1 Maccabees (Hildebrandt’s Quick and Dirty Summary)

 

Chapter 1 tells the background from Philip to Alexander (333 BC). It introduces Antiochus Ephiphanes (Antiochus IV: 175-163 BC) son of Antiochus the Great (III: 222-187 BC) kings of Syria. Antiochus Ephiphanes will be the major persecutor of the Jews whom the Maccabees will oppose. 

 

Maccabees 1:1 After Alexander son of Philip, the Macedonian, who came from the land of Kittim, had defeated King Darius of the Persians and the Medes, he succeeded him as king. (He had previously become king of Greece.)

2 And made many wars, and won many strong holds, and slew the kings of the earth,
3 And went through to the ends of the earth, and took spoils of many nations, insomuch that the earth was quiet before him; whereupon he was exalted and his heart was lifted up.
4 And he gathered a mighty strong host and ruled over countries, and nations, and kings, who became tributaries unto him.
5 And after these things he fell sick, and perceived that he should die.
6 Wherefore he called his servants, such as were honourable, and had been brought up with him from his youth, and parted his kingdom among them, while he was yet alive.
7 So Alexander reigned twelves years, and then died.
8 And his servants bare rule every one in his place.
9 And after his death they all put crowns upon themselves; so did their sons after them many years: and evils were multiplied in the earth.
1:10  From them came forth a sinful root, Antiochus Epiphanes, son of King Antiochus; he had been a hostage in Rome.  

 

1:14 So they built a gymnasium in Jerusalem, according to Gentile custom,

15 and removed the marks of circumcision,

16 Now when the kingdom was established before Antiochus, he thought to reign over Egypt that he might have the dominion of two realms.
18 And made war against Ptolemee king of Egypt: but Ptolemee was afraid of him, and fled; and many were wounded to death.

 

1:20 After subduing Egypt, Antiochus returned in the one hundred forty-third year. He went up against Israel and came to Jerusalem with a strong force.

 21 He arrogantly entered the sanctuary and took the golden altar, the lampstand for the light, and all its utensils.

23 He took also the silver and the gold, and the precious vessels: also he took the hidden treasures which he found.
24 And when he had taken all away, he went into his own land, having made a great massacre, and spoken very proudly.
1:29 And after two years fully expired the king sent his chief collector of tribute unto the cities of Juda, who came unto Jerusalem with a great multitude,
30 And spake peaceable words unto them, but all was deceit: for when they had given him credence, he fell suddenly upon the city, and smote it very sore, and destroyed much people of Israel.

1:39 Her sanctuary was laid waste like a wilderness, her feasts were turned into mourning, her sabbaths into reproach her honour into contempt.

1:44 For the king had sent letters by messengers unto Jerusalem and the cities of Juda that they should follow the strange laws of the land,
45 And forbid burnt offerings, and sacrifice, and drink offerings, in the temple; and that they should profane the sabbaths and festival days
46 to defile the sanctuary and the priests,

 47 to build altars and sacred precincts and shrines for idols, to sacrifice swine and other unclean animals,

 48 and to leave their sons uncircumcised. They were to make themselves abominable by everything unclean and profane,

 49 so that they would forget the law and change all the ordinances.

 50 He added, "And whoever does not obey the command of the king shall die."

51 In such words he wrote to his whole kingdom. …

1:57 And whosoever was found with any the book of the testament, or if any committed to the law, the king's commandment was, that they should put him to death.

60 According to the decree, they put to death the women who had their children circumcised,

61 and their families and those who circumcised them; and they hung the infants from their mothers' necks.


Chapter 2:  Mattathias (priest of Modin, father of the Maccabees 5 brothers: Johanan, Judas (the main warrior), Simon, Eleazar, Jonathan [diplomat]). He reacts killing the legate and the whimpy Jews.  He commissions his sons. Then Mattathias, the father, dies.

 

2:1 In those days arose Mattathias the son of John, the son of Simeon, a priest of the sons of Joarib, from Jerusalem, and dwelt in Modin.
2 And he had five sons, Joannan, called Caddis:
3 Simon; called Thassi:
4 Judas, who was called Maccabeus:
5 Eleazar, called Avaran: and Jonathan, whose surname was Apphus.
6 And when he saw the blasphemies that were committed in Juda and Jerusalem,
7 He said, Woe is me! wherefore was I born to see this misery of my people, and of the holy city, and to dwell there, when it was delivered into the hand of the enemy, and the sanctuary into the hand of strangers? …

14 Then Mattathias and his sons rent their clothes, and put on sackcloth, and mourned very sore.
15 In the mean while the king's officers, such as compelled the people to revolt, came into the city Modin, to make them sacrifice. …

2:20 Yet will I and my sons and my brethren walk in the covenant of our fathers.
21 God forbid that we should forsake the law and the ordinances.
22 We will not obey the king's words by turning aside from our religion to the right hand or to the left."

