be seen and followed by

the whole church."28


              The Reward of the Faithful Under-Shepherds


            "And when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the

unfading crown of glory" (v. 4). "And" (kai>) indicates simple

sequence. The leaders' faithful fulfilling of the negative and posi-

tive injunctions set forth in verses 2b-3 will be followed by God's

bestowal of a reward. The prospect of the future must have its

impact on their performance in the present. The difficulties of

their work, as well as their awareness of their own inadequacies

and failures, will often discourage the most prudent; but "to

prevent the faithful servant of Christ from being cast down, there

is this one and only remedy, to turn his eyes to the coming of


            "When the Chief Shepherd appears," a genitive absolute

construction, sets forth the time and circumstances for the

bestowal of the reward. "Appears" (fanerwqe<ntoj), an aorist pas-

sive participle, denotes a single event, the second coming of

Christ: when He "has been made manifest, has become visible"

in open splendor. In 1 Peter 1:20 this verb was used of Christ's

appearing at His first advent (cf. 1 Tim. 3:16; Heb. 9:26; 1 John

1:2). Here the reference is to His second coming (cf. Col. 3:4;

1 John 2:25; 3:2b). The elders' reward from the returning Lord

will involve their open vindication before a Christ-rejecting


            Christ will return as "the Chief Shepherd" (tou?

a]rxipoi<menoj, "the Arch-Shepherd"), a designation occurring

only here in the New Testament. The term, once thought to be


Counsel for Christ's Under-Shepherds: An Exposition of 1 Peter 5:1-4 339


Peter's own coinage, has been found on an Egyptian mummy

label in the sense of "master-shepherd."30 As the "Chief

Shepherd" Christ is in charge of the entire flock and all the elders

are under-shepherds whose work will be evaluated and rewarded

by Him.

            Peter assured the elders that when Christ appears "you will

receive the unfading crown of glory." "You" is left unrestricted,

thus assuming that the elders being exhorted will faithfully per-

form their duties. The verb "will receive" (komiei?sqe) conveys the

thought of getting something for oneself and carrying it off as

wages or a prize. In that coming Day they will joyfully carry away

as their own "the unfading crown of glory." The promised

"crown" is not the kingly or imperial "crown" (dia<dhma), the

badge of sovereignty (Rev. 12:3; 19:12), but rather the "crown"

(ste<fanoj), the "wreath" or "garland" used on various nonimpe-

rial occasions. The term was used of "the crown of victory in the

games, of civic worth, of military valour, of nuptial joy, of festive

gladness."31 Woven of perishable materials, they were used to

celebrate occasion of joy or victory. The scene here envisioned

may be the festive occasion of a banquet or the crowning after

struggle for victorious achievement. For Peter's readers the

crowning which concluded the athletic contests would readily

come to mind. This picture is in keeping with the context.

            Two modifiers, placed attributively between the article and

the noun (to>n a]mara<ntinon th?j do<chj ste<fanon), further describe

the nature of this crown. The adjective rendered "unfading"

(a]mara<ntinon) occurs only here in the New Testament. It differs

slightly from the adjective rendered "will not fade away"

(a]ma<ranton) in 1 Peter 1:4. The use of this variant form

suggests that a somewhat different meaning is intended here.

The form used in 1:4 points to a quality that will not fade away;

the term. here, using the suffix -inon, points rather to the material

from which the thing is made. Then the crown is described as

"made of amaranth," a flower whose unfading quality was the

symbol of immortality. In contrast to the flowers of this world,

the crown itself is made of material which never loses its beauty

and attractiveness.

            The crown is further characterized as "of glory" (th?j do<chj);

the genitive is appositional, identifying its material; the crown

consists of "the [heavenly] glory." After His own suffering, Christ

was "crowned with glory and honor" (Heb. 2:9); He will reward

His faithful under-shepherds in having them share in His own


340     Bibliotheca Sacra — October-December 1982


unfading glory. Clearly Peter believes that the prospect of a glo-

rious future must motivate faithfulness in the present. Prophetic

truth is indeed practical!




1   Brooke Foss Westcott and Fenton John Anthony Hort, The New Testament in

the Original Greek (New York: Macmillan Co., 1935); Alexander Souter, Novum

Testamentum Graece, 2d ed. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1962); Erwin Nestle and

Kurt Aland, 24th ed., Novum Testamentum Graece (New York: American Bible

Society n.d.): Kurt Aland, et al.. eds., 3d ed., The Greek New Testament (New

York: United Bible Societies. 1975); R. V. G. Tasker, The Greek New Testament,

Being the Text Translated in the New English Bible 1961 (Oxford: Oxford

University Press, 1964).

