New Testament History, Literature, and Theology
           Session #4:  Inspiration, canonicity and the transmission of the text.
                                                Ted Hildebrandt

1.  What was the process of collecting of authoritative books called (4C)?
            A.        Transmission
            B.         Inspiration
            C.         Translation
            *D.      Canonization
Hint: It was never collected into what is called Canonical scriptures. Canonical scriptures is the collecting of books that God wrote.

2.  Who was a prophet from the time of Jeremiah that we know prophesied from God but we have nothing of their writings (4C)?
            A.        Barak
            B.         Baruch
            C.         Josiah
            *D.      Huldah
Hint:  For example, in the Old Testament we know of the prophet Huldah, and we know that she was around the time of Jeremiah. She was a prophetess, God spoke to her.

3. Who were involved in the process of transmission of the word of God (4D)?
            A.        Kings
            B.         Priests
            C.         Prophets
            *D.      Scribes
Hint: New Testament for 2,000 years was copied over and over again by scribes. Scribes are human beings. Scribes make mistakes. We’ve got copies of what the scribes copied over the period of 2,000 years thousands of scribes that early copied the word of God.

4.  What is vellum that scribes used in copying the scriptures (4D)?
            A.        Paper made from wood
            *B.       Animal hides
            C.         Plants that were pressed into ancient paper
            D.        Stone that was written on
Hint:  If they copied them on vellum, or animal hides, it would last a long time. Animal hides leather last a long time.

5.  What is papyrus that scribes used in copying the scriptures (4D)?
            A.        Paper made from wood
            B.         Animal hides
            *C.       Plants that were pressed into ancient paper
            D.        Stone that was written on
Hint:  But if they copied it on papyrus--papyrus is kind of like a cross between a bamboo ruin and a bull rush and basically the fibers of that organic material cross together to make paper.

6.  Papyrus is largely preserved only in what country (4D)?
            A.        Asia Minor (Turkey)
            *B.       Egypt
            C.         Rome
            D.        Syria
Hint:  Papyrus only last in places like Egypt. 

7.  What do text scholars today do in working with the ancient manuscripts of the New Testament (4D)?
            *A.      They compare them and all their differences deciding what are the best edited text
            B.         They collect them so that we can make sure nothing is lost
            C.         They read as many of them as they can and write articles on their findings
            D.        They vote with other scholars which manuscripts should be accepted as the word of God
Hint:  Scholars like Bruce Metzger and other people, Kurt Aland collect these manuscripts from all over the world and they compare them one with the other.  Then they give us an edited text

8.  All of the following are modern translations of the New Testament EXCEPT
            A.        NIV
            B.         ESV
            C.         NRSV
            *D.      NUB
            E.         KJV
Hint:  Kings James Version is going to be different from the NIV. It is different from the Living Bible, different from the NLT [New Living Translation], the ESV or the NRSV.

9.  2 Timothy 3:16 talks about Scripture as ________ (4F)
            A.        Having its origin in God and not in the will of people
            B.         Being perfect
            *C.       Being God breathed or inspired by God
            D.        Never passing away
Hint: 2 Timothy 3:16.  It is a very famous verse, very important verse to the process of inspiration. “All scripture is inspired by God,”-- actually the word there is “God breathed.” 

10.  2 Peter 1:21 talks about Scripture as ________ (4F)
            *A.      Having its origin in God and not in the will of people
            B.         Being perfect
            C.         Being God breathed or inspired by God
            D.        Never passing away
Hint:  In 2 Peter 1:21-- this is another classic verse on inspiration.  It says this:  “For prophecy never had its origin in the will of man.

11.  What is one problem that oral communication has (4G)?
            A.        It can communicate from one person to a whole group
            *B.       Preservation over a long period of time
            C.         People can twist oral communication and there is no way to check it
            D.        Written communication is shorter and more concise
Hint:  One of the benefits of written texts is the notion of preservation. When I speak in a class to 100 students the words come out of my mouth and within ten minutes most of them have forgotten what I said. 