 23 When he had finished speaking these words, a Jew came forward in the sight of all to offer sacrifice on the altar in Modein, according to the king's command.

 24 When Mattathias saw it, he burned with zeal and his heart was stirred. He gave vent to righteous anger; he ran and killed him on the altar.

 25 At the same time he killed the king's officer who was forcing them to sacrifice, and he tore down the altar.

28 So he and his sons fled into the mountains, and left all that ever they had in the city.
29 Then many that sought after justice and judgment went down into the wilderness, to dwell there: …

2:37 for they said, "Let us all die in our innocence; heaven and earth testify for us that you are killing us unjustly."

 38 So they attacked them on the sabbath, and they died, with their wives and children and livestock, to the number of a thousand persons.

 39 When Mattathias and his friends learned of it, they mourned for them deeply.

 40 And all said to their neighbors: "If we all do as our kindred have done and refuse to fight with the Gentiles for our lives and for our ordinances, they will quickly destroy us from the earth."

 41 So they made this decision that day: "Let us fight against anyone who comes to attack us on the sabbath day; let us not all die as our kindred died in their hiding places." …

2:45 Then Mattathias and his friends went round about, and pulled down the altars:
46 And what children soever they found within the coast of Israel uncircumcised, those they circumcised valiantly. …

2:48 So they recovered the law out of the hand of the Gentiles, and out of the hand of kings, neither suffered they the sinner to triumph.
49 Now when the time drew near that Mattathias should die, he said unto his sons, Now hath pride and rebuke gotten strength, and the time of destruction, and the wrath of indignation:
50 Now therefore, my sons, be ye zealous for the law, and give your lives for the covenant of your fathers. …
2:54 Phinees our father in being zealous and fervent obtained the covenant of an everlasting priesthood. …
60 Daniel for his innocency was delivered from the mouth of lions.
61 And thus consider ye throughout all ages, that none that put their trust in him shall be overcome. …
2:65 And behold, I know that your brother Simon is a man of counsel, give ear unto him alway: he shall be a father unto you.
66 As for Judas Maccabeus, he hath been mighty and strong, even from his youth up: let him be your captain, and fight the battle of the people.
2:69 So he blessed them, and was gathered to his fathers.
70 And he died in the hundred forty and sixth year, and his sons buried him in the sepulchres of his fathers at Modin, and all Israel made great lamentation for him.

Matthias dies (end of ch. 2) after he commissions his sons

 

 

Chapter 3: Judas called Maccabeus (Hammer); Antiochus hears of Judas.  Antiochus, the Syrian king, gets angry sends out Lysias with the elephants to fight Judas.  Lysias captures and desecrates Jerusalem

 

1 Maccabees 3:1 Then his son Judas, who was called Maccabeus, took command in his place.

 2 All his brothers and all who had joined his father helped him; they gladly fought for Israel.

 3 He extended the glory of his people. Like a giant he put on his breastplate; he bound on his armor of war and waged battles, protecting the camp by his sword.

 

3:8 Moreover he went through the cities of Juda, destroying the ungodly out of them, and turning away wrath from Israel: …
3:13 When Seron, the commander of the Syrian army, heard that Judas had gathered a large company, including a body of faithful soldiers who stayed with him and went out to battle,

14 he said, "I will make a name for myself and win honor in the kingdom. I will make war on Judas and his companions, who scorn the king's command."…

3:16 And when he came near to the going up of Bethhoron, Judas went forth to meet him with a small company:
17 Who, when they saw the host coming to meet them, said unto Judas, How shall we be able, being so few, to fight against so great a multitude and so strong, seeing we are ready to faint with fasting all this day?
18 Unto whom Judas answered, It is no hard matter for many to be shut up in the hands of a few; and with the God of heaven it is all one, to deliver with a great multitude, or a small company:
19 For the victory of battle stands not in the multitude of an host; but strength cometh from heaven. …
3:22 He himself will crush them before us; as for you, do not be afraid of them."

