1. The New Testament – An Overview

 

    1. What is the “New Testament?”

 

 

 

 

    1. What is so “old” about the Old Testament and “new” about the New Testament?

 

 

 

 

 

 

    1. The New Testament is arranged ______________________, not ________________________.

 

                                                              i.      The Gospels

 

 

 

 

                                                            ii.      Acts

 

 

 

 

                                                          iii.      Pauline Epistles

 

 

 

 

                                                          iv.      General Epistles

 

 

 

 

                                                            v.      Revelation

 

 

 

 

 

II.                The World of the New Testament

 

a.     The political climate

 

                                                             i.      A great general

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      A grand empire

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      A struggle for power

 

The Seleucids and Ptolemies

 

 

 

                                  The crisis under Antiochus Epiphanes (175-63 BC)

 

 

 

The Maccabeans

 

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      An emerging world rule – the Romans

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                           v.      A cruel king

 

 

 

 

                                                        vi.      A critical period of time

 

 

 

 

 

b.     Religion anyone?  Take your pick!

 

                                                             i.      Greco-Roman religions

 

Plato

 

 

 

 

Stoicism

 

 

 

 

Cynicism

 

 

 

 

Magic

 

 

 

 

Pagan religions

 

 

 

 

Gnosticism

 

 

 

 

Emperor worship

 

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      Jewish religions

 

Let’s study the Torah

 

 

 

 

Let’s separate

 

 

 

 

Let’s accommodate

 

 

 

 

Let’s withdraw

 

 

 

 

Let’s fight

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      The literature of Judaism

Halakah and haggadah

 

 

The Mishnah

 

 

 

The Talmud

 

 

 

The Midrashim

 

 

 

The Targums

 

 

 

Dead Sea Scrolls

 

 

 

 

 

c.      What was it like to live in the 1st Century A.D.?

 

                                                             i.      Avoid shame at all costs

 

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      No person is an island

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      Patrons and their clients

 

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      Social classes in the first century

 

Wealthy

 

Poor

 

Slaves

 

 

Examples:

Luke 10.25-37 –

 

 

 

 

Revelation 3.15-16 –

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

d.      Should we interpret the NT critically?

 

 

What do we mean by criticism?

 

 

What does it mean to approach the NT critically?

 

 

 

 

e.      Can we interpret the NT objectively?

 

The Christmas story retold:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

III.             How Did We Get Our New Testament?

 

a.     A brief introduction to the “canon” of the New Testament

 

What is meant by canon?

 

      

     What role did the OT play in the formation of the NT canon?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.     Where did our New Testament come from?

 

                                                             i.      2 Peter 3.15-16

 

 

                                                           ii.      Marcion

 

 

                                                        iii.      Athanasius (A.D. 367)

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      Council of Carthage (A.D. 397)

 

 

 

 

 

Despite the uncertainties and ambiguities, there was still a sense that the church knew where to turn to find authoritative witness to Christ.

 

 

c.      So who decides?

                                                             i.      Conformity

 

 

                                                           ii.      Universal acceptance

 

 

                                                        iii.      Apostolic authority

 

 

 

IV.            One Book or Many Books?

 

a.     What is a “genre?”

 

 

b.     The diversity of literary genres in the NT

 

 

 

                       

 

V.               The Gospels

 

a.     Can we trust our Gospels?

 

 

                                                             i.      Who was Jesus?

 

 

 

              Reconstructing Church History:

 

 

                  Bart Ehrman – Lost Christianities

 

                  Evaluation

 

                              1.

 

 

                              2.

 

 

                              3.

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      We can trust our gospels!

 

 

 

 

 

 

See Craig Blomberg, The Historical Reliability of the Gospels

(IVP, 1987)

 

 

 

 

b.     Who’s Using Who?  The “Synoptic Problem” (Source Criticism)

 

                                                             i.      The Gospels are independent of one another

 

 

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      St. Augustine believed that ___________________ was written first.

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      Mark wrote first

 

 Mark

 

 

               Q

 

Matthew                  Luke

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      Reasons for seeing Mark as the first Gospel

1.     Mark

 

 

2.     Most of Mark ________________________.

 

 

 

3.     The differences between Mt, Mk, and Lk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.      The Gospel of a Tax Collector

 

                                                             i.      Who was the author?