12.  One of the benefits of written communication is
            *A.      Writing is usually more precise than oral communication
            B.         It can communicate from one person to a whole group
            C.         People can twist oral communication and there is no way to check it
            D.        Written communication is shorter and more concise
Hint:  When somebody is speaking and I find myself in many of these videos, I speak very sloppily.  When I write I write in a much more precise way

13.  One of the benefits of written communication is (4H)
            A.        It can communicate figures of speech better than oral performances
            B.         People can twist oral communication and there is no way to check it
            *C.       Writing allows for millions to read it whereas oral will only address 1,000’s
            D.        Written communication is shorter and more concise
Hint: goes by word of mouth--you speak and it goes out to say 100 people here and now. But when I write, you can put it on the internet and billions of people can see it.

14.  All of the following are reasons why the early church began to write the New Testament books and collect them EXCEPT (4I-L)
            A.        Heresies creeping into the church
            B.         The apostles dying off
            C.         The church spreading out geographically
            *D.      Jesus had commanded them to write it down after his resurrection
            E.         Pastoral concerns for teaching truth
Hint:  Hey Matthew, it’s nice to know you know all these stories about Jesus and you have told us all these stories but write it down because it’s going to last, you’re going to die” and mostly all of the apostles were killed….Before when it was in Jerusalem, all the apostles were in Jerusalem. They could check with one another and recite the stories of Jesus and go over different things. But as things began to spread out there was more need to write them down so that the record …Here is another big one. In the early church, this is coming in the second century- day after 100 AD. You started to have Heresies creep up.

15.  Which early church father rejected the Old Testament (4K)?
            A.        Irenaeus
            B.         Clement
            C.         Athanasius
            *D.      Marcion
Hint:  Marcion basically looked at the Old Testament and he didn’t like the God of the Old Testament so he dismisses the Old Testament and accepts only the New Testament.

16. What strange ideas did the Gnostics in the second century hold that helped precipitate the gathering of the canonical books of the New Testament (4K)?
            *A.      They favored the spirit over the body and had secret knowledge
            B.         The Old Testament was not very helpful and should not be accepted
            C.         They had prophets of their own telling of the end of the world
            D.        They rejected the Holy Spirit
Hint:  Gnosticism, in the second century in particular was growing where it was this clear cut favoring of the spirit over the body and the secret knowledge that was supposed to be claimed by the Gnostics

17. How did persecution impact the discussion of canonicity (4M)?
            A.        People were willing to flee with the manuscripts
            *B.       People wanted to know whether of book was the word of God before they would die for
                        it
            C.         People hid the books and some of them were never found
            D.        Many of the books were burned
Hint: The Shepherd of Hermes is not the word of God. That is a problem. The book of Matthew is the word of God. That is a problem. So the early church had to decide which books they were going to die for and which books they’re not going to die for.

18.  The first question asked on whether a book should be in the canon is _______(4N)
            A.        Is it written by an apostle
            *B.       Is it inspired by God
            C.         Does it address religious themes
            D.        Was it accepted by the people of God
Hint:  First question you ask is, was it inspired? Is the book inspired? 

19.  Who wrote:  “If anyone thinks he is a prophet or spiritually gifted, let him acknowledge that what I am writing to you is the Lord’s command” showing he was aware that he himself was writing Scripture when he wrote it (4N)?
            A.        Peter
            B.         John
            C.         James
            *D.      Paul
Hint:  You can’t mess with these things. It is interesting over in 1 Corinthians 14:37, Paul makes this comment concerning the commands of the Lord “If anyone thinks he is a prophet…

20.  How did John show he knew that he was writing Scripture in the book of Revelation (4N)?
            *A.      He demanded that no one add or subtract from his book
            B.         He said “Thus saith the Lord”
            C.         He quoted the Old Testament throughout the book
            D.        He claimed that he was writing about the future as a prophet
Hint:  Revelation 22:18, John at the end of the book, at the end of the apocalypse he says this: “If anybody adds to them these words he’s written, God will add to him the plagues described in this book

