From God to Us: Inspiration to translations
Where did my NIV come from?
Inspiration [God spoke to prophet]
Canonicity [Books collected]
Copied by Scribes: Text Criticism
Translation into English
KJV [NKJV], NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT, ESV, DASV
2 Tim 3:16; 2 Pet 1:21
Advantages of Written records
Orality of Jesus
Why the Formation of the NT Canon?
Death of the apostles as eyewitnesses
Geographical spread of Christianity (unity/diversity/preservation)
Heresy Pressures: Motanism, Gnosticism, Marcion (deletes OT)
Pastoral concerns: which documents are from God to help people in Xn life
Persecution: which books do you die for?
Basis of Books collected: Key Questions--Canonicity
Is it inspired?
Does it agree with previous revelation?
Is it prophetic/apostolic?
Was it received by the people of God?—by apostles, church—
Is it dynamic? Does it come with the power to change lives?
Circulation and Collection problems
Early Church process of recognizing canon
Muratorian Canon, Eusebius (ca. 325 AD)
Text Criticism: Copies and Scribes, Manuscripts
Papyri Uncials Miniscules (TR)
AD 120-300 AD 300-500 AD 500-1500
P52, P46 A, B, א, D 1059, 1087
#96 299 2,812
External Evidence Amounts
5,700 Greek Manuscripts – some as
early as 125 AD within 30 years of apostles,
Wallace just announce fragment from Mark from 1st century AD ????
10,000 Latin Vulgate (ca. 400 ADà )
1,000 early versions (Coptic, Syriac…)
Million quotes from church father quotes
Lectionaries (church readings texts)
Compare Plato = 7 manuscripts (900 AD)
Aristotle = 5 (1100 AD)
4 Manuscript Families
Alexandrian Family: Uncials; Caesarean Family; Western Family
Byzantine (Textus Receptus TR) or Majority Text—9th century AD; miniscule, KJV
Rules of Evaluating manuscripts
Earlier the better
Wider geographical spread better
Family type: Alexandrian best, Byzantine the worst
Types of Copyist Errors
Errors of Sight
– Similar letters: s / o; in English r, v; o and 0 (zero)
– Homoeoteleuton: same endings so skipped
– Haplography: written 1x should be 2x
– Dittography: written 2x should be 1x
– Metathesis: thier elabon// ebalon
– Fusion: CHRISTISNOWHERE
– Fission: Am 6:12 with oxen NIV//with oxen the sea GNB BBQRYM // BBQR YM
Errors of sound: lite/light; αὐτῶν =αὐτόν
Errors of mind
– Substituting a synonym
– Harmonizing corruptions
– Conflation: Title of Revelation
Rules for evaluating variants
More difficult reading is preferred
Shorter reading preferred
Reading best fits style of writer preferred
3 Big NT Examples
Mk 16:8ff—gone in some mss.
Jn 8—floating à Luke 21:38ff
1 Jn 5:7—added later
No major doctrine effected
MT LXX Papyri Uncials Miniscules
(Hebrew) Gk 120-300 AD 300-500 AD 500 ADà
800 AD 250 BC
Jerome AD 400-1400
Wycliffe (1380) / Tyndale (1536), KJV 1611
NIV, NRSV, ESV, NLT, etc.
Early: John Wycliffe
(1330-1384 ;) Gutenberg Printing press (1450); Tyndale (1494-1536)
Great Bible (1539) chained in churches; Geneva Bible (1560); King James Bible (1611)
Modern Eclectic Text:
NIV (1973); NRSV (1989) based on the RSV (1952); NLT (1996), ESV (2002)—RSV
based; The Message (2002) E. Peterson; DASV 2011 (free online text/audio),