 23 When he finished speaking, he rushed suddenly against Seron and his army, and they were crushed before him.

 24 They pursued them down the descent of Beth-horon to the plain; eight hundred of them fell, and the rest fled into the land of the Philistines.

 25 Then Judas and his brothers began to be feared, and terror fell on the Gentiles all around them.

 26 His fame reached the king, and the Gentiles talked of the battles of Judas.

 27 When King Antiochus heard these reports, he was greatly angered; and he sent and gathered all the forces of his kingdom, a very strong army….

3:33 Lysias was also to take care of his son Antiochus until he returned.

 34 And he turned over to Lysias half of his forces and the elephants, and gave him orders about all that he wanted done. As for the residents of Judea and Jerusalem,

 35 Lysias was to send a force against them to wipe out and destroy the strength of Israel and the remnant of Jerusalem; he was to banish the memory of them from the place,

 36 settle aliens in all their territory, and distribute their land by lot.

 

3:45 Jerusalem was uninhabited like a wilderness; not one of her children went in or out. The sanctuary was trampled down, and aliens held the citadel; it was a lodging place for the Gentiles. Joy was taken from Jacob; the flute and the harp ceased to play.

46 Wherefore the Israelites assembled themselves together, and came to Maspha, over against Jerusalem; for in Maspha was the place where they prayed aforetime in Israel.
47 Then they fasted that day, and put on sackcloth, and cast ashes upon their heads, and rent their clothes,
48 And laid open the book of the law, wherein the heathen had sought to paint the likeness of their images.
49 They brought also the priests' garments, and the firstfruits, and the tithes: and the Nazarites they stirred up, who had accomplished their days.
50 Then cried they with a loud voice toward heaven, saying, What shall we do with these, and whither shall we carry them away?
51 For thy sanctuary is trodden down and profaned, and thy priests are in heaviness, and brought low. …
3:58 And Judas said, arm yourselves, and be valiant men, and see that ye be in readiness against the morning, that ye may fight with these nations, that are assembled together against us to destroy us and our sanctuary:
59 For it is better for us to die in battle, than to behold the calamities of our people and our sanctuary.
60 Nevertheless, as the will of God is in heaven, so let him do.

 

 

Ch. 4:  Judas defeats Gorgias (one of Antiochus’ guys) and wins battles and captures temple and re-consecrates it [Becomes the feast of Hanukkah]

 

4:5 When Gorgias entered the camp of Judas by night, he found no one there, so he looked for them in the hills, because he said, "These men are running away from us."

 6 At daybreak Judas appeared in the plain with three thousand men, but they did not have armor and swords such as they desired.

 7 And they saw the camp of the Gentiles, strong and fortified, with cavalry all around it; and these men were trained in war.

 8 But Judas said to those who were with him, "Do not fear their numbers or be afraid when they charge.

9 Remember how our fathers were delivered in the Red sea, when Pharaoh pursued them with an army. …
4:14 So they joined battle, and the heathen being discomfited fled into the plain. …
23 Then Judas returned to spoil the tents, where they got much gold, and silver, and blue silk, and purple of the sea, and great riches.
24 After this they went home, and sung a song of thanksgiving, and praised the Lord in heaven: because it is good, because his mercy endureth forever.
25 Thus Israel had a great deliverance that day.
26 Now all the strangers that had escaped came and told Lysias what had happened: …
4:28 The next year therefore following Lysias gathered together threescore thousand choice men of foot, and five thousand horsemen, that he might subdue them.
29 So they came into Idumea, and pitched their tents at Bethsura, and Judas met them with ten thousand men. …
4:37 So all the army assembled and went up to Mount Zion.

 38 There they saw the sanctuary desolate, the altar profaned, and the gates burned. In the courts they saw bushes sprung up as in a thicket, or as on one of the mountains. They saw also the chambers of the priests in ruins.

 39 Then they tore their clothes and mourned with great lamentation; they sprinkled themselves with ashes

41 Then Judas detailed men to fight against those in the citadel until he had cleansed the sanctuary.

47 Then they took unhewn stones, as the law directs, and built a new altar like the former one.

 48 They also rebuilt the sanctuary and the interior of the temple, and consecrated the courts.

 49 They made new holy vessels, and brought the lampstand, the altar of incense, and the table into the temple….

4:59 Moreover Judas and his brethren with the whole congregation of Israel ordained, that the days of the dedication of the altar should be kept in their season from year to year by the space of eight days, from the five and twentieth day of the month Casleu, with mirth and gladness.

