Bibliotheca Sacra 139 (1982) 243-254.

          Copyright © 1982 by Dallas Theological Seminary.  Cited with permission.

 

 

                                     Selected Studies from 1 Peter

                                                         Part 3:

 

 

                            Living in the Light

                            of Christ's Return:

                 An Exposition of 1 Peter 4:7-11

 

                                                 D. Edmond Hiebert

 

 

                 The end of all things is at hand; therefore, be of sound judg-

            ment and sober spirit for the purpose of prayer. Above all, keep

            fervent in your love for one another, because love covers a multi-

            tude of sins. Be hospitable to one another without complaint. As

            each one has received a special gift, employ it in serving one

            another, as good stewards of the manifold grace of God. Whoever

            speaks, let him speak, as it were, the utterances of God; whoever

            serves, let him do so as by the strength which God supplies; so

            that in all things God may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to

            whom belongs the glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen (1

            Pet. 4:7-11, NASB).

 

            The hope of Christ's return is an essential part of the be-

liever's equipment for fruitful Christian living. In this passage

Peter discusses aggressive Christian service in the light of the

impending end. The anticipation of the Lord's return must

have an impact on present Christian conduct.

            In the face of persecution from without, believers, inspired

by their hope of the future, must band together in loving ser-

vice to each other to the glory of God. Peter here asserts that

the end is near (v. 7a), he delineates Christian living in view of

the end (vv. 7b-1 la), and he points to the true goal of all

Christian service (v. 11b).

 

                          The Assertion concerning the End

 

            “The end of all things is at hand" (v. 7a) summarizes the

Christian anticipation concerning the future. "Of all things"

 

                                                243



244     Bibliotheca Sacra — July-September 1982

 

(Pa<ntwn), standing emphatically forward, underlines the com-

prehensive nature of the end in view. The genitive "all" could

be taken as masculine, "all men, all people"; in 4:17 reference

is made to "the outcome for those who do not obey the gospel."

But here this comprehensive term is best taken as neuter, "all

things" depicting the eschatological end. "The end" (to> te<loj),

the consummation of the present course of history, implies not

merely cessation but also the goal toward which this present

age is moving. It is the prophetic message of Christ's return.

            It is unwarranted to limit this comprehensive designation

to "the end of the temple, of the Levitical priesthood, and of the

whole Jewish economy" in A.D. 70.1 Neither is it to be under-

stood as a reference to the impending death in martyrdom

awaiting the readers.2 These views offer no proper basis for the

exhortations which follow.

            The verb "is at hand" (h@ggiken) is used in the New Testa-

ment of the approach of the kingdom of God in relation to the

First Advent (cf. Matt. 3:2; 10:7; Mark 1:15; Luke 10:9, 11) as

well as the Second Advent (Rom. 13:12; Heb. 10:25; James

5:8). The verb means "to approach, to draw near"; in the per-

fect tense, as here, it portrays the event in view as having

drawn near and now being in a position as near at hand, ready

to break in. It thus depicts the return of Christ as impending.

Newell characterized His return as "the next thing on the

program."3  Peter's statement expresses the conviction of the

early Christian church (Rom. 13:12; 1 Cor. 7:29; Phil. 4:5;

Heb. 10:25; James 5:8-9; Rev. 1:3; 22:20). Christ's anticipated

return was "always near to the feelings and consciousness of

the first believers. It was the great consummation on which

the strongest desires of their souls were fixed, to which their

thoughts and hopes were habitually turned."4

            The delay in the expected return of Christ did create a

problem for some in the early church (2 Pet. 3:4-7). Yet the

passing of the centuries has not invalidated this hope. No

dates for the return of Christ were revealed to the apostles

(Matt. 24:36); they did not know when their Lord would re-

turn; they were instructed to be expectant and ready for His

return. They were not conscious of anything that expressly

precluded such an expectation; much that they saw encour-

aged it.

            It may be said that the lengthy time interval must be

understood in the light of God's chronology (2 Pet. 3:8-9), not

 



Living in the Light of Christ's Return: An Exposition of 1 Peter 4:7-11            245

 

man's. Peter's assertion that the end is "at hand" and ready to

break in expresses the Christian conception of the nature of

the present age. With the Messiah's first advent the reality of

the eschatological kingdom broke on human history; but with

the King's rejection, His eschatological kingdom was not estab-

lished. It awaits the day of His return. But that eschatological

encounter introduced a new element into the nature of history.