21. Which books was questioned as far as its canonical status especially by Martin Luther that it disagreed with previous revelation?
            A.        Romans
            B.         Revelation
            *C.       James
            D.        Ephesians
Hint:  James was questioned because James said “Faith without” what? “Faith without works is dead.” Well then you’ve got Paul saying, “It’s by faith through grace that not of ourselves. Not by works of the law lest anyone should boast.” –

22.  Which New Testament book was questioned on the basis that we don’t know whether the author was apostolic or not (4P)?
            *A.      Hebrews
            B.         Acts
            C.         Mark
            D.        Philemon
Hint:  . But the book of Hebrews was questioned because they were not sure who wrote it. Was it Luke that wrote it? Was it Paul who wrote it? Was it Apollos that wrote it? We don’t know who wrote it.

23.  What did Peter and Paul have a conflict over in the early church (4Q)?
            A.        Whether Jews had to renounce Judaism before becoming Christians
            *B.       Whether Gentiles had to be circumcised and eat kosher or not
            C.         Whether all churches must pay homage to the church at Rome
            D.        How Jesus could be God and man at the same time
Hint:  Paul said, “No, they don’t have to eat kosher and they don’t have to be circumcised.  Abraham was justified by faith just before he was circumcised.  So the Gentiles don’t have to be circumcised.”   Peter said, “You know, I’ve never eaten anything unclean.” 

24. What does Peter grouping Paul’s letters with the other scriptures show?
            A.        Peter was in the minority in the early church and was forced to accept Paul
            *B.       Peter accepted Paul’s letters as authoritative and canonical immediately
            C.         Peter was collecting the books of the New Testament already
            D.        Peter did not have a clear sense of which books were authoritative yet
Hint: Peter is saying that Paul’s letters are just the same as the other scriptures. They refute unstable people as they do the other scriptures. Peter is putting Paul’s letters on the same level as the other scriptures

25.  What book does Paul quote as authoritative quoting it as on the same level of authority as the book of Deuteronomy (4Q)?
            A.        John
            B.         Acts
            C.         Matthew
            *D.      Luke
Hint:  what I’m trying to say is early on it wasn’t hundreds and hundreds of years later. The Scripture gained authority and became more and more prominent hundreds of years later. No! We are talking Timothy right there. He puts Luke and Deuteronomy side by side.

26.  Which New Testament writer seems to be aware of a Pauline collection of letters already in the first century as he is writing (4R)?
            A.        John
            *B.       Peter
            C.         Timothy
            D.        James
Hint:  “With the wisdom that God gave him, “he writes the same way in all his letters speaking in them of these matters.” Peter seems to be aware of a Pauline collection. He is aware that Paul wrote more than one letter. 

27.  What book was questioned in the early church on the basis that it didn’t change lives or come with the power of God (4R)?
            *A.      Jude
            B.         Philemon
            C.         Hebrews
            D.        James
Hint:  So the question on the book of Jude on the basis of this:  the word of God comes with the power of God

28.  What was the problem of circulation in the early church (4S)?
            A.        The apostle Paul only went to select churches and not to all
            B.         Certain churches were wealthy and hoarded the letters of Paul
            *C.       One church got a letter but didn’t have those written to other churches
            D.        The church at Jerusalem was the center and all books had to be brought there
Hint:  Now there is a problem in what is called the Circulation problem. Paul wrote a letter to the Ephesians. That meant that the church of Ephesus got the letter. But there were a group of Christians up at Philippi who didn’t have the letter.

29.  What was the shape of the canon when John died at the end of the first century (4S)?

            A.        There was already a large corpus of books the apostles were aware of
            B.         Paul’s letters had been collected but others had not
            C.         Some of the books were in danger of being lost already
            D.        The New Testament writers accepted all the books already
            *E.       None of the New Testament writers ever saw all the New Testament books
Hint:  None of the New Testament writers could see the New Testament put together.

