New Testament Literature: Lecture #1 (1/19/17) Hildebrandt
Old Testament Foundations
“Look, the lamb of God which takes away the sin of the world” John 1:29
Climax of Institutions of Israel:
Prophet: Deut 18, Mal. 4:5f
King: greater son of David; temple builder
Priest: Aaronic à Melchizedek
What happens between Malachi (435 BC) and Matthew (AD 50-70)?
What shifts in culture took place between the Semitic OT and the Greek/Roman NT?
What difference does it make?
Where did the synagogue come from?
Who are the Samaritans? Why do they hate Jews and vice versa?
Who are the Pharisees and Sadducees?
Why is the NT in Greek instead of Hebrew?
Why was that time the “right time” for God’s son to come?
Assyria Babylon Persia Greeks Romans
612 BC 539 BC 333 BC 63 BC [time Empire defeated]
586 BC 1st Temple -- Jerusalem falls – people deported to Babylon (Nebuchadnezzar)
70 AD 2nd Temple destroyed by Rome
Persians (539-333 BC) BB(i)BLED
559 Cyrus become king
Cyrus in Bible Isa 45:1; 44:28; Ezra 1:2-4 (Edict); Ezra 6:3-8 esp. 6:11
Benevolent policies—respect local customs, reverses exiles
3 Empires to conquer: Babylon, Lydia, Egypt
Babylon – Nabonidas
Lydia – Croesus-Delphi Oracle
Egypt—left to son Cambyses—disaster
Death / body 1000 miles / respect
Darius (522-486 BC) Empire organizer BBSSS GT
Behistun Inscription-Elamite, Old Persian, Akkadian—usurper?
Benevolent (Apis bull) + Firm (Ezra 6:11)
Street system-Postal system-Herodotus
Greece – Lost at Marathon
2nd Temple completed (515 BC)
Xerxes I (486-465 BC) BEG-300
Bel-Marduk statue melted down in Babylon
Esther’s husband (Ezr 4:6
Greece – torches Athens, Loss at Salamis
300 Spartans stand up against Persia
Artaxerxes: (464-424 BC) NEE
Nehemiah was his cupbearer—wall builder
Later Persians: Disintegration
Darius II – Peloponnesian wars (Athens/Sparta (431-404 BC))
Darius III – lost battle of Issus 333 BC to Alexander—End of Persian Empire
Hellenism / Alexander III 333 BC Questions
How did Alexander conquer the world in 10 years?
What happened to Alexander’s empire?
Why is the NT written in Greek instead of Hebrew?
How did the Jews get from Alexander to Roman rule?
Who were the Maccabees?
Alexander III (333 BC)
Philip II of Macedon –army fighting machine, son’s teacher Aristotle, 336 assassinated
Granicus River victory over Persians-334 BC
Issus victory over Persians (333 BC)
Tyre (Ezek 26:1-6) -7 months
Siwa in Egypt
Babylon – Roxanne, Opis banquet, intermarriage, drunk a lot…
Hindu Kush mountains
Hellenistic Cultural issues:
Cultural amalgamations –transcending the polis (city) à globalization; Polis to oikoumene
(whole civilized world)
Importance for NT: language, worldview: east [Semitic]à west [Hellenistic]
Diadochi [successors]– 4 Generals CLAPS
Cassander – Macedonia/Greece
Lysimachus – Thrace
Antigonus - Turkey/Syria
Ptolemy son of Lagi – Egypt
Seleucus– Iraq/Babylon to India
Tolerant Ptolemies (323-198 BC)
Over Egypt, rule Palestine
Ptolemy takes title of King (304 BC)
Alexandria built by 200 BC--Library
Alexandrian allegorism—hermeneutics, anthropomorphisms offensive
Unified language—Koine Greek
Septuagint (HebrewàLXX – 250-150 BC) Greek translation of OT
Hellenism—Factions in Israel
Areas of cultural interface: REAP
Religion: Jewish // Greek // priests
Economic: taxes, merchants
Army: generals & army
Political: king, governors & courts
Responses to Hellenism: TAWA; diaspora:
Tradition (Pharisees, separation ideology),
Withdraw (Essenes, apocalyptic),
Seleucids (198-167 BC)
Antiochus III (the Great) – victory Panion 198 BC gets Palestine away from Ptolemy
Romans begin taxing
Antiochus IV (175-163 BC) Epiphanes
Hellenize the Jews: Grk. Deities, circumcision, pigs, Scriptures
Three high priests: OJM
Jason — gym, Hellenism
Menelaus—Benjamin, temple treasure
Abomination of Desolation
The Big Maccabees
Mattathias (167 BC)—Father
Judas Maccabee (166-160 BC)—hammerer, Hanukkah
Poor Eleazar—Elephant man
Jonathan the diplomat, High priest
Simon the dynasty builder (Hasmoneans)