 

Chapter 5:  Judas sends his brother Simon to Galilee while he, Judas and Jonathan went over to Gilead in Jordan. Couple of Jews (Joseph and Azariah) tried their own plans contrary to Judas’ wishes and failed.

 

Maccabees 5:1 When the Gentiles all around heard that the altar had been rebuilt and the sanctuary dedicated as it was before, they became very angry,

 2 and they determined to destroy the descendants of Jacob

 

5:17 Then Judas said to his brother Simon, "Choose your men and go and rescue your kindred in Galilee; Jonathan my brother and I will go to Gilead."

20 Then three thousand men were assigned to Simon to go to Galilee, and eight thousand to Judas for Gilead.

21 So Simon went to Galilee and fought many battles against the Gentiles, and the Gentiles were crushed before him. …

5:34 And when the army of Timothy realized that it was Maccabeus, they fled before him, and he dealt them a heavy blow. As many as eight thousand of them fell that day.

35 This done, Judas turned aside to Maspha; and after he had assaulted it he took and slew all the males therein, and received the spoils thereof and and burnt it with fire. …
5:37 After these things gathered Timotheus another host and encamped against Raphon beyond the brook.
38 So Judas sent men to espy the host, who brought him word, saying, All the heathen that be round about us are assembled unto them, even a very great host.

5:59 Then came Gorgias and his men out of the city to fight against them.
60 Then Joseph and Azariah were routed, and were pursued to the borders of Judea; as many as two thousand of the people of Israel fell that day.

 61 Thus the people suffered a great rout because, thinking to do a brave deed, they did not listen to Judas and his brothers.

62 Moreover these men came not of the seed of those, by whose hand deliverance was given unto Israel.
63 Howbeit the man Judas and his brethren were greatly renowned in the sight of all Israel, and of all the heathen, wheresoever their name was heard of;
64 Insomuch as the the people assembled unto them with joyful acclamations. …
5:68 So Judas turned to Azotus in the land of the Philistines, and when he had pulled down their altars, and burned their carved images with fire, and spoiled their cities, he returned into the land of Judea.



Chapter 6:  Anitochus defeated in Babylon pulls back and dies.  Lysias left in Palestine, Eleazar Mac. dies killing the elephant from underneath and they lose Bethzur pulling back to Jerusalem.  Lysias lies offering peace and then smokes Jerusalem and returns to Syria because Antiochus had died and Phillip had returned from Babylon to rear young Antiochus and possibly seize the kingship of Syria.


6:1 King Antiochus was going through the upper provinces when he heard that Elymais in Persia was a city famed for its wealth in silver and gold.

 2 Its temple was very rich, containing golden shields, breastplates, and weapons left there by Alexander son of Philip, the Macedonian king who first reigned over the Greeks.

 3 So he came and tried to take the city and plunder it, but he could not because his plan had become known to the citizens

 4 and they withstood him in battle. So he fled and in great disappointment left there to return to Babylon.

 

6:13 I know that it is because of this that these misfortunes have come upon me; here I am, perishing of bitter disappointment in a strange land."

 14 Then he called for Philip, one of his Friends, and made him ruler over all his kingdom.

 15 He gave him the crown and his robe and the signet, so that he might guide his son Antiochus and bring him up to be king.

 16 Thus King Antiochus died there in the one hundred forty-ninth year.

 17 When Lysias learned that the king was dead, he set up Antiochus the king's son to reign. Lysias had brought him up from boyhood; he named him Eupator. [Bethzur and Jerualem were fortified;]

 

30 The number of his forces was one hundred thousand foot soldiers, twenty thousand horsemen, and thirty-two elephants accustomed to war.

 31 They came through Idumea and encamped against Beth-zur,

37 On the elephants were wooden towers, strong and covered; they were fastened on each animal by special harness, and on each were four armed men who fought from there, and also its Indian driver.

 

43 Now Eleazar, called Avaran, saw that one of the animals was equipped with royal armor. It was taller than all the others, and he supposed that the king was on it.

 44 So he gave his life to save his people and to win for himself an everlasting name.

 45 He courageously ran into the midst of the phalanx to reach it; he killed men right and left, and they parted before him on both sides.