2   E. M. Blaiklock, First Peter: A Translation and Devotional Commentary

(Waco, TX: Word Books Publisher, 1977), p. 103.,

3   James Hope Moulton and George Milligan, The Vocabulary of the Greek

Testament Illustrated from the Papyri and Other Non-Literary Sources (London:

Hodder & Stoughton, 1952), p. 535; William Barclay, The Letters of James and

Peter, The Daily Study Bible, 2d ed. (Edinburgh: Saint Andrew Press, 1960),

p. 312.

4   Francis Wright Beare, The First Epistle of Peter: The Greek Text with Intro-

duction and Notes (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1970), p. 198.

5   G. J. Polkinghorne, "The First Letter of Peter," in A New Testament Commen-

tary, ed. G. C. D. Rowley (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. 1969),

p. 596.

6   R. C. H. Lenski, The Interpretation of the Epistles of St. Peter, St. John and St.

Jude (Columbus, Ohio: Lutheran Book Concern, 1938), p. 220.

7   Wm. C. Waltemyer, "The First Epistle of Peter," in New Testament Commen-

tary, ed. Herbert C. Allernan (Philadelphia: Board of Publication of the United

Lutheran Church of America, 1944), p. 655.

8   As quoted in Eusebius Pamphilus, The Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius

Pamphilus, trans. C. F. Cruse (London: George Bell & Sons, 1897), 3:39.

9   Joh. Ed. Huther, "Critical and Exegetical Handbook to the General Epistles of

Peter and Jude," in Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New

Testament (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1881), p. 230.

10   Robert Johnstone, The First Epistle of Peter: Revised Text, with Introduc-

tion and Commentary (1888; reprint ed., Minneapolis: The James Family Chris-

tian Publishers, 1978), p. 379.

11   A. R. C. Leaney, "The Letters of Peter and Jude," in The Cambridge Bible

Commentary, New English Bible (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1967),

P. 69.

12   Beare, The First Epistle of Peter, p. 198.

13   Albert Barnes, Barnes' Notes on the New Testament (reprint ed., Grand

Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1962), p. 1433.

14   William F. Arndt and F. Wilbur Gingrich, A Greek-English Lexicon of the

New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago: University of

Chicago Press. 1957), p. 440.

15   James Moffatt, The General Epistles, James, Peter, and Judas, The

Moffatt New Testament Commentary (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1928), pp.


16   Johnstone, The First Epistle of Peter, p. 382.


Counsel for Christ's Under-Shepherds: An Exposition of 1 Peter 5:1-4 341


17   Moulton and Milligan, The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament, p. 524.

18   Joseph Bryant Rotherham, The Emphasized New Testament (reprint ed.,

Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1959).

19   Huther, "General Epistles of Peter and Jude," p. 232.

20   It is omitted in the Greek texts of Westcott and Hort; Nestle and Aland (24th

ed.); and Tasker. It is included in brackets in the United Bible Societies text (3d

ed.); and Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum Graece (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bib-

lestiftung, 1979) . It is included without brackets in Souter; and in the United

Bible Societies text (1st ed., 1966).

21   David H. Wheaton, " 1 Peter," in The New Bible Commentary, Revised, eds.

D. Guthrie and J. A. Moyter (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1970), p.


22   For the evidence see the United Bible Societies Greek text.

23   The words (kata> qeo<n) were omitted by Westcott and Hort, and by Nestle and

Aland (24th ed.). They appear in the text of Souter; United Bible Societies text;

and Tasker.

24   A. F. Mitchell, Hebrews and the General Epistles, The Westminster New

Testament (London: Andrew Melrose, 1911), pp. 279-80.

25   C. E. B. Cranfield, I & II Peter and Jude: Introduction and Commentary,

Torch Bible Commentaries (London: SCM Press, 1960), pp. 128-29.

26   Matthew Poole, A Commentary on the Holy Bible, vol. 3: Matthew—Reve-

lation (1685; reprint ed., Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 1979), p. 915.

27   F. C. Cook, "The First Epistle General of Peter," in The Speaker's Commen-

tary, New Testament, ed. F. C. Cook, 4 vols. (London: John Murray, 1881), 4:216.

28   Henry Alford, The New Testament for English Readers (reprint ed., Chica-

go: Moody Press, n.d.), p. 1966.

29   John Calvin, "The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Hebrews and the First

and Second Epistles of St Peter," Calvin's Commentaries, trans. William B.

Johnston (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1963), p. 317.

30   Moulton and Milligan, The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament, p. 82.

31   Richard Chenevix Trench, Synonyms of the New Testament (1880; reprint

ed., Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1947), p. 78.




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