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      A key structural feature

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      Key features

 

1.1

 

 

Those dry genealogies

 

 

Gentile Ephasis

 

 

Chapter 2

 

     The Magi

 

                  OT background

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

      The function of this section

 

 

 

A sermon worth listening to (Chaps. 5-7)

 

     The context of the sermon

 

 

     

      Jesus fulfills the law (5.17)

 

 

 

      Grace or law?

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 24-25

 

     Purpose of this section

 

 

      The “abomination of desolation”

 

     

      “signs of the times”

 

 

The “Great Commission” (28.18-20)

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      The purpose of Matthew

 

 

 

 

                                                           v.      Other important themes in Matthew

Christ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What does Matt tell us about Jesus’ fulfillment of the OT?

 

 

 

 

 

Kingdom of God/Heaven

 

 

 

 

 

So you want to be a disciple!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Excursus:  The Kingdom of God in the Bible

 

What is the “kingdom of God?”

 

 

 

The OT background to the kingdom of God

Adam in the garden of Eden (Gen. 1.26-28)

 

 

 

The flood

 

 

 

King David (2 Sam 7; Psalm 89)

 

 

 

 

 

The exile

 

 

 

 

                                The New Testament

 

Fulfillment in Christ

 

Matt 1-2; 12.28 -

 

 

 

                                  The eschatological structure of the NT – “already but not yet”

 

 

                                                            ______________________ 

                                                           |                    |

                                                           |                      |

                                       _________† |___________|

 

 

 

 

 

 

d.     Gospel #2

 

                                                             i.      Who was the author?

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      Papias’ Testimony

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      What was the purpose?

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      The plan

 

1.1-13

 

 

1.14-8.30

 

 

8.31-16.8

 

 

 

                                                           v.      The “new exodus” in Mark

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        vi.      Key verse

 

 

 

 

 

                                                      vii.      What is unique about Mark?

Balance between Jesus’ deity and humanity

 

     1.11; 2.5

 

 

 

The “Secret Messiah”

 

 

 

 

Discipleship

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Good News!

 

 

 

 

 

Where does Mark end (16.9-20)?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

e.      The Gospel of a Physician

 

                                                             i.      Volume 1

 

 

                                                           ii.      What does Luke 1.1-4 tell us about this book?

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      Who was the author? With whom was he associated?

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      The plan of Luke-Acts

 

 

 

 

 

                                                           v.      Key passages

 

Luke 2

 

 

The central section:

 

Luke’s “Travel Section”  (see Paul Borgman, The Way According to Luke:  Hearing the Whole Story of Luke-Acts [Eerdmans], p. 9).

 

1a “Peace to this house                                                                                         9.51-10.24

 

     2a “What must I do to inherit eternal life?”                                                       10.25-42

 

          3a What to pray for and how                                                                           11.1-13

 

               4a Neither signs nor status:  Hear the Word and do it!                            11.14-43

 

                    5a Look inside yourself and Do the Word                                     11.33-12.12

 

                         6a Relinquish possessions                                                               12.13-34

 

                              7a Relinquish privileges:  Use for God’s purposes                   12.35-38

 

                                   8a Relinquish family and religious rules                          12.49-13.17

 

                                        9a Kingdom                                                                    13.18-19

                                            -Strive to Enter                                                           13.23-30

                                        9b Jerusalem                                                                   13.31-35

 

                                   8b Relinquish family and religious rules                                 14.1-35

 

                              7b Relinquish privileges:  Use for God’s purposes                      15.1-32

 

                         6b Relinquish possessions                                                                 16.1-31

 

                    5b Look inside yourself and Do the Word                                            17.1-19

 

               4b Neither signs nor status:  Hear the Word and do it!                            17.20-37

 

          3b What to pray for and how                                                                          18.1-14

 

     2b “What must I do to inherit eternal life?”                                                       18.15-34

 

1b “The things that make for peace”                                                                  18.35-19.44

 

 

 

 

Key parables

 

               Chap. 10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

               Chap. 15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        vi.      What is unique about Luke’s Gospel?

