New Testament History, Literature, and Theology

                                            Session 5:  Translations

                                            By Dr. Ted Hildebrandt

 

1. What is the problem with the short ending of the book of Mark ending in 16:8 (5D)?
            A.        The book ends before the resurrection occurs
            B.         The book ends with snake handlers
            *C.       The book ends with women trembling
            D.        The book ends with the disciples betraying Christ

Hint:  . The problem is when you read Mark 16:8 it ends the book of Mark with these women trembling at the end of the book then all of a sudden--the book is over. 

 

2.  What is the general rule for how to treat textual variants in terms of theology (5D)?

            A.        Choose the best manuscript and build your theology on that
            *B.       Do not build a major doctrine on a textual variant
            C.         Compare the textual variant with other scriptures
            D.        Build theology on the best text you have whether with or without a variant
Hint:  Don’t base any major doctrine or anything new on these verses because we are not sure about them, they may have been added later. The general rule is never base a doctrine on a textual variant.

 

3.  Where does the long ending of Mark come from in the King James Version (KJV) of the Bible (5D)?

            *A.      From the Byzantine miniscule late manuscripts
            B.         From then Alexandrine uncial manuscripts
            C.         From the papyrus fragments that were found in Egypt
            D.        From St. Catharine’s monastery
Hint: The long ending comes from the miniscules, the later manuscripts that the KJV used in 1611 A.D.  The King James translators translated with the long ending of Mark.

 

4.  What kind of things are mentioned in the long ending of the book of Mark found in some late manuscripts (5D)?
            A.        Jesus having dinner with tax collectors and sinners
            B.         The recording of exactly where Jesus ascended into heaven from

            *C.       The mentioning of handling snakes with no problem
            D.        The angelic announcement to Peter of his heading the church
Hint: picking up and handling of snakes and things that are talked about were added on later

 

5.  What is the textual variant in John 8 about (5E)?
            A.        The woman at the well in Samaria
            B.         The story of healing the blind man on the Sabbath
            C.         The parable of the Good Samaritan

            *D.      A woman caught in adultery
Hint:  "This woman was caught in adultery. Now according to the Law what should we do? The Law says we should stone her.

 

6.  How did the Jews try to entrap Jesus in the case of the woman caught in the act of adultery if he said not to stone her (5E)?
            *A.      He would then be opposing the law of Moses
            B.         He would then be encouraging immorality in Israel
            C.         He would be showing mercy when justice was demanded
            D.        He would be betraying the elders of Israel who had decided the case
Hint: "This woman was caught in adultery. Now according to the Law what should we do? The Law says we should stone her. What should we do? The Pharisees are trying to entrap Jesus. They are always trying to do that. They figure we’ve got him either way. If he says, “let her go” then he is violating the Jewish Law.  If he stones her, he is violating Roman law.

 

7.  How did the Jews try to entrap Jesus in the case of the woman caught in the act of adultery if he said to stone her (5E)?
            A.        He would then be encouraging immorality in Israel
            B.         He would be showing mercy when justice was demanded
            *C.       He would then be opposing the law of Rome
            D.        He would be betraying the elders of Israel who had decided the case
Hint: "This woman was caught in adultery. Now according to the Law what should we do? The Law says we should stone her. What should we do? The Pharisees are trying to entrap Jesus. They are always trying to do that. They figure we’ve got him either way. If he says, “let her go” then he is violating the Jewish Law.  If he stones her, he is violating Roman law.

 

8.  Why is the textual variant in John 8 on the adulterous woman considered a floating pericope (story) (5E)?
            A.        Because it has Jesus floating up in the clouds
            *B.       Because this variant is found in some manuscripts over in Luke 21
            C.         Because this story is in some manuscripts and not in others
            D.        Because this story is not found prior to the 15th century AD
Hint:  . It occurs in John 8, first ten or eleven verses there, but that same passage is found in some manuscripts in Luke 21, the same situation and paragraph with the interaction with the woman. This story of Jesus had a tendency to float around

 

9.  What part of the story of John 8 would be hard for monks to copy and endorse as coming from Jesus (5E)?
            A.        When Jesus says, “the one who is perfect should cast the first stone”
            *B.       When Jesus says, “neither do I condemn you, go and sin no more”

            C.         When Jesus tells the Jews to take the beam out of their own eye first

            D.        When Jesus tells the immoral woman to follow him

Hint:  What I am suggesting is that is this reading really hard? Jesus saying, "Go and sin no more." I can see how scribes would want to drop it out especially if they are of the monkish type

 

10.  Why was it suggested that the pericope (story) of the adulterous woman in John 8 should be accepted as original (5E)?
            A.        It is the shorter reading and therefore should be preferred
            B.         It has the widest geographical spread manuscript wise so should be preferred

            *C.       It is the more difficult reading and therefore should be preferred
            D.        It is the earliest reading and therefore should be preferred

Hint: And, therefore, the harder reading is to leave it in. I would suggest that it is legitimate story because it floated around and seems to be real and a valid tradition going back to Jesus

 

11.  1 John 5:7 in the King James version is one of the clearest verses in all the Bible on what topic (5F)?

            A.        The deity of Christ
            B.         The substitutionary atonement
            C.         Speaking in tongues

            *D.      The trinity
Hint:  That verse, 1 John 5:7: Father, Word, and Holy Spirit, teaches the doctrine of the Trinity more clearly than any other verse in the whole Bible. There is no other verse in the Bible that lays it out this simply. These three are one; there is no other verse that comes close. The early church was debating in the Trinitarian conflicts.