Human history now moves under the shadow of the divinely

announced eschatological kingdom. Newman wrote as follows:

            Up to Christ's coming in the flesh, the course of things ran

            straight towards that end, nearing it by every step; but now,

            under the Gospel, that course has (if I may so speak) altered its

            direction, as regards His second coming, and runs, not towards

            the end, but along it, and on the brink of it; and is at all times

            near that great event, which, did it run towards it, it would at

            once run into. Christ, then, is ever at our door.5

 

            As human history moves along the edge of the eschatolog-

ical future, "it is always five minutes to midnight," and "that

edge at times becomes a knife-edge.”6 Only God's long-suffer-

ing holds back the impending manifestation of that day (2 Pet.

3:8-9). This consciousness must have an impact on present

Christian living.

 

                            The Duties in View of the End

 

            "Therefore" (ou#n) grounds the duties now depicted in the

consciousness of the impending end. In the New Testament

this eschatological hope is frequently used to motivate Chris-

tian conduct (Matt. 24:45–25:13; Rom. 13:11-14; 1 Cor.

15:58; 1 Thess. 4:18; Heb. 10:25; James 5:8-9; 1 John 2:28:

3:2). "The return of our Lord," Erdman observes, "has always

furnished the supreme motive for consistent Christian living."7

The proper apprehension of this hope does not lead to uncon-

trolled excitement and fanatical disorder (cf. 2 Thess. 2:1-3;

3:6-16) but rather to self-discipline and mutual service. Peter

sets forth the believers' duty concerning their personal life

(v. 7b) and describes proper community relations (vv. 8-11 a).

 

THE DUTY CONCERNING THEIR PERSONAL LIFE (v. 7b)

            "Therefore, be of sound judgment and sober spirit for the

purpose of prayer." Two aorist imperatives set forth the urgent

and decisive nature of these personal duties.

 



246     Bibliotheca Sacra — July-September 1982

 

            The first verb, "be of sound judgment" (swfronh<sate), was

used of a person who was in his right mind as contrasted to

one who was under the power of a demon (Mark 5:15; Luke

8:35). It was also used more generally of one who was reason-

able, sensible, and prudent, one who retained a clear mind.

The readers are thus urged to be self-controlled and balanced

in their reactions, able to see things in their proper place.

Cranfield remarks, "The sound mind is equally far removed

from the worldliness and unbelief of those who think to ex-

plain away the promise of Christ's coming again, and from the

fanaticism and sensationalism of those who would fain predict

the hour of it and the manner."8

            The second verb, "sober" (nh<yate), conveys the thought of

sobriety as the opposite of intoxication. The Authorized Ver-

sion renders this "watch," but it is a watchfulness related not

to sleepiness but to drunkenness. It is a call to remain fully

alert and in possession of one's faculties and feelings. The

eschatological context of this passage indicates that they must

"be free from every form of mental and spiritual 'drunken-

ness.”9 resulting from befuddled views and feelings about the

future.

            The two verbs, akin in meaning, are connected by "and"

(kai>), marking a connection between the two duties. It is a

question whether both imperatives or only the latter is to be

connected with "for the purpose of prayer." The former seems

to be the intended view of the NASB, as quoted above. The NIV

also supports this position by joining both verbs with prayer:

"Be clear minded and self-controlled so that you can pray." The

ASV, by putting a comma after the first verb, keeps the two

commands as distinct duties: (1) They must maintain a per-

sonal disposition of balance and self-control as they face life,

and (2) they must be alert in mind and attitude so that they

can pray. This author prefers the rendering of the ASV.

            The phrase, "for the purpose of prayer" (ei]j proseuxa<j,

"unto, with a view to prayer") implies that prayer is a normal

and expected activity of the Christian life; but it is easy to be-

come distracted and unfitted for its performance. "Prayer" is a

general term and includes prayer in all its aspects. But the

original is plural, "prayers" of all kinds, both private and pub-

lic. What follows suggests that they must maintain the practice

of prayer in relation to their own lives as well as in their com-

munity relations.