The humanity of Christ and compassion for outcasts

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jesus as Savior of the world

 

 

 

 

 

Jesus fulfills the OT

 

 

 

 

 

Stewardship and material possessions

 

 

 

 

 

Prayer and praise

 

 

 

 

 

 

f.       The Gospel of the “disciple whom Jesus loved”

 

                                                             i.      How does John relate to the synoptic Gospels?

 

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      Who was the author?

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      What was the purpose?

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      Don’t overlook the introduction (1.1-18)

 

The word/Logos

 

 

 

 

 

Reveals God

 

 

 

 

 

Bridge between God and humanity

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                           v.      Key passages in John

 

Chap. 3

 

 

 

Chap. 4

 

 

 

Chap. 6

 

 

 

Chaps. 14-17

 

 

 

Chap. 21

 

 

 

The “I Am” sayings

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        vi.      What is unique about John?

Deity of Christ

 

 

 

 

 

Word/Logos

 

 

 

 

 

Lamb

 

 

 

 

 

Salvation as eternal life

 

 

 

 

 

The Holy Spirit

 

 

 

 

Dualism

 

 

 

 

 

                                                      vii.      Why is John so different from the other Gospels?

 

 

 

 

 

For more details see Craig Blomberg, The Historical Reliability of John’s Gospel (IVP, 2002)

 

 

 

g.     Stories with a meaning – the Parables

 

                                                             i.      Allegory vs. non-allegory

 

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      The consensus – stories with one point

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      A recent approach

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      An example:  Luke 15.11-31

 

Father

 

Younger son

 

Older son

 

 

 

h.     Why four Gospels?  Isn’t one enough?

 

Tatian’s attempt

 

 

 

 

i.       A portrait of Jesus from the Gospels

 

                                                             i.      Humanity

 

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      Compassion for outcasts

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      Concern for stewardship

 

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      Concern for community

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VI.            The Story of the Early Church – Acts

 

 

a.     What is Acts doing here?

 

 

 

b.     What is Acts’ relationship with Luke?

 

 

 

c.      The plan of Acts – Acts 1.8

 

“when the Holy Spirit comes upon you”    Isa 32.15

 

“you will be my witnesses”     Isa 43.10, 12

 

“until the ends of the earth”     Isa 49.6

 

 

 

 

“You will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all of Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.”

 

            1.1-6.7:  The church in Jerusalem

 

          6.8-9.31:  The church/Gospel in Judea, Samaria and Galilee

 

    12.25-28.31:  The church/Gospel spread to the ends of the earth

 

 

 

 

d.     Important passages in Acts

 

Chap. 2

 

 

 

 

 

Chap. 10

 

 

 

 

 

Chap. 15

 

 

 

 

 

 

Christianity’s first missionary

 

The three “journies” of Paul

 

 

 

 

 

 

The role of the Holy Spirit in Acts

 

 

 

 

 

e.      What is so important about the book of Acts?

 

“signs and wonders”

 

 

Normative or descriptive?

 

 

 

 

 

 

VII.         Reading the Early Church’s Mail

 

a.     The occasional nature of Paul’s letters

 

 

 

 

b.     A brief history of Paul

                                                             i.      A citizen of two worlds

 

Paul the Jew

 

 

 

Paul the Roman

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      Paul’s conversion (see Acts 9; Galatians 1)

 

Traditional view

 

 

 

 

What happened to Paul on the Damascus road?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.      A Letter to the church in Rome (Romans)

 

                                                             i.      Importance

 

Martin Luther

 

 

Karl Barth

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      Paul wrote Romans.  Or did he? (16.22)

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      The purpose

 

Mission

 

 

Apologetic

 

 

Pastoral

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      The “New Look” on Paul!

 

Luther

 

 

Sanders

 

 

Dunn

 

 

A solution?

 

 

 

 

 

                                                           v.      Diagnosis and Prognosis

 

 

 

 

                                                        vi.      The importance of 3.21-26

 

The Heart of the Gospel

 

 

 

Righteousness apart from the law

 

 

 

Propitiation

 

 

 

 

The justification of God

 

 

                                                      vii.      Justification by Faith

 

The background for justification

 

 

 

 

   The meaning of justification

 

 

 

 

 

ExcursesAn Introduction to Paul’s Thought

 

The eschatological tension in Paul

 

 

 

What does it mean to be “in Christ?”