30. What does the fact that the church took a long time gathering, questioning and checking which books were canonical show (4T)?
            *A.      That the church was careful and meticulous in its authenticating process
            B.         That some of the books could not initially be found
            C.         That what we have is everything the apostles ever wrote about Jesus
            D.        That the New Testament was directly given to us from the hand of God
Hint:  Because they were so meticulous the process took hundreds of years. It took a while before the whole thing was put together.

31.  Which record of the collection of books do we have from 170 AD that has all but Peter’s epistles, James and Hebrews (4U)?
            A.        The Council of Chalcedon
            *B.       The Muratorian Canon
            C.         The Sistine Canon
            D.        The Ephesian New Testament
Hint:  The Muratorian Canon was all but 1, 2 Peter and James and Hebrews.  So it has the New Testament. This comes from about 170 AD.

32. Which early church father developed the distinction between the homolegomena and the antilegomena around 325 AD (4U)?
            A.        Athanasius
            B.         Irenaeus
            C.         Polycarp
            *D.      Eusebius
Hint:  So Eusebius is studying right around that time and he’s got what is called the homolegomena going on where everyone accepts the gospels; Acts, the Pauline epistles, 1 Peter, 1 John and Revelation.

33. All of the following were considered antilegomena books in the New Testament canon EXCEPT (4V)
            *A.      Ephesians
            B.         Jude
            C.         2 Peter
            D.        James
            E.         2 and 3 John
Hint:  Jude, 2 Peter, James, 2 and 3 John and Hebrews have all been questioned

34.  Which church father around 367 AD affirms all 27 books of our New Testament (4V)?
            *A.      Athanasius
            B.         Irenaeus
            C.         Polycarp
            D.        Eusebius
Hint:  One of the church fathers Athanasius at 367. Athanasius was an early church father. He lists the 27 books of the New Testament. So by 367, you know you are talking a couple of hundred years and 50 years after in the New Testament was written, it is all together.

35. Why were the Jewish scribes so much better than Christian scribes (4W)?
            A.        Hebrew was easier to work with than Greek
            B.         They wrote on leather whereas Christians wrote on papyrus which broke
            *C.       They were professionally trained whereas Christians were not
            D.        The Christians used more oral forms while the Jews favored the written
Hint:  Jewish scribes that copied scriptures were professionals. They were professionally trained and had meticulous procedures for checks and balances and the proof reading and the balancing your reading to make sure that it was absolutely perfect and it was done perfectly

36.  Christian scribes were not always the best because of all of the following factors EXCEPT (4X)
            A.        They were poor
            B.         They were persecuted
            *C.       They were not as committed
            D.        They were not professionally trained
Hint: These guys were not trained scribes. They were fishermen and tax collectors…. So they were poor and probably most devastating was and they were most prescribed. Christians were persecuted from place to place in very local contexts.

37.  Sometimes there will be differences in the Gospels which may arise from what factor (4Y)?
            A.        The writer’s memories failed them
            B.         Jesus preached the same sermon several times to different audiences
            C.         Sometimes the scribes would substitute a synonym in for what Jesus said
            D.        Different writers put things in different order
Hint: Did Jesus ever preach the same sermon twice? Most likely he did.  So he would go from place to place. The disciples would here the sermons three or four different times.

38. The culture around the time of Christ was seen as more ________(4Y)
            *A.      Orally oriented
            B.         Text focused
            C.         Used to making copies
            D.        More careless about the exact wording of things
Hint:  What I'm suggesting is people in Gerhardson’s book Memory and Manuscripts demonstrated that many of the people in the ancient world were trained to remember what they heard. So it was very much an oral culture then. 