 46 He got under the elephant, stabbed it from beneath, and killed it; but it fell to the ground upon him and he died.

 47 When the Jews saw the royal might and the fierce attack of the forces, they turned away in flight.

 48 The soldiers of the king's army went up to Jerusalem against them, and the king encamped in Judea and at Mount Zion.

 49 He made peace with the people of Beth-zur,

 

Then Lysias heard that Philip, whom King Antiochus while still living had appointed to bring up his son Antiochus to be king,

 56 had returned from Persia and Media with the forces that had gone with the king, and that he was trying to seize control of the government.

 57 So he quickly gave orders to withdraw, and said to the king, to the commanders of the forces, and to the troops, men, "Daily we grow weaker, our food supply is scant, the place against which we are fighting is strong, and the affairs of the kingdom press urgently on us.

60 The speech pleased the king and the commanders, and he sent to the Jews an offer of peace, and they accepted it.

 61 So the king and the commanders gave them their oath. On these conditions the Jews evacuated the stronghold.

 62 But when the king entered Mount Zion and saw what a strong fortress the place was, he broke the oath he had sworn and gave orders to tear down the wall all around.

 63 Then he set off in haste and returned to Antioch. He found Philip in control of the city, but he fought against him, and took the city by force.

 

 

Ch. 7:  Alcimus made high priest by Bacchides, speaks softly but once in power kills Jews. The Maccabees revolt again, Nicanor sent to fight this time. He demands Jews give up Judas,  Judas rallies and defeats Nicanor at Beth-horon


7:8 So the king chose Bacchides, one of the king's Friends, governor of the province Beyond the River; he was a great man in the kingdom and was faithful to the king.

 9 He sent him, and with him he sent the ungodly Alcimus, whom he made high priest; and he commanded him to take vengeance on the Israelites.

 10 So they marched away and came with a large force into the land of Judah; and he sent messengers to Judas and his brothers with peaceable but treacherous words.

 11 But they paid no attention to their words, for they saw that they had come with a large force.

 12 Then a group of scribes appeared in a body before Alcimus and Bacchides to ask for just terms.

 13 The Hasideans were first among the Israelites to seek peace from them,

 14 for they said, "A priest of the line of Aaron has come with the army, and he will not harm us."

15 Alcimus spoke peaceable words to them and swore this oath to them, "We will not seek to injure you or your Friends."

 16 So they trusted him; but he seized sixty of them and killed them in one day, in accordance with the word that was written,

25 When Alcimus saw that Judas and those with him had grown strong, and realized that he could not withstand them, he returned to the king and brought malicious charges against them.

 26 Then the king sent Nicanor, one of his honored princes, who hated and detested Israel, and he commanded him to destroy the people.

 27 So Nicanor came to Jerusalem with a large force, and treacherously sent to Judas and his brothers this peaceable message,

. The army of Nicanor was crushed, and he himself was the first to fall in the battle.

39 Now Nicanor went out from Jerusalem and encamped in Beth-horon, and the Syrian army joined him.

 40 Judas encamped in Adasa with three thousand men. Then Judas prayed and said,

 

Ch. 8:   Judas hears of Romans and makes a treaty with them (Judas and Rome)

 

NRS 1 Maccabees 8:1 Now Judas heard of the fame of the Romans, that they were very strong and were well-disposed toward all who made an alliance with them, that they pledged friendship to those who came to them,

 2 and that they were very strong.

 

8:19 They went to Rome, a very long journey; and they entered the senate chamber and spoke as follows:

 20 "Judas, who is also called Maccabeus, and his brothers and the people of the Jews have sent us to you to establish alliance and peace with you, so that we may be enrolled as your allies and friends."

 21 The proposal pleased them,

 22 and this is a copy of the letter that they wrote in reply, on bronze tablets, and sent to Jerusalem to remain with them there as a memorial of peace and alliance:

 23 "May all go well with the Romans and with the nation of the Jews at sea and on land forever, and may sword and enemy be far from them.

29 Thus on these terms the Romans make a treaty with the Jewish people.

 

Ch. 9:  Bacchides and Alcimus [bad high priest] re-attack,  Judas Mac. who dies in battle.  People come and choose Jonathan Mac. as leader

 

NRS 1 Maccabees 9:1 When Demetrius heard that Nicanor and his army had fallen in battle, he sent Bacchides and Alcimus into the land of Judah a second time, and with them the right wing of the army.