 

 

 

The “old self” and the “new self”

 

 

 

The “indicative” and the “imperative”

 

 

 

d.     Letter #1 to the Church in Corinth

 

                                                             i.      Background:  Acts 18 – Paul in Corinth for 1 ˝ years

 

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      The city of Corinth

Location

 

 

 

Financially

 

 

 

Morally

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      How many letters did Paul write to Corinth?

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      The plan of the letter

Chaps. 1-6

 

 

 

Chaps. 7-16

 

 

  Arranged according to typical Gentile Sins

 

         Warning against immorality and Greed (4-7)

 

 

         Warning against idolatry (8-14)

 

 

         The Hope of the Resurrection (15)

 

 

 

                                                           v.      Why did Paul have to write 1 Corinthians?

 

After Paul left Corinth:

 

      Crisis in leadership

Sexual immorality

 

 

 

 

                                                        vi.      Important passages in 1 Corinthians

Chaps. 1-3

 

 

 

 

 

Chap. 5

 

 

 

 

 

Chap. 7

 

 

 

 

 

Chap. 11

 

 

 

 

 

Chaps. 12-14

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chap. 15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                      vii.      What is the theme of 1 Corinthians?

 

 

 

 

 

 

e.      Letter #2 to the Corinthians

 

                                                             i.      Why another letter to the Corinthians?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      The purpose of 2 Corinthians

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      Harsh or gentle?

Chaps. 1-9

 

 

 

Chaps. 10-13

 

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      One or two letters?

 

 

 

                                                           v.      Chaps 8-9

 

 

 

                                                        vi.      Paul the suffering apostle

 

 

 

 

 

                                                      vii.      The theme of 2 Corinthians

 

 

 

 

 

f.       The letter to the Church in Galatia

 

                                                             i.      When was Galatians written?

 

Late

 

 

 

Early

 

 

 

 

The importance of Acts 15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      Getting the correct address – where would you deliver this letter?

 

North Galatia

 

 

 

 

South Galatia

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      Who were Paul’s opponents?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      Paul’s tone

 

1.6

 

6.11

 

 

                                                           v.      What is going on in chaps. 1-2?

 

Chap. 1.1-4

 

 

 

Paul’s life within Judaism

 

 

 

The function of this section:

 

 

 

 

                                                        vi.      What did Paul think of the law?

Traditionally

 

 

 

 

The “New Look”

 

 

 

 

 

 

Why noone can be justified by works of the law

 

 

 

                          

 

 

                                                      vii.      The importance of Chap. 3-4

 

Argument from experience (3.1-5)

 

 

Argument from the OT (3.7-20)

 

 

Argument from culture  (3.22-25)

 

 

                                                   viii.      Works of the flesh vs. fruit of the Spirit (Gal 5)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For a valuable article on how the OT law applies to Christians today see D. A. Dorsey, “The Law of Moses and the Christian:  A Compromise,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34 (1991), pp. 321-34.  See also W. Strickland (ed.), Five Views on Law and Gospel (Zondervan).

 

 

 

 

Excursus:  Who are the true people of God?

                  The OT background:

 

                        Adam in the Garden

 

 

 

Gen 12.1-3 and Abraham

 

 

 

The nation of Israel as God’s people

           

 

 

 

 

                                    NT fulfillment

 

                                                Christ – the true Israel

 

 

                                               

                        Christians – Gal 3.29

 

 

                                      The criteria for membership in the people of God

 

 

 

 

g.     Letter to the Church in Ephesus

 

                                                             i.      Along with ___________________, ____________________, and ______________________, Ephesians belongs to a group of letters known as the ______________________ epistles.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      The theme of the letter

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      The plan of the letter

Chaps. 1-3

 

 

 

 

Chaps. 4-6

 

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      The purpose of Ephesians

Generally

 

 

Is there a specific purpose?

 

 

Notice the “power language” that is scattered throughout the book.