39.  Which type of Greek manuscripts fit reflect a later time period and more cursive like writing (4Z)?
            A.        Uncials
            *B.       Miniscules
            C.         Papyrus
            D.        Vellum
Hint:  It is cursive, scribble script, kind of cursive writing, lowercase cursive writing. These miniscules date from about 500 AD, a lot of them are from around 1000 AD, so this is the thousand years after Christ

40. Which manuscript type is very late and often was copied after 1000 AD or so (4Z)?

            A.        Uncials
            *B.       Miniscules
            C.         Papyrus
            D.        Vellum
Hint:  It is cursive, scribble script, kind of cursive writing, lowercase cursive writing. These miniscules date from about 500 AD, a lot of them are from around 1000 AD, so this is the thousand years after Christ

41.  Which manuscripts are composed of capital letters with no spaces between the words (4Z)?
            *A.      Uncials
            B.         Miniscules
            C.         Papyrus
            D.        Vellum
Hint: The uncial manuscripts are capital letter manuscripts

42.  Which manuscripts date from between 300-500 AD (4Z)?
            *A.      Uncials
            B.         Miniscules
            C.         Papyrus
            D.        Vellum
Hint:  The uncial manuscripts come from 300-500 AD.  So the uncial manuscripts are earlier and  better than the miniscule manuscripts then. 

43.  All of the following are our three best uncial manuscripts upon which the New Testament is built EXCEPT (4Z)
            A.        Alexandrinus
            *B.       Antiochus
            C.         Vaticanus
            D.        Sinaiticus
Hint:  “A” would be like Alexandrianus, “b” would be Vaticanus, Alexandrianus was found where probably?    Vaticanus comes out of the Vatican in Rome.  This one here is Sinaiticus because it comes out of Sinai, it’s given a Hebrew letter, aleph

44.  What is vellum (4Z)
            A.        Paper made out of wood chips
            B.         A writing stylus used by scribes to write on papyrus
            *C.       Paper made of animal hides
            D.        A canister that would hold scrolls
Hint:  A lot of the uncials would be written on animal hides called vellum, animal hides

45.  How did Tischendorff acquire the Sinaiticus uncial manuscript (4Z)?
            A.        He spent his fortune on purchasing it
            B.         He traded silk and spices for it
            *C.       He stole it
            D.        He made a copy of it by hand
Hint:  The monks are still mad at him for stealing Sinaiticus

46. Which manuscripts are the earliest going back to within thirty years of when the apostle John lived (4Z)?
            A.        Uncials
            B.         Miniscules
            *C.       Papyrus
            D.        Vellum
Hint:  these papyrus fragments, and the problem is the papyrus breaks. It’s real brittle.  Imagine after 200 years that’s written on organic material.  Its very, very brittle, and just breaks. Someone just picks it up and it breaks in their hands, But the date is 120 to 300 AD, and why that is really interesting is that some of the early manuscripts like P52 dates from about 120-125 AD. That is within 30 years of when John  lived.

47. When were the papyrus manuscripts discovered (4AA)?
            A.        Just prior to the eighteenth century
            B.         Just prior to the nineteenth century
            *C.       Just prior to the twentieth century
            D.        Just prior to the twenty-first century
Hint:  So 125 AD we have got the papyrus, going back the papyrus was found by Deismann, and some of those guys  did a lot of the work with the papyrus around 1890, around 1910 right around the turn of the 20th century, between 1880 say, and 1920. 

48.  Approximately how many manuscripts of the Greek New Testament do we have (pick the best answer) (4AB)?
            A.        Over 4,000
            *B.       Over 5,000
            C.         Over 6,000
            D.        Over 7,000
Hint:  we’ve got 5000 Greek manuscripts and we gather all these manuscripts together and we compare them,

49. What translation of the New Testament was used by the church for 1,000 years (4AB)? 
            A.        The Septuagint
            B.         The Peshitta
            C.         The Targum
            *D.      The Vulgate
Hint:  He largely translated the Bible into Latin.  This Latin Vulgate then was used for a 1000 years from about 400 to about 1400, 1500 AD

50.  What are lectionaries (4AC)?
            *A.      Biblical readings compiled to be read in churches
            B.         Quotations from the church fathers
            C.         Collections of papyrus manuscripts found in one place
            D.        Dictionaries defining the Greek terms used in the New Testament     
Hint:  These scriptural readings are lectionaries, they’re special readings that are compiled for the church and to be read at different seasons at Easter, Christmas, or whatever. 