 



Living in the Light of Christ's Return: An Exposition of 1 Peter 4:7-11            247

 

THE ACTIVITIES IN THEIR COMMUNITY RELATIONS (vv. 8-11a)

            The close connection between the personal and the

brotherhood relations is underlined by the fact that verses 8-

11, consisting of a series of participles, depend grammatically

on the imperatives of verse 7. Although the participles are sub-

ordinate, the words "above all" (pro> pa<ntwn) make clear that

the duties now enjoined are of primary importance. Peter urges

the practice of fervent mutual love (vv. 8-9) and depicts two

broad areas of mutual service (vv. 10-11a).

            The duty of mutual love (vv. 8-9). "Keep fervent in your

love for one another" (v. 8a). Peter has already mentioned love

several times (1:8, 22; 2:17; 3:8). He fully realized its impor-

tance. "At a never-to-be-forgotten interview, the Master thrice

reminded him that the supreme qualification for ministry was

love."10

            "Your love for one another" underlines the mutual nature

of the love being urged. The noun "love" denotes a love of in-

telligence and purpose which desires the welfare of the one

loved. The use of the definite article, "the love," points to the

love which they have already experienced. Its mutual character

is underlined by the attributive position of "for one another"

(th>n ei]j e[autou>j) before the word a]ga<phn, literally, "the into-

yourselves love." Peter's reflexive pronoun brings out the

thought that they are all members of one body (cf. 1 Cor.

12:12) and that love for other members promotes one's own

spiritual well-being.

            Assuming that this love is already operative among them,

Peter urges that their love must be "fervent" (e]ktenh?),

"stretched out" and up to full capacity. The term was used to

describe a horse at full gallop or to picture "the taut muscle of

strenuous and sustained effort, as of an athlete."11 "Keep" rep-

resents a present tense participle (e@xontej, "having" or "hold-

ing") and indicates that they must maintain their mutual love

at its highest level. Such love can be actively cultivated.

            The words "because love covers a multitude of sins" (v. 8b)

justify the demand for fervent love. It has a beneficial impact

on social relations because it "covers" sins. The meaning is not

that love condones or hushes up sins, either before God or

men. The reference here is not to sin in its Godward relations

but rather to sins and failures in human relations. Love re-

fuses deliberately to drag out the sins it encounters so as to

 



248     Bibliotheca Sacra — July-September 1982

 

expose them to the gaze of all; it prefers to refrain from and

discourage all needless talk about them. It prefers to throw a

veil over these sins, like the conduct of Shem and Japheth in

throwing a covering over their father's shame, in contrast to

Ham's viewing of it (Gen. 9:20-23). This gracious action of true

love promotes the peace and harmony of the brotherhood, and

is the very opposite of hatred which deliberately exposes the

sin in order to humiliate and injure. "Only when Christians

become mean and ugly do they favor the devil by dragging each

other's failings out into the public and smiting each other in

the face."12

            Love's action is necessary because believers are still weak

and failing. In 'their close associations with each other in the

brotherhood believers do, regrettably, encounter "a multitude

of sins." "Sins," (a[martiw?n), "the most comprehensive term for

moral obliquity"13 in the New Testament, basically denotes all

that misses the mark in falling short of the standard of right;

it may thus include sins of weakness and moral shortcomings

as well as overt acts of sin. Love will deal with these sins

according to the principles Jesus set forth in Matthew 18:15-

17. Peter here is thinking of believers in their mutual relations

and not of their individual personal relationships to God. It is

unwarranted to assume, as some do (e.g., Moffatt14), that such

covering of sins wins forgiveness of one's sins before God. That

would be a form of salvation by works.

            The command "Be hospitable to one another without com-

plaint" (v. 9) widens the application of this principle of love. As

indicated in Young's literal rendering,15 Peter continues his

directive without any verbal form: "hospitable to one another,

without murmuring." He thus names a positive expression of

the presence of love.

            "Hospitable" (filo<cenoi) is a plural adjective describing

those who have an affectionate concern for strangers, which

expresses itself in offering them food and shelter. The practice

of hospitality was highly valued in the early church and it is

frequently mentioned in the New Testament (Rom. 12:13;

16:1-2; 1 Tim. 3:2; Titus 1:8; Heb. 13:2; 3 John 5-8; cf. Matt.