 

1.19 –

 

1.21 –

 

3.7 –

 

3.10 –

 

3.20 –

 

6.10-22 –

 

 

The proposal of Clinton Arnold

 

 

 

A likely scenario

 

      Lack of specific occasion

 

 

 

      A suggestion:

 

 

 

 

                                                           v.      Cosmic Reconciliation

 

1.9

 

 

1.19-21

 

 

2.11-22

 

 

3.10

 

 

                                                        vi.      Spiritual warfare in Ephesians 6

Background of the imagery

 

     Roman soldier?

 

    

OT

 

 

 

 

Relationship to the rest of the book

 

 

 

 

 

h.     Letter to the Church in Philippi

 

                                                             i.      What do we know about the city of Philippi?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      The purpose(s)?

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      Is there a main theme in Philippians?

Proposals

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A suggestion

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      Philippians 2.6-11

 

Structure

 

 

 

Paul’s Christology

 

 

 

  OT quotation

 

 

 

 

  Function

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

i.       Letter to the Church in Colossae

 

                                                             i.      What do we know about Colossae?

 

 

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      Haven’t we heard this before?

 

Ephesians                                   Colossians

2.1-4                                                                                      2.13-15

 

5.22-6.10                                                                        3.18-4.1

 

 

How do we explain this?

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      Who were Paul’s opponents?

 

Festivals, new moons, Sabbaths

 

Worship of angels

 

 

Suggestion:

 

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      The purpose of Colossians

 

 

 

 

                                                           v.      What is the theme?

 

 

 

1.15-20 –

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        vi.      Chap. 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                      vii.      Chaps. 3-4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                   viii.      What is the “big idea” of Colossians?

 

 

 

 

 

j.       Letter to a slave owner (Philemon)

 

                                                             i.      Relationship to Colossians

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      The occasion for the letter

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      What kind of letter is Philemon?

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      The importance of the letter for Christians

 

1.

 

 

 

 

2.

 

 

 

 

 

                                                           v.      Why does Paul not condemn slavery?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

k.     Letter #1 to the Church in Thessalonika

 

 

                                                             i.      What circumstances led to the writing of this letter?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      The purpose and plan of 1 Thessalonians

 

Why did Paul write?

 

 

 

Chaps. 1-3

 

 

 

Chaps. 4-5

 

            1.

 

 

 

               2.

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      When is Christ coming back?

Pre-tribulational:

 

 

 

Mid-tribulational:

 

 

 

Post-tribulational:

 

 

 

 

 

 

      1 Thessalonians 4-5 and Matthew 24

 

Matthew 24                                                                     1 Thess 4-5

24.30                             Coming of Christ                      4.15

 

24.30                                    Clouds                                4.17

 

24.31                                   Trumpet                               4.16

 

24.31                                     Angels                               4.16

 

24.31                          Gathering of believers                  4.16

 

24.36, 42, 44                      Unexpected                           5.1-4

 

24.42; 25.13                       Keep watch                           5.6

 

 

           v.  What problem was Paul addressing?

 

 

 

 

l.       Letter #2 to the Church in Thessalonika

 

                                                             i.      Why another letter to the Thessalonians?

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      Paul’s response

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      Signs of the coming of Christ (2.2-12)

The rebellion

 

 

 

 

 

The man of lawlessness

 

 

 

 

 

The restrainer

 

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      Comparing the eschatologies of 1 and 2 Thessalonians

1 Thessalonians

 

 

 

2 Thessalonians

 

 

 

 

m.  Two letters to Timothy, and a letter to Titus

 

                                                              i.      These three letters are commonly referred to as the __________________ epistles

 

                                                           ii.      Which one came first?

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      Who wrote 1 and 2 Timothy?

Arguments against Paul as the author

 

a.

 

 

 

     b.

 

 

 

 

      c.

 

 

 

 

Response:

 

            a.

 

 

 

            b.

 

 

 

               c.

 

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      The purpose of 1 Timothy

 

Commonly held view:

 

 

 

 

A proposal:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  How to combat false teaching in the church….

  

               Chap. 1:

 

 

               Chap. 2:

 

 

               Chap. 3:

 

 

               Chap. 4:

 

 

               Chap. 5:

 

 

  Important verse: 3.15

 

 

                                                           v.      Chap. 2

 

The setting

 

 

 

The role of women in the church

 

            Background

 

 

 

            Universal or cultural?