51.  How many Greek manuscripts are there for Plato and Aristotle (4AD)?
            A.        Over 500
            B.         Over 1000
            C.         About 100
            *D.      A handful
Hint:  Our earliest best manuscripts are 1100 AD. There’s only about 5 or 6 of them. There are a handful of them. So I’m saying that it’s very different compared to the Greek New Testament where there are over 5000 Greek manuscripts. 

52.  Our best uncial manuscript family of manuscripts represented in Vaticanus and Sinaiticus is called _________ (4AE)
            A.        The Caesarean family
            *B.       The Alexandrian family
            C.         The Byzantine family
            D.        The Syriac family
Hint:  This is the family of uncials considered the Alexandrian family, and there’s three big manuscripts families.  These are the three big ones.

53.  Which family of manuscripts is the latest although there are many more of them (4AE)?
            A.        The Caesarean family
            B.         The Alexandrian family
            *C.       The Byzantine family
            D.        The Syriac family
Hint: The Byzantine texts come from the time of the Byzantines.  So it’s going to be much later. There are many Byzantine texts

54.  What is the Byzantine family of manuscripts is called (4AE)?
            A.        Textus Minisculus
            *B.       Textus Receptus
            C.         Textus Apostolus
            D.        Textus Divinitus
Hint:  So the Byzantine manuscripts are often called the Texus Receptus. Some people abbreviate this as the TR, the Texus Receptus, or the Majority Text.

55.  The King James version which well served the English church for 350 years was based on what manuscript family (4AE)?
            A.        The Caesarean family
            B.         The Alexandrian family
            *C.       The Byzantine family
            D.        The Syriac family
Hint:  The Textus Receptus is what the King James is based on. King James’ version was done in 1611

55.  What is a codex (e.g. Codex Vaticanus) (AE)?
            A.        A codex is a type of animal skin the pages are written on
            *B.       A codex is a book with a binding as opposed to a scroll
            C.         A codex is made out of papyrus sheets glued together
            D.        A codex is the first manuscript that we have of a particular text of Scripture
Hint: 
Codex Vaticanus, it’s given the letter “B”, Vaticanus and it comes from the 4th century period about 300 AD. This is going to be a big codex. Codex is a book.


57.  All of the following are principles used by those who compare the various Greek manuscripts trying to figure out which is the best EXCEPT (4AF)
            A.        The oldest reading is to be preferred
            B.         The reading with the widest geographical spread is to be preferred
            C.         The reading supported by the best family of manuscripts is to be preferred
            *D.      The reading that best fits theological truth is to be preferred
Hint:  So the earlier is the better.  …The wider geographical spread is better. …Another is the family type

57. All of the following are common types of scribal errors EXCEPT (4AG)
            A.        Confusion of similar looking letters
            B.         Same endings so your eye jumps down the page skipping text
            C.         Reversing the order of two letters
            *D.      Writing sloppily so it cannot be read by others
            E.         When things are written once and they should have been written twice
 Hint: 

59. Homoeoteleuton type of scribal error is ____________ (4AG)
            A.        Confusion of similar look letters
            *B.       Same endings so when you eye jumps back to the page you skip down the page to a
                        similar ending
            C.         When two readings are added together
            D.        When things are written once and they should have been written twice
Hint: Homoeoteleuton? “Homo” means same, “teleuton” is from “telos” in Greek means “end.” So Homoeoteleuton means having the same ending. Have you ever copied down a page and there you copy across, and the same word is here is found down here, and what happens is when your eye jumps back to the page after you’ve written it down and you jump back, the same ending as here is down here, your eye jumps down the page.  You skip three or four verses, because it has the same ending. 