 2 They went by the road that leads to Gilgal and encamped against Mesaloth in Arbela, and they took it and killed many people.

14 Judas saw that Bacchides and the strength of his army were on the right; then all the stouthearted men went with him,

 15 and they crushed the right wing, and he pursued them as far as Mount Azotus.

17 The battle became desperate, and many on both sides were wounded and fell.

 18 Judas also fell, and the rest fled.

 19 Then Jonathan and Simon took their brother Judas and buried him in the tomb of their ancestors at Modein,

20 and wept for him. All Israel made great lamentation for him; they mourned many days and said,

 21 "How is the mighty fallen, the savior of Israel!"

28 Then all the friends of Judas assembled and said to Jonathan,

 29 "Since the death of your brother Judas there has been no one like him to go against our enemies and Bacchides, and to deal with those of our nation who hate us.

 30 Now therefore we have chosen you today to take his place as our ruler and leader, to fight our battle."

 31 So Jonathan accepted the leadership at that time in place of his brother Judas.

70 When Jonathan learned of this, he sent ambassadors to him to make peace with him and obtain release of the captives.

 71 He agreed, and did as he said; and he swore to Jonathan that he would not try to harm him as long as he lived.

 

 

 

 

Ch. 10:  King Demetrius (Syria) and Alexander (from Egypt) court Jonathan with gifts and tax relief vying for the Syrian throne which was in chaos (Alexander wins).

 

10:1 In the one hundred sixtieth year Alexander Epiphanes, son of Antiochus, landed and occupied Ptolemais. They welcomed him, and there he began to reign.

 2 When King Demetrius heard of it, he assembled a very large army and marched out to meet him in battle.

 3 Demetrius sent Jonathan a letter in peaceable words to honor him;

 4 for he said to himself, "Let us act first to make peace with him before he makes peace with Alexander against us,

10 And Jonathan took up residence in Jerusalem and began to rebuild and restore the city.

 11 He directed those who were doing the work to build the walls and encircle Mount Zion with squared stones, for better fortification; and they did so.

 

18 "King Alexander to his brother Jonathan, greetings.

 19 We have heard about you, that you are a mighty warrior and worthy to be our friend.

 20 And so we have appointed you today to be the high priest of your nation; you are to be called the king's Friend and you are to take our side and keep friendship with us." He also sent him a purple robe and a golden crown.

 21 So Jonathan put on the sacred vestments in

1 Jerusalem and its environs, its tithes and its revenues, shall be holy and free from tax.

46 When Jonathan and the people heard these words, they did not believe or accept them, because they remembered the great wrongs that Demetrius had done in Israel and how much he had oppressed them.

 47 They favored Alexander, because he had been the first to speak peaceable words to them, and they remained his allies all his days.

57 So Ptolemy set out from Egypt, he and his daughter Cleopatra, and came to Ptolemais in the one hundred sixty-second year.

 58 King Alexander met him, and Ptolemy gave him his daughter Cleopatra in marriage, and celebrated her wedding at Ptolemais with great pomp, as kings do.

 

 

Chapter 11:   Demetrius comes back because of Ptolemy coming up into Syria. They court and abuse Jonathan Mac. and Jonathan is once again at war with Demetrius, king of Syria.  Simon Mac. left in the country.

 

11:1 Then the king of Egypt gathered great forces, like the sand by the seashore, and many ships; and he tried to get possession of Alexander's kingdom by trickery and add it to his own kingdom.

2 He set out for Syria with peaceable words, and the people of the towns opened their gates to him and went to meet him, for King Alexander had commanded them to meet him, since he was Alexander's father-in-law.

 3 But when Ptolemy entered the towns he stationed forces as a garrison in each town.

8 So King Ptolemy gained control of the coastal cities as far as Seleucia by the sea, and he kept devising wicked designs against Alexander.

13 Then Ptolemy entered Antioch and put on the crown of Asia. Thus he put two crowns on his head, the crown of Egypt and that of Asia.

28 Then Jonathan asked the king to free Judea and the three districts of Samaria from tribute, and promised him three hundred talents.

 29 The king consented, and wrote a letter to Jonathan about all these things; its contents were as follows:

 30 "King Demetrius to his brother Jonathan and to the nation of the Jews, greetings.

63 Then Jonathan heard that the officers of Demetrius had come to Kadesh in Galilee with a large army, intending to remove him from office.