 

 

 

 

                                                        vi.      Chap. 3

 

Elders and deacons

 

 

 

Function of this section

 

 

 

 

                                                      vii.      Conclusion:

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                   viii.      2 Timothy

The background

 

 

 

Occasion for writing

 

 

 

 

Paul’s last will and testament (4.6-8)

 

 

 

 

A theme?

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        ix.      Titus

What is Titus’ main function in the church on Crete?

 

 

 

The island of Crete

 

 

 

Paul’s subversive letter

 

 

 

 

 

Purpose of Titus

 

 

 

 

n.     What do we learn from Paul?

 

1.

 

 

 

 

2.

 

 

 

 

3.

 

 

 

 

4.

 

 

 

 

5.

 

 

 

 

 

o.     Letter to the “Hebrews”

 

                                                             i.      Hebrews belongs with a group of NT writings (James, 1-2 Peter, 1-3 John, Jude) often labeled the ____________________ epistles.

 

 

                                                           ii.      Who wrote Hebrews?

Suggestions:

 

 

 

Origin was probably correct!

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      The purpose

Clues in the text

 

 

 

Conclusion:

 

 

“The addressees appear, then, to have been a group of Jewish Christians who had never seen or heard Jesus in person, but learned of him from some who had themselves listened to him.  Since their conversion they had been exposed to persecution…but while they had to endure public abuse, imprisonment and the looting of their property, they had not yet been called upon to die for their faith.  They had given practical evidence of their faith by serving their fellow Christians and especially by caring for those of their number who suffered most in the time of persecution.  Yet their Christian development had been arrested; instead of pressing ahead they were inclined to come to a full stop in their spiritual progress, in not indeed slip back to a stage they had left.  Very probably they were reluctant to sever their last ties with a religion which enjoyed protection of Roman law [Judaism] and face the risks of irrevocable commitment to the Christian way.  The writer, who has known them, or known about them, for a considerable time, and feels a pastoral concern for their welfare, warns them against falling back, for this may result in falling away from their Christian faith altogether; he encourages them with the assurance that they have everything to lose if they fall back, but everything to gain if they press on” (F. F. Bruce, The Epistle to the Hebrews [Grand Rapids:  Eerdmans, 1964] p. xxx.)

 

 

                                                        iv.      A sermon in writing (Hebrews 13.22)

 

 

importance –

 

 

 

 

 

                                                           v.      Who were the readers?

 

 

 

 

                                                        vi.      Two blueprints of Hebrews

 

Structural – alternation between exposition and exhortation

 

            1.5-14:         Exposition

            2.1-4:           Exhortation

            2.5-18:         Exposition

            3.1-6:           Exposition

            3.7-4.13:      Exhortation

            4.14-16:       Exhortation

            5.1-10:         Exposition

            5.11-6.12:    Exhortation

            6.13-10.18:  Exposition

            10.19-39:     Exhortation

            11.1-40:       Exposition

            12.1-29:       Exhortation

 

 

 

                                    Threefold division

 

                                                1.1-4.16:          Jesus as God’s true messenger

                                                4.11-10.25:      Jesus as our high priest

                                                10.19-13.25:    Our partnership with Jesus

 

 

 

                                                      vii.      What’s wrong with the Old Covenant?

 

 

Avoiding misunderstanding

 

 

 

 

  The shortcoming of the Old Covenant

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                   viii.      The wilderness generation and the church

 

Chaps. 3-4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        ix.      Those dreaded warning passages

Hypothetical

 

 

Loss of Reward

 

 

 

Arminian

 

 

Calvinism

 

 

 

What sin are they in danger of committing?

 

 

 

Who are the readers?

 

 

 

What are they in danger of losing?

 

 

 

 

 

Hebrews 6.4-6

 

                              The problem

 

 

                        OT background

 

 

 

 

 

     ExcursusThe New Covenant in the Bible

              The OT background

 

                              The importance of covenant in the Bible

 

                                          Abraham

 

                                          Mosaic

 

                                          Davidic

 

 

 

                              Jer 31 (Ezek 36-37)

 

 

 

 

 

 

                              What is “new” about the New Covenant?