 

12.  All of the following are objections to receiving the reading of 1 John 5:7 proposed in the KJV EXCEPT (5F)?
            A.        It is never once quoted by the church fathers in the Trinitarian debates
            B.         It is found only in late Byzantine manuscripts
            *C.       The KJV translators did not know how to translate this verse
            D.        We suspect Erasmus wrote it into the Bible in the sixteenth century
Hint:  This verse is never cited one time by the church fathers….. In 1 John 5:7 if you have a King James Version, it is based on the Byzantine/Majority Text, it will read something like this… rumor has it that there was a wager that he couldn't find this verse on the Trinity, so people think that Erasmus took a Latin text and translated it from the Latin text into Greek and put it into the Erasmus Greek New Testament

 

13.  What two texts are largely based on what two manuscript traditions along with the Dead Sea Scrolls (5G)?
            A.        The  Ugaritic and Akkadian manuscripts

            B.         The Latin Vulgate and the papyri

            *C.       The Masoretic Text [MT] and the LXX
            D.        The Syriac and Coptic manuscripts

Hint:  Largely what it does says you have a “MT” [Masoretic Text] which is in Hebrew. The LXX that is in the Greek Old Testament in 200 B.C..

 

14. The New Testament is built largely off of what three manuscript sources (5G)?
            *A.      Miniscules, Uncials, and Papyrus
            B.         Scrolls, tablets and codex

            C.         The Septuagint, Masoretic Text and the Dead Sea Scrolls
            D.        Vellum, Papyrus and tablets
Hint:  In the New Testament you put the Papyri were found late, in the 19th century, the uncial in the middle of the 19th century and the miniscules--there are thousands of those. These are put together to have the New Testament

 

15.  Who translated the Latin Bible used by the church for 1000 years called around 400 AD  (5G)?
            A.        Athanasius
            B.         Eusebius
            *C.       Jerome

            D.        Augustine
Hint:  But Jerome about 400 A.D., the problem was the roman Empire was switching from Greek to Latin. He wanted to learn Hebrew so he went there and did. He did a translation into Latin.

 

16.  Who gave us one of the earliest translations of the Bible in English (5H)?
            A.        William Tyndale
            B.         Miles Coverdale
            C.         Theodore Bezae
            *D.      John Wycliffe
Hint:  In 1380 the Bible is translated by John Wycliffe. After him, William Tyndale about 1536 now

 

17.  Who gave us an English translation that was very accurate but was burned at the stake for doing it (5H)?

            *A.      William Tyndale
            B.         Miles Coverdale
            C.         Theodore Bezae
            D.        John Wycliffe
Hint:  So basically the church went after him and captured him. They went to Eourope and caught him and burned him at the stake. So William Tyndale--

18. What technological advance around 1450 AD really facilitated the Protestant Reformation (5I)?
            A.        The computer
            B.         The development of the alphabet
            *C.       The printing press

            D.        The iphone
Hint:  The Gutenberg printing press comes about 1450 that was a phenomenal instrument. Martin Luther used the printing press

 

19.  Who was associated with the Geneva Bible in English (5I)?

            A.        William Tyndale
            *B.       John Calvin
            C.         Martin Luther
            D.        John Wycliffe
Hint:  Then there was the Geneva Bible. When you said Geneva in this time period, about 1550’s, John Calvin is in Geneva

 

20.  The King James Version of 1611 was based primarily on what set of Greek manuscripts (5I)?
            A.        The Uncials and Papyrus
            B.         Codex Sinaiticus and Vaticanus
            C.         The Alexandrian and Caesarean family of manuscripts

*D.      The Byzantine Majority text or Textus Receptus
Hint:  Now there is the NKJV in the last 20 years.  This new version they have updated it more but basically using that Majority Text sources again but updating the language so that is a good thing the NKJV.

 

21.  What are the two main modern versions used in the USA and Britain (5J)?
            A.        The Message and ESV
            B.         The KJV and NIV
            C.         The NLT and NRSV
            *D.      The NIV and NRSV

Hint:  NIV and NRSV

 

22.  Which two translations would be considered more dynamic equivalent meaning for meaning translations rather than word for word (5J)?
            *A.      The Message and NLT [New Living Translation]
            B.         The NIV and ESV
            C.         The NRSV and the NIV
            D.        The ESV and NASV
Hint:  That will be very literal and something like the Message would be more free.   The New Living Translation [NLT] is more meaning for meaning, not word for word, there is a span there between the literal to this free wild thing.

 

23.  Which version did Dr. Wilson work on (5J)?
            A.        NRSV
            B.         NLT
            *C.       NIV
            D.        ESV
Hint:  Many of you know Dr. Marv Wilson that teaches at Gordon College, he worked on the NIV.

 

24.  Who wrote The Message Bible (5K)?
            A.        Ken Taylor
            *B.       Eugene Peterson
            C.         Dr. Wilson

            D.        John Walton
Hint: The message is by Eugene Peterson who teaches in Regent in Vancouver, Canada.

 

25.  The ESV translation is very closely associated with the ______ (5K)
            A.        NIV
            B.         NLT
            C.         ASV
            *D.      RSV
Hint:  The ESV came out in 2002. It seems to be a knock off of the RSV in many cases