 64 He went to meet them, but left his brother Simon in the country.

 

Ch. 12:   Jonathan tries to make deals with Rome.  Defeats Demetrius of Syria. Then goes against Tyrpho who tricks him and he sends his troops home (after building a bigger wall around Jerusalem) and captured him

 

NRS 1 Maccabees 12:1 Now when Jonathan saw that the time was favorable for him, he chose men and sent them to Rome to confirm and renew the friendship with them.

 2 He also sent letters to the same effect to the Spartans and to other places.

 3 So they went to Rome and entered the senate chamber and said, "The high priest Jonathan and the Jewish nation have sent us to renew the former friendship and alliance with them."

7 Already in time past a letter was sent to the high priest Onias from Arius, who was king among you, stating that you are our brothers, as the appended copy shows.

24 Now Jonathan heard that the commanders of Demetrius had returned, with a larger force than before, to wage war against him.

 25 So he marched away from Jerusalem and met them in the region of Hamath, for he gave them no opportunity to invade his own country.

 26 He sent spies to their camp, and they returned and reported to him that the enemy were being drawn up in formation to attack the Jews by night.

 27 So when the sun had set, Jonathan commanded his troops to be alert and to keep their arms at hand so as to be ready all night for battle, and he stationed outposts around the camp.

 28 When the enemy heard that Jonathan and his troops were prepared for battle, they were afraid and were terrified at heart; so they kindled fires in their camp and withdrew.

35 When Jonathan returned he convened the elders of the people and planned with them to build strongholds in Judea,

 36 to build the walls of Jerusalem still higher, and to erect a high barrier between the citadel and the city to separate it from the city, in order to isolate it so that its garrison could neither buy nor sell.

46 Jonathan trusted him and did as he said; he sent away the troops, and they returned to the land of Judah.

 47 He kept with himself three thousand men, two thousand of whom he left in Galilee, while one thousand accompanied him.

 48 But when Jonathan entered Ptolemais, the people of Ptolemais closed the gates and seized him, and they killed with the sword all who had entered with him.

 

Ch. 13 Simon Mac. and Typhro go at it,  Finally Simon prevails after making deal with King Demetrius (Syria).


NRS 1 Maccabees 13:1 Simon heard that Trypho had assembled a large army to invade the land of Judah and destroy it,

 2 and he saw that the people were trembling with fear. So he went up to Jerusalem, and gathering the people together

9 So he sent the sons and the hundred talents, but Trypho broke his word and did not release Jonathan.

34 Simon also chose emissaries and sent them to King Demetrius with a request to grant relief to the country, for all that Trypho did was to plunder.

 35 King Demetrius sent him a favorable reply to this request, and wrote him a letter as follows,

49 Those who were in the citadel at Jerusalem were prevented from going in and out to buy and sell in the country. So they were very hungry, and many of them perished from famine.

 50 Then they cried to Simon to make peace with them, and he did so. But he expelled them from there and cleansed the citadel from its pollutions.

40 For he had heard that the Jews were addressed by the Romans as friends and allies and brothers, and that the Romans had received the envoys of Simon with honor.

 

Ch. 15:  Antiochus, son of Demetrius grants Simon freedom and no taxes etc.  Antiochus fights Tyrpho at Dor. Simon Mac. now high priest.

 

NRS 1 Maccabees 15:1 Antiochus, son of King Demetrius, sent a letter from the islands of the sea to Simon, the priest and ethnarch of the Jews, and to all the nation;

 2 its contents were as follows: "King Antiochus to Simon the high priest and ethnarch and to the nation of the Jews, greetings.

7 and I grant freedom to Jerusalem and the sanctuary. All the weapons that you have prepared and the strongholds that you have built and now hold shall remain yours.

 

Ch. 16 Simon Mac. killed by Ptolemy (Egypt). So all the Mac. brothers are now dead.  Simon’s descendants, the Hasmoneans take over down to the time of Herod the Great [Edomite/ Idumean] in ca. 40 BC. Herod marries Mariamne who was in this Hasmonean line.

16 When Simon and his sons were drunk, Ptolemy and his men rose up, took their weapons, rushed in against Simon in the banquet hall and killed him and his two sons, as well as some of his servants.

 17 So he committed an act of great treachery and returned evil for good.

 18 Then Ptolemy wrote a report about these things and sent it to the king, asking him to send troops to aid him and to turn over to him the towns and the country.