 

 

 

 

 

 

                  NT Fulfillment

 

                              Hebrews 8

 

 

 

                              Rev 21.3

 

 

 

 

p.    Letter to the scattered Jews (James)

 

                                                             i.      What should we do with James?

 

Luther’s attitude toward the book of James

 

 

 

Today

 

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      The importance of the author

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      Who were his readers?

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      What kind of letter is James? (1.1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                           v.      James has many parallel with __________________________.

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        vi.      The purpose

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                      vii.      The plan

Testing and endurance

 

 

 

Poverty and generosity

 

 

 

Wisdom and speech

 

 

 

 

                                                   viii.      Parallels to the sayings of Jesus (see Powerpoint)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        ix.      Important themes

Faith and works

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paul and James on faith and works

 

Paul                                                     James

            Problem:

 

 

 

            Faith:

 

 

 

            Works:

 

 

 

            Justify

 

 

 

 

q.     Letter #1 from Peter to Rome

 

                                                             i.      Circumstances of writing

 

 

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      The readers

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      The purpose:

 

Suffering

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      The plan

 

Chaps. 1-3

 

 

 

Chaps. 4-5

 

 

 

 

 

                                                           v.      What the church is all about (Chap. 2)

 

OT background

 

 

Function:

 

 

 

                                                        vi.      A difficult passage:  1 Peter 3.18-20

When?

 

 

 

Where?

 

 

 

Who?

 

 

 

What?

 

 

 

Why?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                      vii.      Stranger and aliens

 

 

 

 

 

 

r.      Letter #2 from Peter, and a letter from Jude, Jesus’ brother

 

                                                             i.      The genre of 2 Peter (1.12-15)

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      The background

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      The purpose

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      Challenges to the Second Coming of Christ

Objection #1 (1.16-19)

 

 

 

Reply

 

 

 

 

Objection #2 (1.20-21)

 

 

 

 

Reply

 

 

 

 

Objection #3 (2.1-22)

 

 

 

 

Reply

 

 

 

 

Objection #4 (3.1-10)

 

 

 

 

Reply

 

 

 

 

 

Implications for holy living

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                           v.      Why do some deny that Peter wrote this?

 

 

Early Catholicism in the NT

 

1.

 

 

  2.

 

 

   3.

 

 

 

                                                        vi.      Jude and 2 Peter – why do they look so alike?

Options

 

 

 

 

 

 

Solution

 

 

 

 

 

                                                      vii.      Why Jude?

Purpose

 

 

     v. 3

 

 

 

Where did Jude get all those strange stories?

 

                        The angels who did not keep their positions (v. 6)

 

                             

                              The dispute between Michael and Satan over Moses’ body

                              (v. 9)

 

 

                              Function of these references:

 

 

 

                   v. 24

 

 

s.      Three letters from John

 

                                                             i.      Author?

 

 

 

 

                                                           ii.      The Johannine community

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        iii.      Background and purpose

The secessionists

 

 

 

 

 

1 John 5.13

 

 

 

 

                                                        iv.      The plan of 1 John

Love

 

 

 

Obedience

 

 

 

Christological confession

 

 

 

 

                                                           v.      Is there a contradiction in 1 John?

 

a.

 

 

 

  b.

 

 

 

 

                                                        vi.      2 John

 

Background:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Message:

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                      vii.      3 John

 

Background:

 

 

 

 

 

Message:

 

 

 

 

 

 

t.       The Revelation that John had

 

                                                             i.      What do we do with the book of Revelation:  two responses

 

a.

 

 

 

b.

 

 

                                                            ii.      Author and Date

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                          iii.      The most characteristic feature of Revelation is its ________________________

 

 

                                                        iv.      Why was Revelation written?

Roman domination and emperor worship

 

 

 

 

Persecution?

 

 

 

The cities of Asia Minor

 

 

 

 

 

The plight of Christians

 

     a.

 

 

      b.

 

                                                            v.      What is the main theme of Revelation?

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        vi.      What kind of book is Revelation

 

Apocalypse

 

 

 

Prophesy

 

 

 

 

Letter

 

 

 

 

 

                                                      vii.      How should I interpret the book of Revelation?