60.  Metathesis is ___________ (3AG)
            *A.      When the order of letter is switched “their”
            B.         Same endings so when you eye jumps back to the page you skip down the page to a
                        similar ending
            C.         When two readings are added together
            D.        When things are written once and they should have been written twice
Hint: So that’s called metathesis. This is when you take two letters and you switch them.  And by the way, if you see this spelled, “t h i e r”

61. Haplogrpahy is _________  (4AG)
            A.        When the order of letter is switched “their”
            B.         Same endings so when you eye jumps back to the page you skip down the page to a
                        similar ending
            C.         When two readings are added together
            *D.      When things are written once and they should have been written twice
Hint:  Haplography means it’s written once and it should have been written twice

62.  Dittography is __________ (4AG)
            A.        When the order of letter is switched “their”
            *B.       When things are written twice and they should have been written once
            C.         Same endings so when you eye jumps back to the page you skip down the page to a
                        similar ending
            D.        When two readings are added together
Hint: They call that dittography, like “ditto.”  It’s written twice, the scribe copies it twice, but it should have only been written once

63.  Conflation is ___________ (4AG)
            A.        When the order of letter is switched “their”
            B.         When things are written twice and they should have been written once
            C.         Same endings so when you eye jumps back to the page you skip down the page to a
                        similar ending
            *D.      When two readings are added together
Hint: Conflation. …would you rather add words to Scripture or take them away?  Say you’re a scribe and you’ve got one manuscript. …One manuscript says “the church of the Lord.” Another manuscript says “the church of God.”  Do you know what you find 100 years later?  “The church of the Lord God.”  Add two texts together… text grows

64. Fission is _____________ (4AG)
            A.        When the order of letter is switched “their”
            B.         When things are written twice and they should have been written once
            *C.       When two words are split that should be together
            D.        When two readings are added together
 Hint: Fission is the opposite. People split it apart when it should have been together.

65.  One type of scribal error that is an error of the mind is ________ (4AG)
            *A.      Substituting a synonym
            B.         Over thinking a text
            C.         Writing what you thought it said
            D.        Confusing letters
Hint:  What is interesting to me is often times I go through and they have mistyped the word and they have substituted a synonym.

66.  A harmonizing corruption is when _________ (4AG)
            *A.      “Blessing” is written when everyone knows “cursing” should have been written
            B.         Writing “Thier” rather than “their”
            C.         Writing what the scribe thought should be there rather than was is
            D.        The scribe trying to fix a bad reading
Hint:  but the scribes did not like writing “curse God” so they wrote “bless God”, and everybody knows that they need to switch that, that they need to flip it, but it’s called harmonizing corruptions.

67.  Which is to be preferred (4AH)?
            *A.      The more difficult reading
            B.         The longer reading
            C.         The reading that makes the most sense
            D.        The reading that best fits with theological orthodoxy
Hint: So the more difficult reading is to be preferred, the one that’s harder to understand. Scribes normally would have softened them so that the original reading is probably the more difficult one.

68.  Which is to be preferred (4AH)?
            A.        The longer reading
            *B.       The shorter reading
            C.         The reading that makes the most sense
            D.        The reading that best fits with theological orthodoxy
Hint:  The text had a tendency to grow. Therefore the more original is probably the shorter reading.

69.  Which is to be preferred (4AH)?
            A.        The longer reading
            B.         The reading that makes the most sense
            *C.       The reading that fits the writer’s style
            D.        The reading that best fits with theological orthodoxy
Hint:  The reading that best fits the style of the writer, when you’re in the book of 1st John, for example, and it says, “alhlwn” “one another.”

70.  All of the following are places where major textual problems occur in the New Testament EXCEPT (4AI)
            A.        Mark 16
            B.         John 8
            *C.       Romans 4
            D.        1 John 5:7
Hint:  3 Major Textual Problems in the New Testament: Mark 16, John 8, 1 John 5:7