25:35). This fruit of brotherly love strengthened mutual ties

among the churches, often widely scattered. Without its prac-

tice the early missionary work of the church would have been

greatly retarded. When travelers or delegates from other

churches arrived, their hospitable reception was regarded as a

 



Living in the Light of Christ's Return: An Exposition of 1 Peter 4:7-11            249

 

matter of course (cf. Acts 10:5-6, 23; 16:15; 21:15-17). Believ-

ers who were on journeys found it highly desirable to find lodg-

ing in Christian homes, fostering mutual fellowship and

strengthening the ties between churches. Even more impor-

tant was it for believers to find refuge in Christian homes

whenever they were fleeing from their persecutors.

            But Peter's use of the reciprocal pronoun (ei]j a]llh<louj)

implies that hospitality within the local group is involved.

Since there were no separate church buildings for the first two

centuries, each local congregation met in the home of one of its

members (cf. Rom. 16:5; 1 Cor. 16:19: Phile. 2). This practice

put their hospitality to a practical test.

            "Without complaint" (a@neu goggusmou?) is a frank recogni-

tion that the practice of hospitality could become costly,

burdensome, and irritating. The Greek term denotes a mutter-

ing or low speaking as a sign of displeasure. It depicts a spirit

the opposite of cheerfulness. Such a spirit negates the value of

the hospitality rendered and destroys the recipient's enjoyment

of it. It is a ministry to be shouldered cheerfully if it is to be

worthwhile. The addition simply emphasizes the true charac-

ter of Christian hospitality and does not imply that Peters

readers were chronic grumblers.

            The duty of mutual service (vv. 10-11a). The thought now

passes from mutual love to mutual service. The participle con-

struction again ties this picture of Christian service to what

has gone before. Verse 10 describes the ministry of the believ-

ers individually as stewards serving the needs of the household

of God with the means their Master has entrusted to them.

            "Each one" (e!kastoj), standing emphatically first, stresses

that the duties and functions of a steward have been assigned

to each believer. Each member of the body of Christ has been

entrusted with at least one gift (1 Cor. 12:7: Eph. 4:7). Each

member has his own distinct function, "as each one has re-

ceived a special gift." "As" (kaqw>j, "just as") indicates that the

service of each one is to be governed by the nature of the gift

received. Since each member has received a gift, it is clear that

these gifts are not offices in the church. The term "gift"

(xa<risma), derived from the same root as "grace" (xa<rij), basic-

ally denotes something that has been bestowed freely and gra-

ciously. The term includes any capacity or endowment which

can be used for the benefit of the church. It is not to be re-

stricted to miraculous gifts; included is any "natural endow-

 



250     Bibliotheca Sacra — July-September 1982

 

ment or possession which is sanctified in the Christian by the

Spirit."16  Each should be employed as an expression of Chris-

tian love.

            Each must employ his gift "in serving one another." The

reflexive pronoun (e[autou>j) again points to the mutual benefit

when these gifts are used for the sake of the whole body of

Christ. God has made the members interdependent; what ben-

efits others has a reflexive benefit for the one exercising the

gift. The participle "serving" (diakonou?ntej) denotes any benefi-

cient service that is freely rendered to another.

            All must minister in the personal consciousness of being

"good stewards of the manifold grace of God." Christians are

"stewards," not owners of the means and abilities they possess.

A steward was one to whom property or wealth was entrusted

to be administered according to the owner's will and direction.

He was entrusted with its use, not for his own enjoyment or

personal advantage, but for the benefit of those he served. This

entrustment involved responsibility and demanded trustworth-

iness (1 Cor. 4:2). "As good stewards" means that they not

merely resemble but actually are such; they must render their

service in a noble and attractive manner.

            Each believer has his share in ministering "the manifold

grace of God." The collective singular, "the grace of God," com-

prehends all the gifts graciously bestowed, while the adjective

"manifold" (poiki<lhj) displays the "many-colored" gifts in their

infinite variety. The Lord of the church has distributed His

bounty with masterly variety to enable His people successfully

to encounter the "manifold trials" (1:6) to which they are sub-

jected.

            In verse 1 la Peter divides these gifts into two functional

categories: the speaking gifts and the service gifts. The two

categories are given in two conditional sentences, but no ver-

bal form is expressed in the conclusion, which the Greek did

not feel essential. In English one feels compelled to insert some

verbal form, either an imperative, "let him," or a participial

form.