 

a.

 

                                   

b.

 

                                   

c.

 

 

                                    d.

 

 

 

                                                   viii.      Pick an approach

Preterist

 

 

 

 

Historical

 

 

 

 

Idealist

 

 

 

 

Futurist

 

 

 

 

Do we have to choose?

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        ix.      Revelation – a modern day parallel

 

 

 

 

 

                                                           x.      A sampling of the visions in Revelation

The lamb on the throne (chaps. 4-5)

 

 

 

  

The seals, trumpets and bowls

 

      OT background

 

 

 

      Relationship

 

                        Model #1 

 

                        1   2   3   4   5   6   7                                                    2nd coming

 

                                                      1   2   3   4   5   6   7

 

                                                                                    1   2   3   4   5   6   7     

 

 

                   Model #2

                                                              2nd coming

                                                               

                   1        2        3        4        5        6       7   

 

                        1       2      3       4       5      6      7

 

                   1      2     3      4     5      6     7

 

 

 

                   Model #3

                                                               2nd coming

 

                   1        2        3        4        5        6        7

 

                                                1    2    3    4    5    6    7

 

                                                                        1234567

 

 

 

666 (and other numbers in Revelation)

 

 

 

     7

 

 

     3 1/2

 

 

     12

 

 

Who is like the beast (chaps. 12-13)

 

     The OT background

 

 

 

 

     Function of this section

 

 

 

 

The two witnesses (chap. 11)

 

     Background

 

 

 

     Identity

 

 

 

The millennium (chap. 20)

 

     Premillennial

     

                  1.

 

 

                  2.

 

 

 

      Postmillenial

 

 

 

      Amillennial-

 

 

 

      A proposal:

 

 

 

 

 

 

A tale of two cities (chaps. 17-18, 21-22)

 

               The identity of Babylon (chaps. 17-18)

 

 

            The New Jerusalem (chaps. 21-22)

 

                           Background

 

 

                           Identification

 

 

                           Function

 

 

 

ExcursusThe New Creation in the Bible

               The Old Testament background

 

                           The Garden of Eden

 

 

 

                           The promised land

 

 

 

                           Prophetic Expectations

 

 

                                       Isa 65.17-20

 

 

 

               The New Testament

 

                           Jesus inaugurates a New Creation (2 Cor 5.17)

 

 

 

 

                           Revelation 21-22

 

 

 

 

                                                        xi.      The message of Revelation – more than just eschatology

 

 

 

 

Conclusion

 

Can we find the main theme of the entire New Testament, or even the Bible?

 

          Proposals:

 

                   Salvation

 

                   Kingdom of God

 

                   New Creation

 

                   God

 

                   Multiplex   

 

 

A Suggestion:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Key New Testament Dates

 

 

Birth of Christ                                                      4-6  B.C.

 

Ministry of John the Baptist and the                             A.D. 27-28

Baptism of Jesus

 

Death and Resurrection of Christ                         A.D. 30

 

Conversion of Saul (Paul)                                    A.D. 34-35

 

Paul’s First Missionary Journey                                    A.D. 48-49

 

Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15)                                      A.D. 50

 

Paul’s Second Missionary Journey                      A.D. 50-52

 

Paul’s Third Missionary Journey                         A.D. 53-58

 

Paul’s First Roman Imprisonment                       A.D. 60-62

 

Death of Paul                                                       A.D. 66-68

 

Destruction of Jerusalem                                               A.D. 70

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roman Emperors of the

First Century

 

 

Augustus                                                    31 B.C. – A.D. 14

 

Tiberius                                                      A.D. 14 – 37

 

Caligula                                                      A.D. 37 – 41

 

Claudius                                                     A.D. 41 – 54

 

Nero                                                            A.D. 54 – 68

 

Galba                                                                   A.D. 68

 

Otho                                                           A.D. 69

 

Vitellius                                                      A.D. 69

 

Vespasian                                                   A.D. 69-79

 

Titus                                                           A.D. 79-81

 

Domitian                                                    A.D. 81-96

 

Nerva                                                                   A.D. 96-98

 

Trajan                                                         A.D. 98-117