            "Whoever speaks" (ei@ tij lalei?, "if anyone speaks") assumes

the speaking function in operation. The verb may be general,

simply denoting use of the faculty of speech; it is frequently

used in the New Testament of teaching and preaching, and so

here the speaking may be in the form of teaching, prophesy-

ing, or exhorting. While speaking in the assembly seems pri-

 



Living in the Light of Christ's Return: An Exposition of 1 Peter 4:7-11            251

 

marily in view, the verb is broad enough to include speaking

outside a church setting, such as ministering to the sick, or

personal communication.

            Speaking "as it were, the utterances of God" (w[j lo<gia

qeou?) marks the necessary subjective feeling of the speaker as

he exercises his gift. He must be conscious that what he says

is God's message for the occasion. In classical Greek the lo<gia

were the utterances or responses of some deity. In the Sep-

tuagint the term is often used of "the Word of the Lord," and

elsewhere in the New Testament it has reference to the Old

Testament Scriptures (Rom. 3:2; Acts 7:38: Heb. 5:12). Here

the sense seems to be that the speaker utters his message with

the consciousness that he is giving not merely his own opinion

but God's message under the leadership of the Spirit.

            "Whoever serves" (ei@ tij diakonei?) seems best understood

as including all forms of Christian ministry other than speech.

The one rendering the service (tij, "any one" ) is again left en-

tirely indefinite. It is unwarranted to limit the reference to the

office of the deacon, as Demarest does.17  The context simply

limits the service to the realm of deeds.

            "By the strength which God supplies" is a timely reminder

that Christian service must be rendered in a spirit of humility

and divine enablement. The one serving must avoid the conceit

that the strength and ability to perform the service are his

own. If his service promotes the well-being of the brotherhood,

he must realize that this ability is "by" (e]k, "out of") divine

enablement (cf. John 15:4). God abundantly "supplies"

(xorhgei?) the needed strength to carry out His work. In classical

Greek the verb was used of paying the expenses of a chorus in

the performance of a drama: since the performance reflected

on the prior provision of all that was needed, the term came to

denote supplying in abundance. Christian service must be

humbly yet aggressively performed in full reliance on God's

enablement.

 

                            The Goal in Christian Living

 

            The added purpose clause, "so that in all things God may

be glorified" (v. 1 lb), declares the true goal in all Christian liv-

ing. The comprehensive "in all things" (e]n pa?sin) is best under-

stood as looking back to the entire paragraph. All that they

have and do must magnify "God" (o[ qeo>j), the God whom they

 



252     Bibliotheca Sacra — July-September 1982

 

now know and serve. He is the Fountain of all their gifts and

blessings. In all they are and do, they must desire to thank

Him and to extol and ascribe honor to His name.

            "Through Jesus Christ" is a reminder that only through

the reconciliation achieved in Him can God be truly glorified

(cf. 1:21; 2:5; 3:18). "There is only one way to God, and our

incense must be scattered on coals taken from the true altar,

or it can never rise up acceptable and pleasing to Him."18

            Peter's own grateful heart moves him to glorify God: "to

whom belongs the glory and dominion forever and ever.

Amen." The use of the indicative verb "belongs" (e]stin, "is")

marks his words as an assured declaration, not merely a de-

vout wish. "To whom" may refer to either Jesus Christ or God

the Father. In favor of Jesus Christ is the fact that He is the

nearer antecedent here and that in Hebrews 13:20-21; 2 Peter

3:18; and Revelation 1:5-6 the glory is ascribed to Christ. In

favor of God the Father is the fact that He is the subject of the

sentence. Best cites three considerations in favor of God the

Father as the intended antecedent:

            (i) The reference to the glorification of God in the preceding

            clause links with "glory" here; (ii) The majority of NT

            doxologies are offered to God, and in particular the very

            similar doxology of 5:11 is offered to him; (iii) To speak of

            glorifying God "through Jesus Christ" and then to speak of

            glory belonging to Christ seems odd.19

 

            It is preferable to take God the Father as the subject of this

doxology.

            God is magnified as possessing "the glory and dominion"

(h[ do<ca kai> to> kra<toj). The definite article in the Greek with

both nouns marks them as separate and distinct possessions,

rightfully belonging to Him. He possesses "the glory," the

radiant majesty and sublimity characteristic of deity, and He

exercises "the dominion" (kra<toj, "might and power in

action"), marking Him as the sovereign Ruler over all.

            To Him belong the glory and the dominion "forever and

ever" (ei]j tou>j ai]w?naj tw?n ai]w<nwn), literally, "unto the ages of

the ages." This strengthened form of "forever" emphasizes the

thought of eternity in the strongest way. The expression de-

picts eternity as "a series of ages flowing on endlessly, in each

of which a number of other shorter ages are gathered up.''20

            "Amen" is a transliteration (alike in Greek and English) of

the Hebrew word meaning "so let it be." So used, it is not a

 



Living in the Light of Christ's Return: An Exposition of 1 Peter 4:7-11            253

 

wish but rather a strong affirmation, placing a seal of approval

on what has just been said. Its use was common in the early

Christian worship services as an expression of devout assent

(cf. 1 Cor. 14:16). The practice was adopted from the Jewish

synagogue.

            This brief paragraph is significant as offering insight into

Peter's understanding of Christian life and service. For him the

hope of the impending return of Jesus Christ was a living real-

ity. But he firmly held that this eschatological hope must

promote loving Christian relations and faithful Christian ser-

vice. The hope of the future is to have a sane, sanctifying im-

pact on the present. In waiting as well as in serving, the true

goal of the Christian life must ever be to glorify God.

 

                                                Notes

1   James Macknight, A New Literal Translation from the Original Greek of All

the Apostolical Epistles (1821; reprint ed., Grand Rapids: Baker Book House,

1969), 5:491. So also Jay E. Adams. Trust And Obey: A Practical Commentary on

First Peter (Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian & Reformed Publishing Co.. 1978), pp.

129-30; Guy N. Woods, A Commentary on the New Testament Epistles cf Peter,

John, and Jude (Nashville: Gospel Advocate Co., 1954), pp. 111-12.

2   John T. Demarest, A Translation and Exposition of the First Epistle of the

Apostle Peter (New York: John Moffet, 1851), pp. 224-26.

3   William R. Newell, "The End of All Things Is at Hand," Bibliotheca Sacra 109

(July—September 1952): 249.

4   Nathaniel Marshman Williams, "Commentary on the Epistles of Peter," in An

American Commentary on the New Testament (reprint ed., Philadelphia: Amer-

ican Baptist Publications Society, n.d.), p. 61.

5   John Henry Newman, Parochial and Plain Sermons (1896), p. 241, cited by

F. F. Bruce, The Epistles of John (Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1970),

p. 65

6   Bruce, The Epistles of John, p. 65.

7   Charles R. Erdman, The General Epistles (1919; reprint ed., Philadelphia:

Westminster Press, n.d.), p. 78.

8   C. E. B. Cranfield, I & II Peter and Jude, Torch Bible Commentaries (London:

SCM Press, 1960), p. 113.

9   William F. Arndt and F. Wilbur Gingrich, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New

Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago

Press. 1957), p. 540.

10   F. B. Meyer, "Tried by Fire ": Expositions of the First Epistle of Peter (London:

Morgan & Scott, n.d.), p. 161.

11   Cranfield, I & II Peter and Jude, p. 57.

12   R. C. H. Lenski. The Interpretation of the Epistles of St. Peter, St. John and

St. Jude (Columbus, Ohio: Lutheran Book Concern, 1938), p. 198.

13   W. E. Vine, An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words (1940:

reprint ed. [4 vols. in 1], Westwood, NJ: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1966), 4:32.

14   James Moffatt, The General Epistles, James. Peter, and Judas, The Moffatt

New Testament Commentary (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1947), p. 153.

15   Robert Young, The Holy Bible Consisting of the Old and New Covenants

 



254     Bibliotheca Sacra — July-September 1982

 

Translated according to the Letter and Idioms of the Original Languages

(London: Pickering & Inglis, n.d.).

16   Lenski, Epistles of St. Peter, St. John and St. Jude, p. 200.

17   Demarest, The First Epistle of the Apostle Peter, p. 231.

18   Meyer, "Tried by Fire," p. 171.

19   Ernest Best, I Peter, New Century Bible Based on the Revised Standard

Version (London: Oliphants. 1971), p. 161.

20   Robert Johnstone, The First Epistle of Peter: Revised Text, with Intro-

duction and Commentary (1888; reprint ed., Minneapolis: James Family Chris-

tian Publishers, 1978), p. 351.

 

This material is cited with gracious permission from:

Dallas Theological Seminary

            3909 Swiss Ave.

            Dallas, TX   75204          

www.dts.edu

Please report any errors to Ted Hildebrandt at:  thildebrandt@gordon.edu